The Multifunctional Nature of the Adenovirus L4-22K Protein
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The adenovirus major late transcription unit (MLTU) encodes for most of the mRNAs that are translated into the structural proteins of the virus capsid. Transcription from the MLTU is directed by the major late promoter (MLP), which is highly activated during the late phase of infection. This thesis discusses how the adenovirus-encoded L4-22K protein regulates the MLP at both the level of transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. The study shed new light on the complex regulation of the early to late shift of adenoviral gene expression.
Here we show that the L4-22K protein has opposing effects on MLP transcription, functioning both as an activator and a repressor protein. The stimulatory effect mainly depends on the direct interaction of the L4-22K protein with the downstream element (DE element) located approximately 100 nucleotides downstream of the transcription initiation site. In addition to the DE element we also show that the promoter-proximal upstream element (UPE) acts as an L4-22K responsive enhancer element in the MLP. Preliminary data suggests that the activation of MLP transcription via DE and UPE differs mechanistically. The transactivation domain of the L4-22K protein is localized to the conserved carboxy-terminus of the protein.
Our results also defined a novel low affinity L4-22K binding site, the R1 region, which functions as a repressor element in MLP transcription. At high concentrations L4-22K binds to R1 and recruits the cellular transcription factor Sp1 to a DNA segment covering the major late first leader 5´ splice site that is embedded in the R1 region. Sp1 binding to R1 results in a suppression of L4-22K-mediated activation of MLP transcription. This self-limiting effect on MLP transcription might have a function to fine-tune the MLTU gene expression.
Interestingly, the L4-22K protein binds with the same sequence specificity to both the R1 double-stranded DNA and R1 single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). L4-22K binds to the R1 ssRNA with the same polarity as the MLTU nascent RNA. This binding results in the recruitment of U1 snRNA to the major late first leader 5´ splice site. This enhanced U1 snRNA recruitment leads to a suppression of MLP transcription and simultaneously an increase of major late first intron splicing.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 53 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1185
L4-22K, MLP, RNA, transcription, splicing, adenovirus
Microbiology in the medical area
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-278135ISBN: 978-91-554-9486-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-278135DiVA: diva2:906153
2016-04-15, A1:111a, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Elias, Per, Professor
Akusjärvi, Göran, Professor
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