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Formation of Gold Nanoparticle Size and Density Gradients via Bipolar Electrochemistry
Chalmers, Dept Appl Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Chem Mat & Surfaces, Box 857, SE-50115 Boras, Sweden; Gothenburg Univ, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Box 462, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: ChemElectroChem, ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 3, no 3, 378-382 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bipolar electrochemistry is employed to demonstrate the formation of gold nanoparticle size gradients on planar surfaces. By controlling the electric field in a HAuCl4-containing electrolyte, gold was reduced onto 10 nm diameter particles immobilized on pre-modified thiolated bipolar electrode (BPE) templates, resulting in larger particles towards the more cathodic direction. As the gold deposition was the dominating cathodic reaction, the increased size of the nanoparticles also reflected the current distribution on the bipolar electrode. The size gradients were also combined with a second gradient-forming technique to establish nanoparticle surfaces with orthogonal size and density gradients, resulting in a wide range of combinations of small/large and few/many particles on a single bipolar electrode. Such surfaces are valuable in, for example, cell-material interaction and combinatorial studies, where a large number of conditions are probed simultaneously.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 3, no 3, 378-382 p.
National Category
Chemical Sciences Materials Chemistry
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277930DOI: 10.1002/celc.201500413ISI: 000372296100006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-277930DiVA: diva2:907107
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2010-1572Swedish Research Council, 2009-5398
Available from: 2016-02-26 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bipolar electrochemistry for high throughput screening applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bipolar electrochemistry for high throughput screening applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bipolar electrochemistry is an interesting concept for high throughput screening techniques due to the ability to induce gradients in a range of materials and their properties, such as composition, particle size, or dopant levels, among many others. One of the key advantages of the method is the ability to test, create or modify materials without the need for a direct electrical connection. In this thesis, the viability of this method has been explored for a range of possible applications, such as metal recycling, nanoparticle modification and corrosion analysis.

In the initial part of the work a process to electrodeposit gradients in metal composition was evaluated, with a view to applying the technique to the extraction and recycling of metals from fly ash. Compositional gradients in the metals under study could be readily obtained from controlled reference solutions, although the spatial resolution of the metals was not sufficient to perform separation. Only copper could be easily deposited from the fly ash solution.

Bipolar electrodeposition was also successfully used to modify the particle size across substrates decorated with gold nanoparticles. The approach was demonstrated both for surfaces possessing either a uniform particle density or a gradient in particle density. In the latter case samples with simultaneous, orthogonal gradients in both particle size and density were obtained.

A combination of the bipolar approach with rapid image analysis was also evaluated as a method for corrosion screening, using quantitative analysis of gradients in pitting corrosion damage on stainless steels in HCl as a model system. The factors affecting gradient formation and the initiation of corrosion were thoroughly investigated by the use of a scanning droplet cell (SDC) technique and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The ability to screen arrays of different materials for corrosion properties was also investigated, and demonstrated for stainless steel and Ti-Al alloys with pre-formed compositional gradients. The technique shows much promise for further studies and for high throughput corrosion screening applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 77 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1348
bipolar electrochemistry, electrodeposition, corrosion, screening, gradients, recycling, gold nanoparticles, Scanning Droplet Cell, Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, pitting corrosion
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277937 (URN)978-91-554-9491-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-15, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2016-04-04

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