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Neonatal Resuscitation: Understanding challenges and identifying a strategy for implementation in Nepal
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0541-4486
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite the unprecedented improvement in child health in last 15 years, burden of stillbirth and neonatal death remain the key challenge in Nepal and the reduction of these deaths will be crucial for reaching the health targets for Sustainable development goal by 2030.

The aim of this thesis was to explore the risk factors for stillbirth and neonatal death and change in perinatal outcomes after the introduction of the Helping Babies Breathe Quality Improvement Cycle (HBB QIC) in Nepal.

This was a prospective cohort study with a nested case-control design completed in a tertiary hospital in Nepal. Information were collected from the women who had experienced perinatal death and live birth among referent population; a video recording was done in the neonatal resuscitation corner to collect information on the health workers’ performance in neonatal resuscitation. 

Lack of antenatal care had the highest association with antepartum stillbirth (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 3.2–5.4), births that had inadequate fetal heart rate monitoring were associated with intrapartum stillbirth (aOR 1.9, CI 95% 1.5–2.4), and babies who were born premature and small-for-gestational-age had the highest risk for neonatal death in the hospital (aOR 16.2, 95% CI 12.3–21.3). Before the introduction of the HBB QIC, health workers displayed poor adherence to the neonatal resuscitation protocol. After the introduction of HBB QIC, the health workers demonstrated improvement in their neonatal resuscitation skills and these were retained until six months after training. Daily bag-and-mask skill checks (RR 5.1 95% CI 1.9–13.5), preparation for birth (RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0–5.6), self-evaluation checklists (RR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4–9.7) and weekly review and reflection meetings (RR 2.6, 95% 1.0–7.4) helped the health workers to retain their neonatal resuscitation skills. The health workers demonstrated improvement in ventilation of babies within one minute of birth and there was a reduction in intrapartum stillbirth (aOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.32–0.66) and first-day neonatal mortality (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31–0.83). 

The study provides information on challenges in reducing stillbirth and neonatal death in low income settings and provides a strategy to improve health workers adherence to neonatal resuscitation to reduce the mortality. The HBB QIC can be implemented in similar clinical settings to improve quality of care and survival in Nepal, but for primary care settings, the QIC need to be evaluated further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 83 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1166
Keyword [en]
antepartum stillbirth, intrapartum stillbirth, neonatal mortality, first-day neonatal mortality, antenatal care, fetal heart rate monitoring, partogram, preterm, small-for-gestational-age, clinical adherence, neonatal resuscitation, skill retention, quality improvement cycle, Nepal
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
International Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267917ISBN: 978-91-554-9434-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-267917DiVA: diva2:874833
Public defence
2016-02-10, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-20 Created: 2015-11-29 Last updated: 2016-02-12
List of papers
1. Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth: a case-control study in Nepal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth: a case-control study in Nepal
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2015 (English)In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 15, 146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Globally, at least 2.65 million stillbirths occur every year, of which more than half are during the antepartum period. The proportion of intrapartum stillbirths has substantially declined with improved obstetric care; however, the number of antepartum stillbirths has not decreased as greatly. Attempts to lower this number may be hampered by an incomplete understanding of the risk factors leading to the majority of antepartum stillbirths. We conducted this study in a tertiary hospital in Nepal to identify the specific risk factors that are associated with antepartum stillbirth in this setting. Methods: This case-control study was conducted between July 2012 and September 2013. All women who had antepartum stillbirths during this period were included as cases, while 20 % of all women delivering at the hospital were randomly selected and included as referents. Information on potential risk factors was taken from medical records and interviews with the women. Logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the association between those risk factors and antepartum stillbirth. Results: During the study period, 4567 women who delivered at the hospital were enrolled as referents, of which 62 had antepartum stillbirths and were re-categorized into the case population. In total, there were 307 antepartum stillbirths. An association was found between the following risk factors and antepartum stillbirth: increasing maternal age (aOR 1.0, 95 % CI 1.0-1.1), less than five years of maternal education (aOR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.7-3.2), increasing parity (aOR 1.2, 95 % CI 1.0-1.3), previous stillbirth (aOR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.6-4.4), no antenatal care attendance (aOR 4.2, 95 % CI 3.2-5.4), belonging to the poorest family (aOR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.0-1.8), antepartum hemorrhage (aOR 3.7, 95 % CI 2.4-5.7), maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy (aOR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.5-3.1), and small weight-for-gestational age babies (aOR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2-2.0). Conclusion: Lack of antenatal care attendance, which had the strongest association with antepartum stillbirth, is a potentially modifiable risk factor, in that increasing the access to and availability of these services can be targeted. Antenatal care attendance provides an opportunity to screen for other potential risk factors for antepartum stillbirth, as well as to provide counseling to women, and thus, helps to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome.

