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Psychometric evaluation of the adolescent and parent versions of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 56, no 6, 726-735 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

The objective of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) and its parent version (GAIT-P), in a representative community sample of adolescents and parents in Vastmanland, Sweden. Self-rated and parent-rated gaming addictive symptoms identified by GAIT and GAIT-P were analyzed for frequency of endorsement, internal consistency, concordance, factor structure, prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), concurrence with the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents, 7-item version (GAS) and the parent version of GAS (GAS-P), and for sex differences. The 12-month prevalence of IGD was found to be 1.3% with GAIT and 2.4% with GAIT-P. Results also indicate promising psychometric results within this population, with high internal consistency, and high concurrent validity with GAS and GAS-P. Concordance between adolescents and parents ratings was high, although moderate in girls. Although exploratory factor analysis indicated poor model fit, it also indicated unidimensionality and high factor loadings in all analyses. GAIT and GAIT-P are suitable for continued use in measuring gaming addiction in adolescents, and, with the additional two items, they now cover all nine IGD criteria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 56, no 6, 726-735 p.
Keyword [en]
Psychometric, adolescent, gaming addiction, IGD, DSM-5
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-269967DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12250ISI: 000365031100017PubMedID: 26440139OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-269967DiVA: diva2:885607
Funder
The Swedish Brain Foundation
Available from: 2015-12-19 Created: 2015-12-19 Last updated: 2016-10-04
In thesis
1. Problematic Gaming and Gambling among Adolescents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problematic Gaming and Gambling among Adolescents
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aims of this thesis were to develop and evaluate a screening instrument designed to detect gaming addiction symptoms in adolescents, to study associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms, to investigate the stability of problematic gaming, and to examine possible associations between gaming at baseline (W1) with problem gambling three years later (W2).

The study population consisted of adolescents from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland SALVe Cohort (adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, and their parents), in two waves (2012, n = 1887; 2015, n = 1576), and adolescents from child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in Västmanland (2014, n = 242).

The development of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) was based upon the research literature on gaming, gambling, and addiction. An expert panel estimated the content validity of the GAIT and found it to be excellent. Additional psychometric evaluations of the GAIT and the parent version, GAIT-P, were conducted and it was found that both versions showed promising psychometric results, with high internal consistency, high concurrent validity, high concordance, unidimensionality, and high factor loadings, although poor model fit in exploratory factor analysis. Self- and parent-rated prevalence of gaming addiction symptoms were estimated at 1.3% with the GAIT and 2.4% with the GAIT-P in 13- and 15-year-olds.

Self-rated problematic gaming above the cutoff had a boy to girl ratio of approximately 5:1 in both the SALVe Cohort and the clinical sample, whereas more girls than boys reported symptoms above the cutoff for ADHD, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like-experiences. ADHD, depression, and anxiety symptoms were associated with odds ratios of 2.43, 2.47, and 2.06, respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Furthermore, problematic gaming was stable over time, and problematic gaming at the first wave was associated with problem gambling three years later.

It is important to screen for possible co-occurring symptoms among those who seek treatment and among those who appear to have symptoms of gaming, gambling, or psychiatric symptoms. Ongoing evaluation of adequate screening and diagnostic measurements, and the development and evaluation of treatments for problematic gaming, gaming addiction, and comorbid conditions are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1268
Keyword
Adolescent, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, gambling, gaming, psychometrics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304046 (URN)978-91-554-9730-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-16, Aros Congress Center, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2016-11-28

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Vadlin, SofiaÅslund, CeciliaRehn, MattiasNilsson, Kent W.

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