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Modelling the contributions to marine acidification from deposited SOx, NOx, and NHx in the Baltic Sea: Past and present situations
Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Norrkoping, Sweden..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
2015 (English)In: Continental Shelf Research, ISSN 0278-4343, E-ISSN 1873-6955, Vol. 111, 234-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Abstract [en]

We have examined the effects of historical atmospheric depositions of sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium from land and shipping on the acid-base balance in the Baltic Sea. The modelling considers the 1750-2014 period, when land and ship emissions changed greatly, with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, SOx, NOx, and NHx emissions, and nutrient loads. The present results indicate that Baltic Sea acidification due to the atmospheric deposition of acids peaked around 1980, with a pH cumulative decrease of approximately 10(-2) in surface waters. This is one order of magnitude less than the cumulative acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2. The acidification contribution of shipping is one order of magnitude less than that of land emissions. However, the pH trend due to atmospheric acids has started to reverse due to reduced land emissions, though the effect of shipping is ongoing. The effect of strong atmospheric acids on Baltic Sea water depends on the region and period studied. The largest total alkalinity sink per surface area is in the south-western Baltic Sea where shipping is intense. Considering the entire Baltic Sea over the 2001-2010 period, the pH changes are approximately -3 x 10(-3) to -11 x 10(-3) and -4 x 10(-4) to -16 x 10(-4) pH units attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively. The corresponding changes in total alkalinity are approximately -10 to -30 mu mol kg(-1) and -1 to -4 mu mol kg(-1) attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 111, 234-249 p.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-274455DOI: 10.1016/j.csr.2015.08.024ISI: 000367119100012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-274455DiVA: diva2:896467
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012-10212-24455-26Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), snic2014-1-75
Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2017-11-30

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Claremar, BjörnRutgersson, Anna

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