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Neonatal Pneumothorax Pressures Surpass Higher Threshold in Lung Recruitment Maneuvers: An In Vivo Interventional Study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
Puerta de Hierro Univ Hosp, Anaesthesiol & Crit Care Dept, Madrid, Spain..
Univ Complutense, Vet Clin Hosp, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
La Paz Univ Hosp, Anaesthesiol Dept, Madrid, Spain..
2016 (English)In: Respiratory care, ISSN 0020-1324, E-ISSN 1943-3654, Vol. 61, no 2, 142-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Causing pneumothorax is one of the main concerns of lung recruitment maneuvers in pediatric patients, especially newborns. Therefore, these maneuvers are not performed routinely during anesthesia. Our objective was to determine the pressures that cause pneumothorax in healthy newborns by a prospective experimental study of 10 newborn piglets (<48 h old) with healthy lungs under general anesthesia. METHODS: The primary outcome was peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) causing pneumothorax. Animals under anesthesia and bilateral chest tube catheterization were randomly allocated to 2 groups: one with PEEP and fixed inspiratory driving pressure of 15 cm H2O (PEEP group) and the second one with PEEP = 0 cm H2O and non-fixed inspiratory driving pressure (zero PEEP group). In both groups, the ventilation mode was pressure-controlled, and PIP was raised at 2-min intervals, with steps of 5 cm H2O until air leak was observed through the chest tubes. The PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O PEEP increments, and the zero PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O inspiratory driving pressure increments. RESULTS: Pneumothorax was observed with a PIP of 90.5 +/- 15.7 cm H2O with no statistically significant differences between the PEEP group (92 +/- 14.8 cm H2O) and the zero PEEP group (89 +/- 18.2 cm H2O). The zero PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 35 cm H2O; the PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 60 cm H2O (P = .01). The zero PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 40 cm H2O; the PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 70 cm H2O (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Performing recruitment maneuvers in newborns without lung disease is a safe procedure in terms of pneumothorax. Pneumothorax does not seem to occur in the clinically relevant PIPs of <50 cm H2O. Hemodynamic impairment may occur with high driving pressures. More studies are needed to determine the exact hemodynamic impact of these procedures and pneumothorax PIP in poorly compliant lungs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 61, no 2, 142-148 p.
Keyword [en]
barotrauma, mechanical ventilation, pediatrics, ventilator-induced lung injury, positive-pressure respiration, anesthesia
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277782DOI: 10.4187/respcare.04250ISI: 000368414400004PubMedID: 26556900OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-277782DiVA: diva2:905818
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2016-02-23Bibliographically approved

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