Regulation of VEGFR2 signaling in angiogenesis and vascular permeability
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Angiogenesis and vascular permeability occur in physiological and pathological conditions. Angiogenesis denotes the process of blood vessel formation from preexisting quiescent vessels. Angiogenesis is initiated by proangiogenic factors, inducing endothelial cell sprouting, migration and anastomosis, followed by regression of the new vessels or maturation into a quiescent status. Vascular permeability is the process where blood vessels exchange nutrients, solutes and inflammatory cells with the surrounding tissue. Small molecules freely cross the endothelial wall, however macromolecules and cells leak out from the vasculature only after stimulation by certain factors, including VEGF. Angiogenesis and vascular permeability are tightly regulated physiological processes, but uncontrolled angiogenesis and excessive leakage lead to pathological conditions and the progression of several diseases.
VEGF and its receptor VEGFR2 are critical players in angiogenesis and in vascular permeability. The binding of the ligand to the receptor is not the only event involved in the activation and regulation of the signaling cascade. Coreceptors, kinases, phosphatases, and other proteins involved in the trafficking of the complex modulate the signal amplitude and duration.
VEGF/VEGFR2 complex combined with the coreceptor NRP1 has a strong pro-angiogenic action and a critical role in angiogenesis. Both VEGFR2 and NRP1 bind VEGF and can present VEGF in cis, when both VEGFR2 and NRP1 are expressed on the same endothelial cell or in trans, when NRP1 is expressed on an adjacent endothelial cell or another type of cell.
Y949 and Y1212 are two of the main phosphorylation sites of VEGFR2 induced by VEGFA. The binding of phosphorylated Y949 to the SH2 domain of TSAd regulates vascular permeability leading to Src activation and adherens junction opening in vitro. Phospho-Y1212 is implicated in actin stress fiber remodeling via the adapter Nck, affecting the actin cytoskeleton and endothelial cell migration in vitro.
Paladin is a vascular-enriched phosphatase-domain containing protein without reported phosphatase activity and is a negative regulator of insulin receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling.
In this thesis work, I have investigated the spatial dynamics of NRP1/VEGFR2 complex formation (in cis and in trans) for coordinating VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in physiological and in pathological conditions (Paper I). I have studied, in vivo, the role of VEGFR2 Y949 in vascular permeability and metastatic spread (Paper II) and the role of VEGFR2 Y1212 in angiogenic remodeling and vessel stability (Paper III). Furthermore, I have examined paladin’s role in regulating VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling and VE-cadherin junction stability, in angiogenic sprouting and vascular permeability (Paper IV).
In conclusion, VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling is regulated by a multifactor system and each individual regulatory mechanism leads to a specific outcome in angiogenesis, vascular permeability and vessel stability.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 56 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1240
VEGFR2, angiogenesis, permeability, NRP1, Y949, Y1212, paladin
Cell and Molecular Biology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Cancer and Oncology
Research subject Molecular Medicine
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300084ISBN: 978-91-554-9637-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-300084DiVA: diva2:951031
2016-09-29, Rudbecksalen, Rudbecklaboratoriet, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Giacca, Mauro, Professor
Claesson-Welsh, Lena, ProfessorHellström, Mats, Researcher
List of papers