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Amanita phalloides poisoning: Mechanisms of toxicity and treatment
Univ Porto, Dept Biol Sci, Fac Pharm, UCIBIO REQUIMTE,Lab Toxicol, P-4050313 Oporto, Portugal..
Univ Porto, Dept Biol Sci, Fac Pharm, UCIBIO REQUIMTE,Lab Toxicol, P-4050313 Oporto, Portugal..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
Polytech Inst Braganca, CIMO Sch Agr, P-5301854 Braganca, Portugal..
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2015 (English)In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 86, 41-55 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Amanita phalloides, also known as 'death cap', is one of the most poisonous mushrooms, being involved in the majority of human fatal cases of mushroom poisoning worldwide. This species contains three main groups of toxins: amatoxins, phallotoxins, and virotoxins. From these, amatoxins, especially alpha-amanitin, are the main responsible for the toxic effects in humans. It is recognized that alpha-amanitin inhibits RNA polymerase II, causing protein deficit and ultimately cell death, although other mechanisms are thought to be involved. The liver is the main target organ of toxicity, but other organs are also affected, especially the kidneys. Intoxication symptoms usually appear after a latent period and may include gastrointestinal disorders followed by jaundice, seizures, and coma, culminating in death. Therapy consists in supportive measures, gastric decontamination, drug therapy and, ultimately, liver transplantation if clinical condition worsens. The discovery of an effective antidote is still a major unsolved issue. The present paper examines the clinical toxicology of A. phalloides, providing the currently available information on the mechanisms of toxicityinvolved and on the current knowledge on the treatment prescribed against this type of mushrooms. Antidotal perspectives will be raised as to set the pace to new and improved therapy against these mushrooms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 86, 41-55 p.
Keyword [en]
Amanita phalloides, Amatoxins, RNA polymerase II, Liver, Kidney, Therapy
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281002DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.09.008ISI: 000368203200006PubMedID: 26375431OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-281002DiVA: diva2:912507
EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2016-03-16Bibliographically approved

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