In-depth neuropharmacokinetic analysis of antipsychotics based on a novel approach to estimate unbound target-site concentration in CNS regions: link to spatial receptor occupancy
2016 (English)In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
The current study provides a novel in-depth assessment of the extent of antipsychotic drugs transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into various brain regions, as well as across the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). This is combined with an estimation of cellular barrier transport and a systematic evaluation of nonspecific brain tissue binding. The study is based on the new Combinatory Mapping Approach (CMA), here further developed for the assessment of unbound drug neuropharmacokinetics in regions of interest (ROI), referred as CMA-ROI. We show that differences exist between regions in both BBB transport and in brain tissue binding. The most dramatic spatial differences in BBB transport were found for the P-glycoprotein substrates risperidone (5.4-fold) and paliperidone (4-fold). A higher level of transporter-mediated protection was observed in the cerebellum compared with other brain regions with a more pronounced efflux for quetiapine, risperidone and paliperidone. The highest BBB penetration was documented in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus (haloperidol, olanzapine), indicating potential influx mechanisms. BSCB transport was in general characterized by more efficient efflux compared with the brain regions. Regional tissue binding was significantly different for haloperidol, clozapine, risperidone and quetiapine (maximally 1.9-fold). Spatial differences in local unbound concentrations were found to significantly influence cortical 5-HT2A receptor occupancy for risperidone and olanzapine. In conclusion, the observed regional differences in BBB penetration may potentially be important factors contributing to variations in therapeutic effect and side effect profiles among antipsychotic drugs.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pharmaceutical Sciences Pharmacology and Toxicology
Research subject Pharmaceutical Pharmacology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277951DOI: 10.1038/mp.2015.229PubMedID: 26809840OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-277951DiVA: diva2:905985