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Origin of the Enigmatic Stepwise Tight-Binding Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
2015 (English)In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 54, no 49, 7283-7291 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the treatment of pain, fever, inflammation, and some types of cancers. Their mechanism of action is the inhibition of isoforms 1 and 2 of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). However, both nonselective and selective NSAIDs may have side effects that include gastric intestinal bleeding, peptic ulcer formation, kidney problems, and occurrences of myocardial infarction. The search for selective high-affinity COX inhibitors resulted in a number of compounds characterized by a slow, tight-binding inhibition that occurs in a two-step manner. It has been suggested that the final, only very slowly reversible, tight-binding event is the result of conformational changes in the enzyme. However, the nature of these conformational changes has remained elusive. Here we explore the structural determinants of the tight-binding phenomenon in COX-1 with molecular dynamics and free energy simulations. The calculations reveal how different classes of inhibitors affect the equilibrium between two conformational substates of the enzyme in distinctly different ways. The class of tight-binding inhibitors is found to exclusively stabilize an otherwise unfavorable enzyme conformation and bind significantly stronger to this state than to that normally observed in crystal structures. By also computing free energies of binding to the two enzyme conformations for 16 different NSAIDs, we identify an induced-fit mechanism and the key structural features associated with high-affinity tight binding. These results may facilitate the rational development of new COX inhibitors with improved selectivity profiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 54, no 49, 7283-7291 p.
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Biochemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-269328DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.5b01024ISI: 000366871800013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-269328DiVA: diva2:882751
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-12-15 Created: 2015-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2: Binding modes and mechanisms from computational methods and free energy calculations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2: Binding modes and mechanisms from computational methods and free energy calculations
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most commonly used classes of drugs. They target the cyclooxygenases (COX) 1 and 2 to reduce the physiological responses of pain, fever, and inflammation. Due to their role in inducing angiogenesis, COX proteins have also been identified as targets in cancer therapies.

In this thesis, I describe computational protocols of molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. These methods were used in this thesis to determine structure-activity relationships of a diverse set of NSAIDs in binding to their target proteins COX-1 and 2. Binding affinities were calculated and used to predict the binding modes. Based on combinations of molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations, binding mechanisms of sub-classes of NSAIDs were also proposed. Two stable conformations of COX were probed to understand how they affect inhibitor affinities. Finally, a brief discussion on selectivity towards either COX isoform is discussed. These results will be useful in future de novo design and testing of third-generation NSAIDs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 55 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1560
Keyword
molecular dynamics simulations, binding free energy, molecular docking, cyclooxygenase, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, free energy perturbation, potentials of mean force
National Category
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328478 (URN)978-91-513-0073-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-02, B42, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-10-17

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Publisher's full texthttp://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.biochem.5b01024

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Shamsudin Khan, YasminKazemi, MasoudÅqvist, Johan

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