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Role of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Allergic Airway Inflammation Endotypes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology. Clin Chem & Asthma Res Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
Univ Sulaimani, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol Immunol, Fac Med Sci, Sulaimani, Iraq..
Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London, Harvey Res Inst, Expt Med & Rheumatol William, London, England..
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 84, no 2, 75-85 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology. The cells are, however, likely disease causing in asthma with a late onset, which is often associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Assessment of eosinophilia, fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and periostin are markers that have emerged useful in assessing and monitoring asthma severity and endotype. Current scientific knowledge suggests that eosinophils are recruited by the inflammatory environment, activated by the innate interleukin (IL)-33 and prevented from apoptosis by both lymphocytes and innate immune cells such as type two innate immune cells. Eosinophils contain four specific granule proteins that exhibit an array of toxic and immune-modulatory activates. The granule proteins can be released by different mechanisms. Additionally, eosinophils contain a number of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators as well as radical oxygen species that might contribute to the disease both by the recruitment of other cells and the direct damage to supporting cells, leading to exacerbations and tissue fibrosis. This review aimed to outline current knowledge how eosinophils are recruited, activated and mediate damage to tissues and therapies used to control the cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 84, no 2, 75-85 p.
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
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URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301131DOI: 10.1111/sji.12448ISI: 000379924300001PubMedID: 27167590OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-301131DiVA: diva2:953807
Note

Finansiär: Bror Hjerpstedt Foundation 

Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2016-08-18Bibliographically approved

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