Smoking and the Risk of LADA: Results From a Swedish Population-Based Case-Control Study
2016 (English)In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 39, no 5, 794-800 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
OBJECTIVE Smoking is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In contrast, it has been proposed that smoking may reduce the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), but studies are scarce. We aimed to study the impact of smoking on LADA and type 2 diabetes risks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from a Swedish case-control study including incident case patients with LADA (GAD antibody [GADA] positive, n = 377) and type 2 diabetes (GADA negative, n = 1,188) and control subjects randomly selected from the population (n = 1,472). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS There was no indication of reduced risk of LADA in smokers; instead, heavy smoking was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.84). Heavy smokers had higher levels of HOMA of insulin resistance (9.89 vs. 4.38, P = 0.0479) and HOMA of beta-cell function (55.7 vs. 42.5, P = 0.0204), but lower levels of GADA (75 vs. 250, P = 0.0445), compared with never smokers. Smokers also displayed an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (OR in ever smokers 1.53, 95% CI 1.25-1.88). CONCLUSIONS In this large population of LADA patients, we did not observe a protective effect of smoking on autoimmunity and the risk of LADA. A protective effect could possibly be masked by a smoking-induced aggravation of insulin resistance, akin to the diabetogenic effect seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 39, no 5, 794-800 p.
Endocrinology and Diabetes
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297112DOI: 10.2337/dc15-2348ISI: 000375039000023PubMedID: 27208379OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-297112DiVA: diva2:941165
FunderForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Diabetes Association