Keyword
Antepartum stillbirth, Risk factors, Nepal
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259090 (URN)10.1186/s12884-015-0567-3 (DOI)000357372700001 ()
Available from: 2015-07-29 Created: 2015-07-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. Level of mortality risk for babies born preterm or with a small weight for gestation in a tertiary hospital of Nepal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Level of mortality risk for babies born preterm or with a small weight for gestation in a tertiary hospital of Nepal
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2015 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, 877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Globally, 15 million babies were born prematurely in 2012, with 37.6 % of them in South Asia. About 32.4 million infants were born small for gestational age (SGA) in 2010, with more than half of these births occurring in South Asia. In Nepal, 14 % of babies were born preterm and 39.3 % were born SGA in 2010. We conducted a study in a tertiary hospital of Nepal to assess the level of risk for neonatal mortality among babies who were born prematurely and/or SGA. Methods: This case-control study was completed over a 15-month period between July 2012 and September 2013. All neonatal deaths that occurred during the study period were included as cases and 20 % of women with live births were randomly selected as referents. Information on potential risk factors was taken from medical records and interviews with the women. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the level of risk for neonatal mortality among babies born preterm and/or SGA. Results: During this period, the hospital had an incidence of preterm birth and SGA of 8.1 and 37.5 %, respectively. In the multivariate model, there was a 12-fold increased risk of neonatal death among preterm infants compared to term. Babies who were SGA had a 40 % higher risk of neonatal death compared to those who were not. Additionally, babies who were both preterm and SGA were 16 times more likely to die during the neonatal period. Conclusions: Our study showed that the risk of neonatal mortality was highest when the baby was born both preterm and SGA, followed by babies who were born preterm, and then by babies who were SGA in a tertiary hospital in Nepal. In tertiary care settings, the risk of mortality for babies who are born preterm and/or SGA can be reduced with low-cost interventions such as Kangaroo Mother Care or improved management of complications through special newborn care or neonatal intensive care units. The risk of death for babies who are born prematurely and/or SGA can thus be used as an indicator to monitor the quality of care for these babies in health facility settings.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264047 (URN)10.1186/s12889-015-2232-1 (DOI)000361026900006 ()
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. Incidence of intrapartum stillbirth and associated risk factors in tertiary care setting of Nepal: a case-control study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incidence of intrapartum stillbirth and associated risk factors in tertiary care setting of Nepal: a case-control study
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2016 (English)In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 12, 103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Each year, 1.2 million intrapartum stillbirths occur globally. In Nepal, about 50% of the total number of stillbirths occur during the intrapartum period. An understanding of the risk factors associated with intrapartum stillbirth will facilitate the development of preventative strategies to reduce the burden of death. This study was conducted in a tertiary-care setting with the aim to identify the risk factors associated with intrapartum stillbirth.

Methods: A case-control study was completed from July 2012 to September 2013. All women who had an intrapartum stillbirth during the study period were included as cases, and 20% of women with live births were randomly selected on admission to make up the referent population. Information from the clinical records of case and referent women was retrieved. In addition, interviews were completed with each woman on their demographic and obstetric history.

