Oxygen free radical-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates apoptosis-like cell death after traumatic brain injury
2004 (English)In: Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 21, no 9, 1168-1182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are membrane-to-nucleus signaling modules that recently have been implicated as mediators of cellular injury. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the MAP kinase p44/p42 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK1/2]) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. There was a strong increase in activated, phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) protein at 10 min up to 24 h after the injury. Expression of p-ERK occurred in cells identified as neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Most of the cells expressing p-ERK were TUNEL positive at later time points. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126 or the free radical scavenger S-PBN, both with neuroprotective properties in TBI, attenuated the early activation of ERK and resulted in less activation of caspase-3 and subsequent DNA fragmentation. Post-treatment with U0126 resulted in a significant decrease (-60%) in cortical cavity size and cortical atrophy at 2 weeks after trauma. Overall, the results suggest that ERK activation is initiated by increased oxygen radical activity and that overactivation of ERK sets off secondary cell death mechanisms in TBI. Clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the concept of MEK inhibition in head-injured patients.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 21, no 9, 1168-1182 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-67018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-67018DiVA: diva2:94929