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Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
2016 (English)In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 61, 8-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Vastmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N = 1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Vastmanland (N = 242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-333), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 61, 8-15 p.
Keyword [en]
Problematic gaming, Gaming addiction, ADHD, Depression, Anxiety, Psychotic-like experiences
National Category
Substance Abuse Psychiatry Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300426DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.05.001ISI: 000379630700002PubMedID: 27203825OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-300426DiVA: diva2:951587
Funder
The Swedish Brain Foundation, F02015-0315Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-00897Åke Wiberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Problematic Gaming and Gambling among Adolescents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problematic Gaming and Gambling among Adolescents
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aims of this thesis were to develop and evaluate a screening instrument designed to detect gaming addiction symptoms in adolescents, to study associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms, to investigate the stability of problematic gaming, and to examine possible associations between gaming at baseline (W1) with problem gambling three years later (W2).

The study population consisted of adolescents from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland SALVe Cohort (adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, and their parents), in two waves (2012, n = 1887; 2015, n = 1576), and adolescents from child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in Västmanland (2014, n = 242).

The development of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) was based upon the research literature on gaming, gambling, and addiction. An expert panel estimated the content validity of the GAIT and found it to be excellent. Additional psychometric evaluations of the GAIT and the parent version, GAIT-P, were conducted and it was found that both versions showed promising psychometric results, with high internal consistency, high concurrent validity, high concordance, unidimensionality, and high factor loadings, although poor model fit in exploratory factor analysis. Self- and parent-rated prevalence of gaming addiction symptoms were estimated at 1.3% with the GAIT and 2.4% with the GAIT-P in 13- and 15-year-olds.

Self-rated problematic gaming above the cutoff had a boy to girl ratio of approximately 5:1 in both the SALVe Cohort and the clinical sample, whereas more girls than boys reported symptoms above the cutoff for ADHD, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like-experiences. ADHD, depression, and anxiety symptoms were associated with odds ratios of 2.43, 2.47, and 2.06, respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Furthermore, problematic gaming was stable over time, and problematic gaming at the first wave was associated with problem gambling three years later.

It is important to screen for possible co-occurring symptoms among those who seek treatment and among those who appear to have symptoms of gaming, gambling, or psychiatric symptoms. Ongoing evaluation of adequate screening and diagnostic measurements, and the development and evaluation of treatments for problematic gaming, gaming addiction, and comorbid conditions are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1268
Keyword
Adolescent, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, gambling, gaming, psychometrics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304046 (URN)978-91-554-9730-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-16, Aros Congress Center, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2016-11-28

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