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Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, GEOVOL, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3316-658X
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2016 (English)In: Bulletin of Volcanology, ISSN 0258-8900, E-ISSN 1432-0819, Vol. 78, no 12, 85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material ('xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 78, no 12, 85
Keyword [en]
El Hierro, Xeno-pumice, X-CT imaging, Vesicle morphologies, Vesicle size distribution, Heterogeneous vesiculation, Sedimentary ocean crust
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272316DOI: 10.1007/s00445-016-1080-xISI: 000394130700001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-272316DiVA: diva2:893631
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Research Council
Note

The manuscript version of this article was used under the name "Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by synchrotron μ-CT" in the following thesis: Silicic Magma Genesis in Basalt-dominated Oceanic Settings: Examples from Iceland and the Canary Islands http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:893923

Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Silicic Magma Genesis in Basalt-dominated Oceanic Settings: Examples from Iceland and the Canary Islands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicic Magma Genesis in Basalt-dominated Oceanic Settings: Examples from Iceland and the Canary Islands
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The origin of silicic magma in basalt-dominated oceanic settings is fundamental to our understanding of magmatic processes and formation of the earliest continental crust. Particularly significant is magma-crust interaction that can modify the composition of magma and the dynamics of volcanism. This thesis investigates silicic magma genesis on different scales in two ocean island settings. First, volcanic products from a series of voluminous Neogene silicic centres in northeast Iceland are investigated using rock and mineral geochemistry, U-Pb geochronology, and oxygen isotope analysis. Second, interfacial processes of magma-crust interaction are investigated using geochemistry and 3D X-ray computed microtomography on crustal xenoliths from the 2011-12 El Hierro eruption, Canary Islands.

The results from northeast Iceland constrain a rapid outburst of silicic magmatism driven by a flare of the Iceland plume and/or by formation of a new rift zone, causing large volume injection of basaltic magma into hydrated basaltic crust. This promoted crustal recycling by partial melting of the hydrothermally altered Icelandic crust, thereby producing mixed-origin silicic melt pockets that reflect the heterogeneous nature of the crustal protolith with respect to oxygen isotopes. In particular, a previously unrecognised high-δ18O end-member on Iceland was documented, which implies potentially complex multi-component assimilation histories for magmas ascending through the Icelandic crust. Common geochemical traits between Icelandic and Hadean zircon populations strengthen the concept of Iceland as an analogue for early Earth, implying that crustal recycling in emergent rifts was pivotal in generating Earth’s earliest continental silicic crust.

Crustal xenoliths from the El Hierro 2011-2012 eruption underline the role of partial melting and assimilation of pre-island sedimentary layers in the early shield-building phase of ocean islands. This phenomenon may contribute to the formation of evolved magmas, and importantly, the release of volatiles from the xenoliths may be sufficient to increase the volatile load of the magma and temporarily alter the character and intensity of an eruption.

This thesis sheds new light on the generation of silicic magma in basalt-dominated oceanic settings and emphasises the relevance of magma-crust interaction for magma evolution, silicic crust formation, and eruption style from early Earth to present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 54 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1338
Keyword
Silicic magmatism, Iceland, magma-crust interaction, proto-continental crust, early Earth, zircon geochronology and geochemistry, oxygen isotopes, 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption, crustal xenoliths, 3D X-ray μ-CT, volatiles
National Category
Geochemistry Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272318 (URN)978-91-554-9454-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-03, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-11 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2016-02-19

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Berg, Sylvia E.Troll, Valentin R.Deegan, Frances M.Burchardt, SteffiKrumbholz, Michael

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