Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Immune Responses against Giardia lamblia
2016 (English)In: Clinical and Laboratory Immunology, ISSN 1556-6811, E-ISSN 1556-679X, Vol. 23, no 1, 11-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, T(H)17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4+ T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4+ effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4+ EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-alpha, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4+ T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4+ EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 23, no 1, 11-18 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-296793DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00419-15ISI: 000373488200003PubMedID: 26376930OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-296793DiVA: diva2:939813