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Fluorapatite-monazite-allanite relations in the Grängesberg apatite-iron oxide ore district, Bergslagen, Sweden
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden.
Deutsch GeoForschungsZentrum, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany; Univ Johannesburg, Dept Geol, POB 524, ZA-2006 Auckland Pk, South Africa.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Al Mickiewicza 30, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Abo Akad Univ, Dept Geol & Mineral, Domkyrkotorget 1, FI-20500 Turku, Finland.
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2016 (English)In: American Mineralogist, ISSN 0003-004X, Vol. 101, no 7-8, 1769-1782 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fluorapatite-monazite-xenotime-allanite mineralogy, petrology, and textures are described for a suite of Kiruna-type apatite-iron oxide ore bodies from the Grangesberg Mining District in the Bergslagen ore province, south central Sweden. Fluorapatite occurs in three main lithological assemblages. These include: (1) the apatite-iron oxide ore bodies, (2) breccias associated with the ore bodies, which contain fragmented fluorapatite crystals, and (3) the variably altered host rocks, which contain sporadic, isolated fluorapatite grains or aggregates that are occasionally associated with magnetite in the silicate mineral matrix. Fluorapatite associated with the ore bodies is often zoned, with the outer rim enriched in Y+REE compared to the inner core. It contains sparse monazite inclusions. In the breccia, fluorapatite is rich in monazite-(Ce) xenotime-(Y) inclusions, especially in its cores, along with reworked, larger monazite grains along fluorapatite and other mineral grain rims. In the host rocks, a small subset of the fluorapatite grains contain monazite xenotime inclusions, while the large majority are devoid of inclusions. Overall, these monazites are relatively poor in Th and U. Allanite-(Ce) is found as inclusions and crack fillings in the fluorapatite from all three assemblage types as well as in the form of independent grains in the surrounding silicate mineral matrix in the host rocks. The apatite-iron oxide ore bodies are proposed to have an igneous, sub-volcanic origin, potentially accompanied by explosive eruptions, which were responsible for the accompanying fluorapatite-rich breccias. Metasomatic alteration of the ore bodies probably began during the later stages of crystallization from residual, magmatically derived HCl- and H2SO4-bearing fluids present along grain boundaries. This was most likely followed by fluid exchange between the ore and its host rocks, both immediately after emplacement of the apatite-iron oxide body, and during subsequent phases of regional metamorphism and deformation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 101, no 7-8, 1769-1782 p.
Keyword [en]
Fluorapatite; monazite; xenotime; allanite; magnetite; REE; Kiruna-type
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293836DOI: 10.2138/am-2016-5655ISI: 000381450500030OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-293836DiVA: diva2:928307
Available from: 2016-05-15 Created: 2016-05-15 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved

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