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Enabling TCP in mobile cyber-physical systems
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
2015 (English)In: Proc. 12th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 289-297Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cyber-physical systems consist of several wirelessly connected components such as sensors that monitor physical phenomena, computational entities that make decisions based on sensed information and actuators that interact with physical processes. Connecting cyber-physical systems to the Internet using IP protocols increases interoperability by avoiding the need for protocol translation gateways. Unfortunately, in this context TCP has been disregarded since it is known to perform poorly in wireless scenarios as it treats packet loss as an indicator for network congestion rather than poor link quality. In this paper, we use the Low-power Wireless Bus (LWB) as a link layer for TCP/IP, taking advantage of its reliability and its routing-free communication. We design a system that integrates LWB with a low-power IP stack and includes TCP-aware schedulers for LWB. We evaluate our system with experiments on real hardware using uIP, a popular embedded Internet protocol stack. Our results demonstrate high TCP throughput in mobile and static scenarios and, furthermore, show that mobility does not decrease TCP performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015. p. 289-297
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266412DOI: 10.1109/MASS.2015.38ISI: 000380548300033ISBN: 9781467391016 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-266412DiVA, id: diva2:868034
Conference
MASS 2015, October 19–22, Dallas, TX
Available from: 2015-10-22 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2023-06-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a secure synchronous communication architecture for low-power wireless networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a secure synchronous communication architecture for low-power wireless networks
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming the future Internet where most day-to-day devices are connected to the Internet. These devices are often resource constrained and use low-power wireless communication. Hence networks of them are called low-power and lossy networks (LLNs). LLN devices may be used in critical applications such as health care, traffic and industrial plants that concern privacy and security, thus their communication has to be protected from malicious activities. LLNs face threats at different levels ranging from transmitting bits wirelessly to applications.

In this thesis, we primarily explore LLN security issues related to application protocols and attacks that target the availability of LLNs. Particularly, we investigate compressing messages of a transport security protocol, DTLS, to make it efficient for LLNs. The IETF proposes to use DTLS for securing CoAP, a specialized web protocol for constrained devices. Furthermore, we experimentally study disrupting the communication of one of the state of the art LLN protocols, Glossy, by attacking its core mechanism.

Secondarily, we aim at improving the performance of TCP in LLNs with mobility over a reliable data link protocol. To this end, we use a Glossy-based communication protocol, LWB, as a reliable data link protocol. We plan to use the evaluation of this work as a stepping stone towards comparing the performance of secure Glossy-based communication protocols.

The main contributions of this thesis are threefold. We propose novel message compression mechanisms for DTLS messages. We also present novel attacks on Glossy, evaluate the effectiveness of them experimentally, and propose potential counter measures. Finally, we show that a reliable data link protocol can improve the performance of TCP in static and mobile settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2016
Series
Information technology licentiate theses: Licentiate theses from the Department of Information Technology, ISSN 1404-5117 ; 2016-004
National Category
Computer Engineering Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284331 (URN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-04-17 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
2. Towards Secure Synchronous Communication Architectures for Wireless Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Secure Synchronous Communication Architectures for Wireless Networks
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The vision behind the Internet of Things (IoT) revolves around creating a connected ecosystem where devices, people, and systems collaborate seamlessly, unlocking new possibilities, improving efficiency, and enhancing our daily lives. IoT encloses many device classes, including low-power wireless devices that rely on batteries or energy harvesting. Due to the low-power nature and the instability of the wireless links, networks comprising these IoT devices are commonly known as Low-power and Lossy Networks (LLNs).

Several network-wide flooding-based communication primitives that employ synchronous transmissions have emerged as an alternative to traditional multi-hop routing, thereby creating a new dimension of LLN research. While these primitives have demonstrated superior performance in terms of latency and reliability, they have received little attention regarding network security. In this dissertation, we study the effectiveness of several attacks that strive to disrupt synchronous transmission-based protocols. Based on the findings from this work, we examine the security requirements and propose encryption and lightweight flood verification methods to protect synchronous transmission-based flooding protocols from these attacks.

Realising the IoT's vision demands employing well-established communication technologies like the Internet Protocol (IP) suite protocols to ensure interoperability. However, the IP suite protocols are not explicitly designed for low-power networks; hence using them in LLNs encounters numerous challenges. Some of my work included in this dissertation focuses on the performance issues of two widely used IP suite protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS). We propose to replace the conventional link layer protocols of the LLN  stacks with a synchronous transmission-based protocol to enhance the reliability that TCP expects in lower layers, thereby improving the TCP performance. We introduce novel header compression mechanisms to reduce the size of DTLS messages without violating end-to-end security. Reducing the size of DTLS messages lowers the transmission overhead, improving its performance in LLNs.

Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is a complementary technology to radio frequency communication. Specifically, visible light communication (VLC) has proven its capability to offer higher data transfer rates, enabling faster and more efficient communication. The last work of this dissertation draws inspiration from synchronous transmissions in LLNs and presents an OWC-based time synchronisation system for high-speed VLC access points to synchronise their transmissions. This time synchronisation system has a considerably lower synchronisation jitter than the widely-used Precision Time Protocol (PTP).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2023. p. 65
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 2283
Keywords
Datagram Transport Layer Security, Synchronous Transmissions, Denial-of-service Attacks, Transmission Control Protocol, Communication Security, Time Synchronisation, Optical Wireless Communication, Networked Embedded Systems, Internet of Things
National Category
Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Electrical Engineering with Specialisation in Networked Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-506085 (URN)978-91-513-1844-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-09-18, Ångström 4001, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2023-08-22

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