Results: During the study period, 4,476 women with live births were enrolled as referents and 136 women with intrapartum stillbirths as cases.  The following factors were found to increase the risk for intrapartum stillbirth: poor familial wealth quintile (Adj OR 1.8, 95% CI-1.1-3.4); less maternal education (Adj OR, 3.2 95% CI-1.8-5.5); lack of antenatal care (Adj OR, 4.8 95% CI 3.2-7.2); antepartum hemorrhage (Adj OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2); multiple births (Adj. OR-3.0, 95% CI- 1.9-5.4); obstetric complication during the labor period (Adj. OR 4.5, 95% CI-2.9-6.9); lack of fetal heart rate monitoring per protocol (Adj. OR-1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4); no partogram use (Adj. OR-2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.1); small weight for gestational age (Adj. OR-1.8, 95% CI-1.2-1.7); premature birth (Adj. OR-5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2); and being born premature and with small weight for gestational age (Adj. OR-9.0, 95% CI 7.3-15.5).

Conclusion: Inadequate Fetal heart rate monitoring and partogram use are risk factors associated with intrapartum stillbirth and increasing the adherence to the interventions that can reduce the risk of intrapartum stillbirth. Preterm birth and small weight for gestational age were the factors that had the highest risk for intrapartum stillbirth, which indicates that adequate antenatal care can improve the health and growth of the baby and prevent premature death.

Keyword
intrapartum stillbirth, fetal heart rate monitoring, partogram, risk factor, Nepal
National Category
Pediatrics Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Pediatrics; Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267392 (URN)10.1186/s12978-016-0226-9 (DOI)000382735400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Society of Medicine
Available from: 2015-11-21 Created: 2015-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
4. Poor adherence to neonatal resuscitation guidelines exposed; an observational study using camera surveillance at a tertiary hospital in Nepal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poor adherence to neonatal resuscitation guidelines exposed; an observational study using camera surveillance at a tertiary hospital in Nepal
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2014 (English)In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 14, 233- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Each year an estimated 10 million newborns require assistance to initiate breathing, and about 900 000 die due to intrapartum-related complications. Further research is required in several areas concerning neonatal resuscitation, particularly in settings with limited resources where the highest proportion of intrapartum-related deaths occur. The aim of this study is to use CCD-camera recordings to evaluate resuscitation routines at a tertiary hospital in Nepal.

Methods: CCD-cameras recorded the resuscitations taking place and CCD-observational record forms were completed for each case. The resuscitation routines were then assessed and compared with existing guidelines. To evaluate the reliability of the observational form, 50 films were randomly selected and two independent observers completed two sets of forms for each case. The results were then cross-compared.

Results: During the study period 1827 newborns were taken to the resuscitation table, and more than half of them (53.3%) were noted as not crying prior to resuscitation. Suction was used in almost 90% of newborns brought to the resuscitation table, whereas bag-and-mask ventilation was only used in less than 10%. The chance to receive ventilation with bag-and-mask for a newborn not crying when brought to the resuscitation table was higher for boys (AdjOR 1.44), low birth weight babies (AdjOR 1.68) and babies that were delivered by caesarean section (AdjOR 1.64). The reliability of the observational form varied considerably amongst the different variables analyzed, but was high for all variables concerning the use of bag-and-mask ventilation and the variable whether suction was used or not, all matching in over 91% of the forms.

Conclusions: CCD camera technique was a feasible method to assess resuscitation practices in this low resource hospital setting. In most aspects, the staff did not adhere to guidelines regarding neonatal resuscitation. The use of bag-and-mask ventilation was inadequate, and suction was given excessively in terms of protocol. Further studies exploring the underlying causes behind the lack of adherence to the neonatal resuscitation guidelines should be conducted.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232804 (URN)10.1186/1471-2431-14-233 (DOI)000341895500001 ()25227941 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-25 Created: 2014-09-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Evaluation of Helping Babies Breathe Quality Improvement Cycle (HBB-QIC) on retention of neonatal resuscitation skills six months after training in Nepal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Helping Babies Breathe Quality Improvement Cycle (HBB-QIC) on retention of neonatal resuscitation skills six months after training in Nepal
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2017 (English)In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, 103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Each year 700,000 infants die due to intrapartum-related complications. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) uses an algorithm to increase knowledge and improve skills on neonatal resuscitation. Implementation of HBB in low-resource clinical settings has shown to reduce intrapartum stillbirths and first-day neonatal mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the effect of different HBB implementation strategies to improve and sustain the clinical competency of health workers on bag-and-mask ventilation. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of multi-faceted implementation strategy for HBB as quality improvement cycle (HBB-QIC) on retention of neonatal resuscitation skills in a tertiary hospital of Nepal.

