Distinction between bacterial and viral infections by serum measurement of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) and the impact of antibody selection
2016 (English)In: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, E-ISSN 1872-7905, Vol. 432, 82-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
The distinction between acute infections of bacterial or viral causes is clinically important, but often very difficult even for experienced doctors. Previous studies indicated that serum measurements of HNL (Human Neutrophil Lipocalin) might be a superior diagnostic means in this regard, but also indicated that the antibody conformation of the HNL assay might have an impact on the diagnostic performance. The aim of the present report was to examine this further. Methods: Several different (n = 24) HNL ELISA assays were developed using different combinations of monoclonal and polyclonal HNL antibodies. Sera were collected from healthy persons (n = 188) and from 155 patients with acute infections.before any antibiotics treatment. The patients were diagnosed as having bacterial (n = 69) or viral causes (n = 86) of their infections. Plasma and serum were also examined by Western blotting using HNL-specific polyclonal antibodies. Results: The optimal assay format for the distinction between bacterial and viral infection resulted in an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AuROC) for S-HNL of 0.98. (95% CI 0.94-1.00) as compared to 0.83 (0.76-0.88) for blood neutrophil counts and 0.69 (0.61-0.76) for S-CRP. Results also showed that different assay formats of HNL identified monomeric and dimeric HNL differently, the monomeric HNL being elevated in viral infections and the dimeric HNL being elevated in bacterial infections. Conclusion: We conclude that serum theasurement of HNL is a superior diagnostic means to distinguish between acute infections caused by bacteria or virus. For optimal clinical performance the immunoassay should address conformational epitopes in the dimeric HNL.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 432, 82-86 p.
Lipocalin, Acute Infection, Diagnosis, CRP, Neutrophil
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Immunology in the medical area
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297883DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2016.02.014ISI: 000375886900011PubMedID: 26899825OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-297883DiVA: diva2:944624