Comparison of plasma alkylresorcinols (AR) and urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers of compliance in a short-term, whole-grain intervention study
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 55, no 3, 1235-1244 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids present in the bran of wheat and rye. Plasma AR and their urinary metabolites may be suitable biomarkers of whole-grain (WG) wheat and rye consumption. The objective of this study was to examine plasma AR and urinary AR metabolites in response to WG wheat consumption. In a randomized crossover study, 19 subjects (10 males, 9 females; BMI 22.0 kg/m(2); age 26 years) incorporated either 3 servings (48 g) or 6 servings (96 g) of WG wheat daily into their regular diet for 1 week. Subjects completed a 2-week washout period, abstaining from all WG consumption, before each intervention. Fasting blood and 24-h urine were collected before and after each intervention. Plasma AR homologues (C19:0, C21:0, C23:0) were quantified by GC-MS after diethyl ether and solid phase extraction and derivatization. Urinary AR metabolites [3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid] were determined using HPLC with electrochemical detection after enzymatic deconjugation and ethyl acetate extraction. Urinary total AR metabolites were significantly higher after 6 compared with 3 servings of WG wheat (56 vs. 32 mu mol/day, P < 0.001). This dose-response relationship was independent of age, sex, energy intake, and baseline urinary AR metabolite concentration. Plasma total AR tended to be higher after 6 compared with 3 servings of WG wheat (103.0 vs. 86.9 nmol/L), but this difference was not significant (P = 0.42). The results suggest that urinary AR metabolites from 24-h urine collections may be useful as biomarkers of compliance in intervention studies of WG wheat.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 55, no 3, 1235-1244 p.
Alkylresorcinols, Biomarkers, Whole grain, Whole wheat
Nutrition and Dietetics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-296860DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0936-8ISI: 000374112900032PubMedID: 26043861OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-296860DiVA: diva2:940185