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On-chip hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods at low temperature for highly selective NO2 gas sensor
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
International Training Institute for Materials Science -ITIMS, Hanoi University of Science and Technology.
International Training Institute for Materials Science -ITIMS, Hanoi University of Science and Technology.
International Training Institute for Materials Science -ITIMS, Hanoi University of Science and Technology.
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2016 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 169, 231-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

ZnO nanorods were selectively grown on-chip with a two-step low-temperature hydrothermal method and their gas sensing properties were investigated. Small zinc islands were deposited by sputtering on a glass substrate and used as nucleation sites for the ZnO nanorod growth. An equimolar aqueous solution of 0.005 M Zn(NO3)(2)center dot 6H(2)O and (CH2)(6)N-4 at 85 center dot C was used in two steps. The first step was used for nucleation and growth of short ZnO nanorods for 4 h, whereas the second step was used for elongation of the nanorods for 36 h. Long porous nanorods from neighboring islands connected to each other and formed nanorod junctions. A gas sensor with such nanorods was evaluated towards NO2, ethanol, hydrogen, and ammonia to characterize its sensing properties. It showed that the gas sensor has the highest sensitivity to NO2, and a very high selectivity to this gas when measured at 450 degrees C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 169, 231-235 p.
Keyword [en]
Crystal growth, Deposition, Nanocrystalline materials, Sensors, Thin films
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281470DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2016.01.123ISI: 000370533300058OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-281470DiVA: diva2:914496
Available from: 2016-03-24 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2017-08-10
In thesis
1. Microfabricated Gas Sensors Based on Hydrothermally Grown 1-D ZnO Nanostructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microfabricated Gas Sensors Based on Hydrothermally Grown 1-D ZnO Nanostructures
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, gas sensors based on on-chip hydrothermally grown 1-D zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are presented, to improve the sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the gas sensors.

Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are well-established tools for the monitoring of air quality indoors and outdoors. In recent years, the use of 1-D metal oxide nanostructures for sensing toxic gases, such as nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen, has gained significant attention. However, low-dimensional nanorod (NR) gas sensors can be enhanced further. Most works synthesize the NRs first and then transfer them onto electrodes to produce gas sensors, thereby resulting in large batch-to-batch difference.

Therefore, in this thesis six studies on 1-D ZnO NR gas sensors were carried out. First, ultrathin secondary ZnO nanowires (NWs) were successfully grown on a silicon substrate. Second, an on-chip hydrothermally grown ZnO NR gas sensor was developed on a glass substrate. Its performance with regard to sensing nitrogen dioxide and three reductive gases, namely, ethanol, hydrogen, and ammonia, was tested. Third, three 1-D ZnO nanostructures, namely, ZnO NRs, dense ZnO NWs, and sparse ZnO NWs, were synthesized and tested toward nitrogen dioxide. Fourth, hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, chemical vapor deposited ZnO NWs, and thermal deposited ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were tested toward ethanol. Fifth, the effect of annealing on the sensitivity and stability of ZnO NR gas sensors was examined. Sixth, ZnO NRs were decorated with palladium oxide NPs and tested toward hydrogen at high temperature.

The following conclusions can be drawn from the work in this thesis: 1) ZnO NWs can be obtained by using a precursor at low concentration, temperature of 90 °C, and long reaction time. 2) ZnO NR gas sensors have better selectivity to nitrogen dioxide compared with ethanol, ammonia, and hydrogen. 3) Sparse ZnO NWs are highly sensitive to nitrogen dioxide compared with dense ZnO NWs and ZnO NRs. 4) ZnO NPs have the highest sensitivity to ethanol compared with dense ZnO NWs and ZnO NRs. The sensitivity of the NPs is due to their small grain sizes and large surface areas. 5) ZnO NRs annealed at 600 °C have lower sensitivity toward nitrogen dioxide but higher long-term stability compared with those annealed at 400 °C. 6) When decorated with palladium oxide, both materials form alloy at a temperature higher than 350 °C and decrease the amount of ZnO, which is the sensing material toward hydrogen. Thus, controlling the amount of palladium oxide on ZnO NRs is necessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 60 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1513
Keyword
gas sensor, zinc oxide, on-chip, hydrothermal growth, nanorods, nanowires, annealing, palladium oxide, photoluminescence, alloy, sensitivity, selectivity, stability
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320183 (URN)978-91-554-9908-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-09, 2001, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-04-17 Last updated: 2017-06-07

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Jiao, MingzhiHjort, KlasNguyen, Hugo

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