High-temperature Ta diffusion in the grain boundary of thin Cu films
2016 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 34, 040606Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In order to ascertain the applicability of the technologically well-established Cu metallization in high-temperature circuits, the authors have investigated layered metal stacks having one Ta/Cu interface at temperatures from 400 to 700 degrees C. The authors have found that Ta releases from the Ta layer and moves through the Cu film to the opposite interface via the grain boundaries. In the simplest bilayer stack with Cu on top of Ta, the up-diffused Ta on the surface spreads out over the Cu grains so as to cover the Cu grains completely at 650 degrees C. The activation energy for the grain boundary diffusion is found to be 1.060.3 eV. The Ta diffusion in the grain boundaries leads to stabilization of the Cu grain size at 360 nm and an increase in sheet resistance of the metal stack. The latter is in fact observed for all metal stacks having Cu in contact with Ta on one side and TaN or nothing at all on the other. The implication is that the Cu metallization with one Ta/Cu interface has to be stabilized by a preanneal at the highest anticipated operating temperature before use.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 34, 040606
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294767DOI: 10.1116/1.4950744ISI: 000382207700006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-294767DiVA: diva2:931295
FunderSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RE10-0011