Stressful events and coping related to acute and sub-acute whiplash-associated disorders.
2016 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Purpose To describe daily stressors affecting and coping strategies employed by individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) immediately to one month (acute) and three to four months (sub-acute) after injury events using a daily coping assessment. Levels of pain, anxiety, depressed mood and activity are also compared between phases. Method A descriptive prospective design with a content analysis approach was used. Participants completed daily coping assessments for one week during both acute and sub-acute phases. Main measure was whiplash-associated disorders-daily coping assessment (WAD-DCA). Results Nine participants used words describing recovery in the sub-acute phase; 31 described stressful events during both phases. Most frequently reported stressors were related to "symptoms", "emotions" and "occupations/studies". These were equally reported during both phases. Cognitive coping strategies were employed more often during the sub-acute phase (p = 0.008). The only behavioral strategy that increased in prevalence over time was the "relaxed" strategy (p = 0.001). Anxiety levels declined over time (p = 0.022). Conclusion The reported stressors were largely uniform across both acute and sub-acute phases; however, the use of cognitive coping strategies increased over time. The WAD-DCA captures individual stressors and coping strategies employed during a vulnerable phase of rehabilitation and can thus provide information that is useful to clinical practice. Implications for rehabilitation The WAD-DCA provides valuable information for clinical practice when employed during early phases of whiplash-associated disorder development. Reported stressors during the acute and sub-acute phases are essentially the same, whereas cognitive coping strategies grow in prevalence over time. Tailored treatments in early phases of whip-lash associated disorders may benefit from strategies aimed at matching patient-specific stressors with contextually adapted coping strategies.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
whiplash associated disorders, whiplash injury, cognitive behavioural, physical therapist, randomized control trial, acute pain, Internet intervention, physiotherapy
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281454DOI: 10.3109/09638288.2016.1152607PubMedID: 26985631OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-281454DiVA: diva2:914451