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Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2017 (English)In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 23, no 1, 111-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High levels of ADHD symptoms are related to severe negative outcomes, which underscore the importance of identifying early markers of these behavior problems. The main aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether neuropsychological deficits in preschool are related to later ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, over and above the influence of early ADHD symptom levels. The present study is unique because it includes a broader range of predictors compared to previous studies and the participants are followed over time for as long as 13 years (i.e., ages 5 – 18 years). Preschool data included measures of executive functioning and reaction time variability as well as emotional reactivity and emotion regulation of both positive and negative emotions. When controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, working memory, reaction time variability, and regula- tion of happiness/exuberance were significantly related to inattention whereas regulation of happiness/ exuberance and anger reactivity were significantly related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Furthermore, working memory and reaction time variability in preschool were significantly related to academic achievement in late adolescence beyond the influence of early ADHD symptoms. These findings could suggest that it is possible to screen for early neuropsychological deficits and thereby identify children who are at risk of negative outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions need to look beyond executive functioning deficits in ADHD and also target the role of emotional functioning and reaction time variability. The importance of including both the positive and negative aspects of emotional functioning and distinguishing between emotion regulation and emotional reactivity was also demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 23, no 1, 111-128 p.
Keyword [en]
ADHD, Executive function, Emotion regulation, Academic achievement, Longitudinal
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293545DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2015.1063595ISI: 000394360700006PubMedID: 26212755OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-293545DiVA: diva2:927932
Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved

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