Stable isotope (B, H, O) and mineral-chemistry constraints on the magmatic to hydrothermal evolution of the Varuträsk rare-element pegmatite (Northern Sweden)
2016 (English)In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 421, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
The internal evolution of the Varutrosk rare-element pegmatite (Skellefte District, Northern Sweden) has been investigated using stable isotope (B, H, O) geochemistry of tourmaline and coexisting micas, feldspar and quartz. Varutrosk is a classic and typical example of highly fractionated LCT-type pegmatites, with a pronounced concentric zoning pattern composed of well-developed border, wall and intermediate zones and a quartz core. The pegmatite displays considerable rare-element enrichment, culminating in the formation of albite-lepidolite and pollucite units in the innermost zones. Major and trace element variations in tourmaline from the main pegmatite zones correlate well with the internal zoning pattern. Mineral compositions record an abrupt change in fractionation trends between the barren outer and intermediate zones and the inner, late-stage assemblages that carry rare-element mineralization. This change is also shown by the B-isotope variations of tourmaline. Early andmid-stage tourmalines record a systematic increase in delta B-11 from-14.6% to-6.2% which can be explained by closed-system melt-mineral isotope fractionation whereby crystallization of large amounts of muscovite preferentially removes 10B from the residual melt. In contrast, tourmaline from late-stage assemblages in the inner zones and cross-cutting veinlets shows a reversal in the B isotope trend, with a decrease in delta B-11 from-8% to -14.1%. This reversal cannot be explained by mineral-melt isotope fractionation, but requires fluid-melt partitioning and partial fluid loss. Hydrogen isotope variations in mica support this model. The systematic increase in dD from-75% in the outer zones (muscovite) to -63% and -53% in the inner zones (Li-micas) cannot be explained by closed-system variations in temperature or melt-mica fractionation, but it is consistent with late fluid exsolution. Oxygen isotope compositions of tourmaline (delta O-18 from 9.7% to 11.6%), quartz (13.3 parts per thousand to 14 parts per thousand) and mica (10.3 parts per thousand to 11.3 parts per thousand) show good agreement with equilibrium partitioning and yield temperatures in the range 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C. Combining this with the stability fields of Li-aluminosilicates petalite and spodumene indicates crystallization pressures of 2-3 kbar. Taken together, the stable isotope and mineral chemistry data demonstrate that rare-element enrichment in the innermost fractionated assemblages in the Varutrosk pegmatite was associated with the transition from purely magmatic crystallization to conditions where a separate aqueous fluid phase became important.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 421, 1-16 p.
Rare-element pegmatite, Boron isotopes, Tourmaline, SIMS, Fluid exsolution, Nb-Ta mineralization, Lithium, Cesium
Geology Geophysics Geochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275529DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.11.025ISI: 000367525700001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-275529DiVA: diva2:901725