uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Co-creative Game Design as Participatory Alternative Media
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6597-1738
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The possibility of co-creation exists for all media, but game design has developed a culture that is unusually open to co-creation. This dissertation investigates significant cases of co-creation in mainstream games in order to explore how games can be co-created as alternative or critical media by their players.

The core argument in the dissertation is that players co-create the design of a game only if certain conditions are met, namely: (1) player creation of a text or communication infrastructure that modifies the properties of the game and from which play emerges; (2) that this is done for a considerable group of players who share a particular practice of play; (3) that this is done not only by playing the game but by changing how others play it in a distinct creative activity, and (4), with the potential to subvert or contest the original design of the game.

This situation where player creators have influence over the design of the game (but little power to enforce their interests) is problematic from the perspective of alternative or critical media, as alternative, local, production is seen as one reason for why a medium can have an alternative message.

The industrial production of games as cultural commodities does limit the potential of co-creative game design for subversion because it reduces the level of participation in the creation process, thus keeping player creators relatively disempowered. Player creators do have influence on the design of the game, while at the same time having very little power to enforce their interests and design visions. The influence of player creators comes from the consumer power of millions of players who use co-created assets and who want to them to continue exiting, and this creates a mutually dependent relationship (and even partnership), between co-creators and commercial owners.

The dissertation concludes that co-creative game design, despite limitations related to the industrial production of games as cultural commodities, is already happening, and shows a potential for turning games into alternative media.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 95 p.
Series
Uppsala Studies in Media and Communication, ISSN 1651-4777 ; 11
Keyword [en]
Co-creation, co-creative game design, game design, participation, alterna-tive media, critical media, open innovation, modding, add-ons, MMOs, MMORPG, World of Warcraft, Diablo 3, interface
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-287659ISBN: 978-91-554-9599-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-287659DiVA: diva2:923235
Public defence
2016-06-15, HS 2, Ekonomikum, Kyrkogårdsgatan 10, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2016-06-15
List of papers
1. Co-creative interface development in MMORPGs: the case of World of Warcraft add-ons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-creative interface development in MMORPGs: the case of World of Warcraft add-ons
2012 (English)In: Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, ISSN 1757-191X, E-ISSN 1757-1928, Vol. 4, no 1, 3-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article argues that the innovation in the interface design of the massively multiplayer online role-playing game World of Warcraft is to a substantial part originating in the user-created interface modifications called add-ons. This is shown in an analysis of the connection of the development in interface design to the creation of interface modification add-ons by players. The analysis is informed by interviews with specialists in the community of add-on programmers and focuses on the content and functionality of the add-ons mapped against the respective standard interface elements including an explanation of the problem they solve for the player and a measure of the similarity between them. The article also gives an outlook on the influence of these interface-modifications on the actual practice of game play as well as on game design and interface design by the game producer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Intellect Ltd., 2012
Keyword
innovation, interface design, game communities, MMORPGs, player-created, immaterial labour
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282892 (URN)10.1386/jgvw.4.1.3_1 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Assemblage, Adaptation and Apps: Smartphones and Mobile Gaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assemblage, Adaptation and Apps: Smartphones and Mobile Gaming
2012 (English)In: Continuum. Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, ISSN 1030-4312, E-ISSN 1469-3666, Vol. 26, no 5, 731-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197707 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06
3. Co-Creativity in Online Games as Alternative Media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Creativity in Online Games as Alternative Media
(English)In: Questions de communication, ISSN 1633-5961, E-ISSN 2259-8901Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Keyword
Co-creation, Alternative Media, Authorship, Cross-Media, Play. MMORPGs, World of Warcraft
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media and Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282894 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
4. Game Design and Business Model: an Analysis of Diablo 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game Design and Business Model: an Analysis of Diablo 3
2013 (English)In: DiGRA '13 - Proceedings of the 2013 DiGRA International Conference: DeFragging Game Studies, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper develops a theoretical framework for analyzing if a certain feature of the design of a game has been introduced to increase the financial profit created over a specific revenue stream. The framework is created from existing theory and consists of the points 1. Revenue Generation, 2. Game Design and Business Model Integration, and 3. Problematic Game Design. If all these points are given for a certain design feature than it has been implemented into the game to increase revenue. This framework is the used to analyze the design of the successful PC game Diablo 3. Diablo 3 features an auction house that allows players to trade their virtual items for real money while the owner of the game, Blizzard Entertainment, collects a fee for every transaction. The analysis shows that the economy of Diablo 3 is designed to increase the revenue of the real-money market place.

National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263273 (URN)
Conference
Digital Games Research Association, DiGRA '13, August 26-29, 2013 Atlanta, USA
Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
5. Democracy has arrived!: A model for ethical decision making of players in MMOs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy has arrived!: A model for ethical decision making of players in MMOs
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In digital games and virtual worlds, like in other digital media, the structure of the medium, its code, influences the emerging interaction and culture. A deliberate modification of this code to facilitate democratic decision making might thus lead to more meaningful interaction in games. If we see virtual worlds as learning environments this might even help players to understand and question real-world power structures. A way to modify the code of a virtual world is by extending its interface with an add-on that interacts with the application programming interface of the game. In this paper we present the design vision and theoretical framework of a digital tool for ethical decision making that will be implemented in the virtual world World of Warcraft. Its purpose will be to supply players with means to modify the power structure built into the code of this virtual world and to support more ethical and democratic decision making in the game.

National Category
Media Studies Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-191327 (URN)
Conference
Meaningful Play 2012
Available from: 2012-10-20 Created: 2013-01-09 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
6. Co-Creative Game Design in MMORPGs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Creative Game Design in MMORPGs
2015 (English)In: 2015 DiGRA '15 - Proceedings of the 2015 DiGRA International Conference, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a model for co-creation of games as alternative media. The model uses actual play practices to understand the political and cultural influence co-creation might have in the relationship between the owner of the game and the players. The model requires for player creation of a text or communication infrastructure that changes the properties of the game from which play emerges not only for the player herself but for a considerable group of players who share a particular practice of play. This change has to be accomplished not only by playing the game but through changing how others play it in a distinct creative activity. It needs to have the potential to subvert or contest the original design of the game. This model is useful for understanding different kinds of player co-creation as well as the extend of co-creative game design and can be a tool for political work towards participatory cultural production in games.

Keyword
Co-creation, Game Design, Authorship, MMORPGs, World of Warcraft
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263269 (URN)
Conference
DiGRA '15, Diversity of Play, May 14th-17th, Lüneburg, Germany
Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1037 kB)929 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1037 kBChecksum SHA-512
3a55524b25b6d00b928a661bc980e8b2abdd1347a795ae140d6c54ae51dd1fe75980b4f3da19c90cc5b88c97bb307b72503389da08425cec0277f952d1814dc1
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

Authority records BETA

Prax, Patrick

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Prax, Patrick
By organisation
Media and Communication Studies
Media Studies

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 929 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 5840 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf