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Scalable residue-free graphene for surface-enhanced Raman scattering
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
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2016 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 98, 567-571 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A room-temperature polymer-assisted transfer process is developed for large-area, single-layer graphene grown by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This process leads to transferred graphene layers free of polymer contamination. The absence of polymer residues boosts the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of the CVD graphene with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) deposited atop by evaporation. The SERS enhancement of the CVD graphene reaches similar to 120 for the characteristic 2D peak of graphene, the highest enhancement factor achieved to date, when the Au NPs are at the threshold of percolation. Our simulation supported by experiment suggests that the polymer residues persistently present on the graphene transferred by the conventional polymer-assisted method are equivalent to an ultrathin film of less than 1 nm thickness. The presence of polymer residues drastically reduces SERS due to the separation of the Au NPs from the underlying graphene. The scalability of CVD graphene opens up for the possibility of graphene-based SERS sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 98, 567-571 p.
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-269192DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2015.11.043ISI: 000367233000070OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-269192DiVA: diva2:882400
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2011.0113Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2011.0082Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SE13-0061Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5591
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Graphene Implementation Study in Semiconductor Processing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphene Implementation Study in Semiconductor Processing
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Graphene, with its two-dimensional nature and unique properties, has for over a decade captured enormous interests in both industry and academia. This work tries to answer the question of what would happen to graphene when it is subjected to various processing conditions and how this would affect the graphene functionality. The focus is placed on its ability to withstand different thin-film deposition environments with regard to the implementation of graphene in two application areas: as a diffusion barrier and in electronic devices.

With single-layer graphene films grown in-house by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), four techniques among the well-established thin-film deposition methods are studied in detail: atomic layer deposition (ALD), evaporation, sputter-deposition and spray-deposition. And in this order, these methods span a large range of kinetic impact energies from low to high. Graphene is known to have a threshold displacement energy of 22 eV above which carbon atoms are ejected from the lattice. Thus, ALD and evaporation work with energies below this threshold, while sputtering and spraying may involve energies above. The quality of the graphene films undergone the various depositions is mainly evaluated using Raman spectroscopy.

Spray deposition of liquid alloy Ga-In-Sn is shown to require a stack of at least 4 layers of graphene in order to act as an effective barrier to the Ga diffusion after the harsh spray-processing. Sputter-deposition is found to benefit from low substrate temperature and high chamber pressure (thereby low kinetic impact energy) so as to avoid damaging the graphene. Reactive sputtering should be avoided. Evaporation is non-invasiveness with low kinetic impact energy and graphene can be subjected to repeated evaporation and removal steps without losing its integrity. With ALD, the effects on graphene are of different nature and they are investigated in the field-effect-transistor (FET) configuration. The ALD process for deposition of Al2O3 films is found to remove undesired dopants from the prior processing and the Al2O3 films are shown to protect the graphene channel from doping by oxygen. When the substrate is turned hydrophobic by chemical treatment prior to graphene transfer-deposition, a unipolar transistor behavior is obtained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 62 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1377
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-285249 (URN)978-91-554-9585-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-10, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2016-06-01
2. On the Road to Graphene Biosensors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Road to Graphene Biosensors
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biosensors are devices that detect biological elements and then transmit a readable signal. Biosensors can automatize diagnostics that would otherwise have to be performed by a physician or perhaps not be possible to perform at all. Current biosensors are however either limited to particular diseases or prohibitively expensive. In order to further the field, sensors capable of many parallel measurements at a lower cost need to be developed. Field effect transistor (FET) based sensors are possible candidates for delivering this, mainly by allowing miniaturization. Smaller sensors could be cheaper, and enable parallel measurements.

Graphene is an interesting material to use as the channel of FET-sensors. The low electrochemical reactivity of its plane makes it possible to have graphene in direct contact with the sample liquid, which enhances the signal from impedance changes. Graphene-FET based impedance sensors should be able to sense almost all possible analytes and allow for scaling without losing sensitivity.

In this work the steps needed to make graphene based biosensors are presented. An improved graphene transfer is described which by using low pressure to dry the graphene removes most contamination. A method to measure the contamination of graphene by surface enhanced Raman scattering is presented. Methods to produce double gated and electrolyte gated graphene transistors on a large scale in an entirely photolithographic process are detailed. The deposition of 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) on graphene is studied. It is shown that at high surface concentrations the PBA stands up on graphene and forms a dense self-assembled monolayer. A new process of using Raman spectroscopy data to quantify adsorbents was developed in order to quantify the molecule adsorption. Biosensing has been performed in two different ways. Graphene FETs have been used to read the signal generated by a streaming potential setup. Using FETs in this context enables a more sensitive readout than what would be possible without them. Graphene FETs have been used to directly sense antibodies in high ionic strength. This sensing was done by measuring the impedance of the interface between the FET and the electrolyte.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 68 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1488
Keyword
Graphene, Biosensors, Microprocessing, Photolithography, Surface Physics, Raman Spectroscopy, Transistors
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317092 (URN)978-91-554-9845-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-28, Polhemssalen/10134, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2011.0113Swedish Research Council, VR, No.621-2014-5591
Available from: 2017-04-07 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2017-04-21

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Hinnemo, MalkolmAhlberg, PatrikHägglund, CarlZhang, Shi-LiZhang, Zhi-Bin

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