”Ett vackert hem börjar med golvet”: Linoleummattan i Sverige under tidigt 1900- tal
Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
”A beautiful home start with the flooring” : Linoleum in Sweden in the beginning of the twentieth century (English)
Denna uppsats handlar hur samhällsströmningar i samhället under tidigt 1900-tal påverkade användningen av linoleum i hemmen och i arkitekturen i Sverige. Även utseendet på linoleummattor och tillverkningssätt undersöks. Undersökningen omfattar också den svenska linoleumtillverkaren Forshaga linoleum och andra typer av golvmattor som har tillverkats av dem.
Linoleum uppfanns av Fredrick Walton på 1860-talet och hade sin storhetstid under de kommande 100 åren. Linoleum är tillverkat av oxiderad linolja, kork- eller trämjöl och pigment. Mönster skapas antingen genom att färga massan och sedan blanda ihop olika färger, stansa ut bitar i olika färger, så kallad inlaid, eller genom tryck. De tryckta mönstren har en fantastisk mönsterrikedom eftersom det var möjligt att trycka mycket detaljerade mönster och med många färger. De flesta av dessa mönster var imiterande, det vill säga att de skapades för att se ut som ett mer exklusivt golv, såsom parkett, textilmattor och klinkermosaik.
Linoleum hade sitt genombrott i svenska hem i början av 1900-talet. Inledningsvis var det en exklusiv vara för medelklassen som placerades på hedersplats i finrummet för att markera status och ett modernt tankesätt. Några årtionden senare hade linoleumgolv blivit standard i de flesta hem och användes särskilt i rum som behövde vara lättstädade såsom kök och hall. Funktionalismen medförde att linoleumgolv lades in i moderna byggnader och i samlingslokaler och offentliga miljöer. Detta eftersom linoleum med sina många praktiska egenskaper tilltalade funktionalismens arkitekter.
This thesis explores the uses, appearance and making of Linoleum in Sweden in the twentieth century with focus on Linoleum as a part of the modernistic movement.
Linoleum was invented by Fredrick Walton in the eighteen-sixties and had one hundred years of popularity until its decline in the nineteen-sixties. It is composed of oxidised linseed oil mixed with cork or wooden flour and pigment. Patterns are made in several different ways. The most common method was to make prints on linoleum. This way it was possible to achieve complicated and detailed patterns using many different colours, and to an affordable price. Many of the patterns of the early twentieth century were made to imitate more exclusive materials such as carpets and parquet wooden flooring. Tile and stone imitations were also common. A more durable pattern could be created by mixing different coloured granulats and produce a streaked pattern such as granite, marble or jaspé. Inlaid linoleum is the third version of making patterns. It is made my puzzling different coloured pieces together by hand or in a mold.
Sweden has only had one linoleum factory. This is Forshaga Linoleum, a company that was established in 1891. There was a lot of collaborations between Forshaga Linoleum and the manufacturers in the rest of Europe, as the knowledge and the machines were all imported from already existing factories. In 1928 there was a business treaty between Forshaga linoleum and thirteen other factories in Europe, among them Deutsche linoleum werke (DLW). DLW exited the organisation at the start of World War II.
There were also other similar resilient flooring materials invented during this period. During World War II there was a shortage of linseed oil and there were experiments with other binders. For the Swedish factory this resulted in a material known as forbolin, a material based on cellulose nitrate that was produced 1942-44. Another material produced was the felt base flooring, a flooring that only has a thin printed protective surface and is made as a cheap and less lasting alternative. Vinyl flooring also began being produced in the nineteen-forties, and eventually came to dominate the market.
In the very beginning of the twentieth century linoleum was a very novel and exclusive material. In Swedish middle class homes it was often bought as a smaller carpet and given a prominent place under the dining room table. A few decades later this had changed and linoleum had become an ordinary flooring often used in kitchens and hallways where easy cleaning was essential. Modernism in Sweden brought big changes regarding how linoleum was viewed and how it was used in homes and public spaces. It was the perfect material for the new architecture, since it was practical, affordable and very versatile as it came in various colours and patterns. Forshaga Linoleum wanted to be closely associated with the modernism movement and this is visible in their marketing strategies. Due to Sweden’s strong economic growth there was big increase in housing construction with the intention to improve living standards for the population, and linoleum was widely used in the new architecture.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 36, 3 p.
kulturvård, linoleum, material, funktionalism, interiör, golv, mönster
Cultural Studies Architecture
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-291765OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-291765DiVA: diva2:926011
Subject / course
Cultural Heritage Preservation
Building Conservation Program