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Maternal separation alters acquisition of ethanol intake in male ethanol-preferring AA rats
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
2003 (English)In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 27, no 1, 31-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Description
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Prolonged daily maternal separation can increase the risk for developing substance abuse, whereas brief maternal separation has been reported to induce positive behavioral effects, decrease voluntary ethanol intake and induce long-lasting changes in brain opioid peptides. The ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats have altered basal levels of endogenous opioid peptides that may relate to their high voluntary ethanol intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal separation could affect acquisition of ethanol intake in AA rats. METHODS: The rat pups were exposed to 15 min (MS15) or 360 min (MS360) of maternal separation during postnatal day 1-21, while control rats were exposed to normal animal facility rearing. As adults, the male rats were gradually introduced to increasing concentrations of ethanol. Furthermore, the effect of restraint stress on voluntary ethanol intake was investigated. RESULTS: The MS15 rats reached a high voluntary ethanol intake later than MS360 and control rats. The MS15 rats had a lower ethanol intake and preference at 8% ethanol compared to MS360 rats and lower ethanol intake compared to control rats. MS15 rats also had a lower 10% ethanol intake in comparison with MS360 rats. Restraint stress decreased the ethanol intake in MS15 and MS360 rats, whereas the ethanol intake in control rats was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: We have previously shown that prolonged periods of maternal separation in Wistar rats result in an increased ethanol intake later in life. This was not repeated in this study, using AA rats with an inherent high ethanol intake. However, it is shown that brief maternal separation can delay acquisition of high ethanol intake and in addition decrease voluntary ethanol intake and preference in AA rats. Maternal separation for 15 min is therefore suggested to protect against high voluntary ethanol intake later in life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 27, no 1, 31-37 p.
Keyword [en]
AA Rats, Ethanol, Neonatal Handling, Maternal Separation, Restraint Stress
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-64792DOI: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000047352.88145.80ISI: 000180709800005PubMedID: 12544002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-64792DiVA: diva2:92703
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Maternal Separation in Rats: An Experimental Model for Long-Term Effects of Early Life Experiences on Neurochemistry, Voluntary Ethanol Intake and Exploration and Risk Assessment Behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal Separation in Rats: An Experimental Model for Long-Term Effects of Early Life Experiences on Neurochemistry, Voluntary Ethanol Intake and Exploration and Risk Assessment Behavior
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The period of early life is important for the development of individual brain function and behavior. Human studies have shown altered vulnerability to develop psychopathology and/or excessive drug intake, possibly leading to dependence, as a consequence of early life experiences. In the present thesis, maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for studies of early environmental influences, was used to investigate long-term effects on neurochemistry, voluntary ethanol intake and exploration and risk assessment behavior in rats. Rat pups were assigned to one of three different rearing conditions: daily 15 min (MS15) or 360 min (MS360) of MS and normal animal facility rearing (AFR) during the first three weeks of life. Measurements of adult endogenous opioid peptide levels, opioid- and dopamine receptor density revealed minor MS-induced effects on the opioid system whereas interesting alterations were found in dopamine receptor density. Long-term effects on voluntary ethanol intake showed distinct MS-induced alterations in male Wistar and ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats. Female Wistar rats were unaffected, indicating sex differences in the effects of MS on ethanol intake. Male MS15 rats generally had a slower acquisition phase and a low subsequent ethanol intake whereas male MS360 rats had a high ethanol intake. MS15 is therefore suggested to protect against a high voluntary ethanol intake in male rats whereas MS360 may serve as a risk factor. The recently established concentric square field test indicated alterations in risk assessment as well as an increased exploratory drive and somewhat higher risk-taking behavior in adult MS360 rats, while minor effects were seen in MS15 rats. Altogether, these results demonstrate that environmental influences during the period of early life can have long-term effects on neurochemistry and behavior. Of special interest is the finding that MS altered the inherited high ethanol intake in adult ethanol-preferring AA rats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2004. 81 p.
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 0282-7484 ; 313
Keyword
Pharmaceutical pharmacology, Handling, Maternal Deprivation, Environment, Opioids, Dopamine, Alcohol, Stress, Concentric Square Field, Open Field, Elevated Plus-maze, Farmaceutisk farmakologi
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4465 (URN)91-554-6009-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-09-24, B42, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2004-09-03 Created: 2004-09-03 Last updated: 2009-06-02Bibliographically approved

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