Passivation Layer and Cathodic Redox Reactions in Sodium-Ion Batteries Probed by HAXPES
2016 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 9, no 1, 97-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
The cathode material P2-NaxCo2/3Mn2/9Ni1/9O2, which could be used in Na-ion batteries, was investigated through synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). Nondestructive analysis was made through the electrode/electrolyte interface of the first electrochemical cycle to ensure access to information not only on the active material, but also on the passivation layer formed at the electrode surface and referred to as the solid permeable interface (SPI). This investigation clearly shows the role of the SPI and the complexity of the redox reactions. Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are all electrochemically active upon cycling between 4.5 and 2.0V; all are in the 4+ state at the end of charging. Reduction to Co3+, Ni3+, and Mn3+ occurs upon discharging and, at low potential, there is partial reversible reduction to Co2+ and Ni2+. A thin layer of Na2CO3 and NaF covers the pristine electrode and reversible dissolution/reformation of these compounds is observed during the first cycle. The salt degradation products in the SPI show a dependence on potential. Phosphates mainly form at the end of the charging cycle (4.5V), whereas fluorophosphates are produced at the end of discharging (2.0V).
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 9, no 1, 97-108 p.
electrochemistry, interfaces, photoelectron spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, sodium
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275542DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201501282ISI: 000367826500012PubMedID: 26692568OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-275542DiVA: diva2:900648
FunderEU, European Research Council, 312284StandUpSwedish Research Council, 2012-4681