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Nationwide study demonstrates paradigm shift in treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Radical open surgery (OR) is considered gold standard for management of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms (MAAAs). Endovascular repair (EVAR) is a less invasive but controversial treatment option for MAAA because the stentgraft is implanted in an infected field, whilst recent reports indicate promising outcome. No reliable comparative data exists. This nationwide study assesses outcome after OR and EVAR for MAAA in a population-based cohort.

Methods: All patients treated in Sweden for MAAAs 1994-2014 were identified in the Swedish vascular registry. Twenty-seven vascular units participated in data collection according to a predefined protocol. Survival was cross-matched with the population registry.

Results: 132 patients with 144 MAAAs were identified, (0.6% of all operated AAA in Sweden). Median age was 70 years (SD 9.2), 51 were immunosuppressed, and 50 presented with rupture. Survival at 3-months was 86% (95% CI 80-92%), 1-year 79% (72-86%), and 5- years 59% (50-68%).

The preferred operative technique shifted from OR to EVAR after 2001 (proportion EVAR 1994-2000 0%, 2001-2007 58%, 2008-2014 60%). Open repair was performed in 62 patients (47%); aortic resection and extra-anatomical bypass (n=7), in-situ reconstruction (n=50), patch plasty (n=3), and two died intraoperatively OR attempt. EVAR was performed in 70 patients (53%); standard EVAR (n=55), fenestrated/branched EVAR (n=8), and visceral deviation with stentgrafting (n=7).

Survival at 3-months was inferior for OR compared to EVAR in Kaplan-Meier analysis (74% vs 96%, p<0.001), with a similar trend present at 1-year (73% vs 84%, p=0.054). A propensity score weighted risk-adjusted analysis confirmed the early survival benefit of EVAR. During follow-up (median OR 36, EVAR 41 months) there was no difference in long- term survival (5-years 60 vs 58%, p=0.771), infection-related complications (18 vs 24%, p=0.439), or reoperation (21% vs 24%, p=0.650). In a multivariable analysis OR was a significant risk factor for death at 3-months (odds ratio 6.96, p=0.004).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates a paradigm shift in treatment of MAAA in Sweden, with EVAR being the preferred treatment modality. EVAR achieved improved short-term survival compared to OR, without increasing the risk of serious infection-related complications or reoperations.

Keyword [en]
Mycotic, infected, aortic, aneurysm, abdominal
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300952OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-300952DiVA: diva2:952985
Available from: 2016-08-16 Created: 2016-08-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aortic infections: The Nadir of Vascular Surgery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aortic infections: The Nadir of Vascular Surgery
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aortic infections are rare, life-threatening and constitute a major challenge in surgical management. This thesis aims to evaluate short – and long-term outcome of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for mycotic aortic aneurysms (MAA) and the subsequent risk of recurrent infections, changes in surgical practice over time for abdominal MAAs in Sweden and outcome for different treatment modalities, as well as the risk of secondary vascular infection after treatment with Open abdomen after aortic surgery.

Paper I, a retrospective single centre study of patients with MAA treated with EVAR, demonstrated a good short-term outcome, 91% survival at 30-days, and acceptable mid-term survival, 73% at 1-year.

Paper II, a retrospective international multicentre study of patients treated with EVAR for MAA, confirmed the results in paper I, and showed that EVAR is feasible and for most MAA patients a durable treatment option, 5-year survival was 55% and 10-year 41%. A total of 19% died from an infection-related complication, mostly during the first postoperative year. Non-Salmonella-positive culture was a predictor for late infection–related death.

Paper III, a population-based cohort study on all abdominal MAAs operated on between 1994-2014 in Sweden. Overall survival was 86% at 3-months, 79% at 1-year and 59% at 5-years. The survival was significantly better after endovascular compared to open repair up to 1-year without increasing recurrence of infection or reoperation, thereafter there was no difference. After 2001 EVAR constituted 60 % of all repairs, thus indicating a paradigm shift in treatment for abdominal MAAs in Sweden.

Paper IV, a prospective multicentre study of patients treated with open abdomen after aortic surgery. Infectious complications, such as graft infections, occurred after intestinal ischaemia and prolonged OA-treatment, and were often fatal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 77 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1249
Keyword
Mycotic, aortic, aneurysm, surgery, infection, endovascular repair, open abdomen
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300954 (URN)978-91-554-9663-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-22, Auditorium minus, Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-23 Created: 2016-08-16 Last updated: 2016-09-23

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