Methods: A Time series design was applied. The multi-faceted intervention for HBB-QIC included training, daily bag-and-mask skill checks, preparation for resuscitation before every birth, self-evaluation and peer review on neonatal resuscitation skills and weekly review meetings. Knowledge and skills were assessed through questionnaires, skill checklists, and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) before implementation of the HBB-QIC, immediately after HBB training, and again at six months. Means were compared using paired t-tests, and associations between skill retention and HBB-QIC components were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.

Results: 137 health workers were enrolled in the study. Knowledge scores were higher immediately following the HBB training, 16.4  1.4 compared to 12.8  1.6 before (out of 17), and the knowledge was retained six months after the training (16.5  1.1). Bag-and-mask skills improved immediately after the training and were retained six months after the training. The retention of bag-and-mask skills was associated with daily bag-and-mask skill checks, preparation for resuscitation before every birth, use of a self-evaluation checklist, and attendance at weekly review meetings. The implementation strategies with the highest association to skill retention were daily bag-and-mask skill checks (RR-5.1, 95% CI 1.9-13.5) and use of self-evaluation checklists after every delivery (RR-3.8, 95% CI 1.4-9.7).

Conclusions: Health workers who practiced bag-and-mask skills, prepared for resuscitation before every birth, used self-evaluation checklists and attended weekly review meetings retained their neonatal resuscitation skills. Further studies are required to evaluate HBB-QIC in primary care settings, where the number of deliveries is gradually increasing.

Keyword
Neonatal resuscitation, Helping Babies Breathe, retention of skills, multi-faceted implementation strategy, quality improvement cycle, Nepal
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
International Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267918 (URN)10.1186/s12887-017-0853-5 (DOI)000398776700001 ()
Funder
Swedish Society of Medicine
Available from: 2015-11-29 Created: 2015-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
6. Reducing perinatal mortality in Nepal using Helping Babies Breathe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing perinatal mortality in Nepal using Helping Babies Breathe
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2016 (English)In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 137, no 6, e20150117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Newborns are at the highest risk of dying around the time of birth, due to intrapartum-related complications. Our study’s objective was to improve adherence to the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) neonatal resuscitation protocol and reduce perinatal mortality using a quality improvement cycle (QIC) in a tertiary hospital in Nepal.

 

Methods: The HBB QIC was implemented through a multi-faceted approach, including: the formation of quality improvement teams; development of quality improvement goals, objectives and standards; HBB protocol training; weekly review meetings; daily skill checks; use of self-evaluation checklists; and refresher trainings. A cohort design including a nested case-control study was used to measure changes in clinical outcomes and adherence to the resuscitation protocol through video recording, before and after implementation of the QIC.

 

Results: The intrapartum stillbirth rate decreased from 9 to 3.2 per thousand deliveries, and first-day mortality from 5.2 to 1.9 per thousand live births after intervention, demonstrating a reduction of about half in the odds of intrapartum stillbirth (aOR=0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.66) and first-day mortality (aOR=0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83). After intervention, the odds of inappropriate use of suction and stimulation decreased by 87% (OR=0.13, 95% CI 0.09-0.17) and 62% (OR=0.38, 95% CI 0.29-0.49), respectively. Prior to intervention, none of the babies received bag-and-mask ventilation within 1 minute of birth, compared to 83.9% of babies after.

 

Conclusion: The HBB QIC reduced intrapartum stillbirth and first-day neonatal mortality and led to use of suctioning and stimulation more frequently. The HBB QIC requires further testing in primary settings across Nepal.

Keyword
intrapartum stillbirth, intrapartum-related neonatal death, Helping Babies Breathe, quality improvement cycle, Nepal
National Category
Pediatrics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
International Health; Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267919 (URN)10.1542/peds.2015-0117 (DOI)000378520100001 ()
Funder
Swedish Society of Medicine
Available from: 2015-11-29 Created: 2015-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

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