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Whole-genome sequencing in subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia harboring stereotyped B-cell receptors
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, and Division of Experimental Oncology and Department of Onco-Hematology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-302024DiVA: diva2:956006
Funder
Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-08-28 Created: 2016-08-28 Last updated: 2017-03-13
In thesis
1. Exploring next-generation sequencing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring next-generation sequencing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have led to major breakthroughs in the characterization of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) genome with discovery of recurrent mutations of potential prognostic and/or predictive relevance. However, before NGS can be introduced into clinical practice, the precision of the techniques needs to be studied in better detail. Furthermore, much remains unknown about the genetic mechanisms leading to aggressive disease and resistance to treatment. Hence, in Paper I, the technical performance of a targeted deep sequencing panel including 9 genes was evaluated in 188 CLL patients. We were able to validate 143/155 (92%) selected mutations through Sanger sequencing and 77/82 mutations were concordant in a second targeted sequencing run, indicating that the technique can be introduced in clinical practice. In Paper II we screened 18 NF-κB pathway genes in 315 CLL patients through targeted deep sequencing which revealed a recurrent 4 base-pair deletion in the NFKBIE gene. Screening of NFKBIE in 377 additional cases identified the mutation in ~6% of all CLL patients. We demonstrate that the lesion lead to aberrant NF-κB signaling through impaired interaction with p65 and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. In Paper III we sought to delineate the genetic lesions that leads to relapse after fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab treatment. Through whole-exome sequencing of pre-treatment and relapse samples from 41 cases we found evidence of frequent selection of subclones harboring driver mutations and subsequent clonal evolution following treatment. We also detected mutations in the ribosomal protein RPS15 in 8 cases (19.5%) and characterization of the mutations through functional assays point to impaired p53 regulation in cells with mutated RPS15. Paper IV aimed at characterizing 70 patients assigned to three major subsets (#1, #2, and #4) through whole-genome sequencing. Besides recurrent exonic driver mutations, we report non-coding regions significantly enriched for mutations in subset #1 and #2 that may facilitate future molecular studies. Collectively, this thesis supports the potential of targeted sequencing for mutational screening of CLL in clinical practice, provides novel insight into the pathobiology of aggressive CLL, and demonstrates the clinical outcome and cellular effects of NFKBIE and RPS15 mutations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1251
Keyword
CLL, next-generation sequencing, clonal evolution, stereotypy, RPS15, NFKBIE
National Category
Medical Genetics
Research subject
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302026 (URN)978-91-554-9674-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-14, Rudbecksalen, Rudbecklaboratoriet, Dag Hammarskjölds v 20, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-08-29 Last updated: 2016-10-11
2. Recurrent Genetic Mutations in Lymphoid Malignancies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recurrent Genetic Mutations in Lymphoid Malignancies
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the genetic landscape of B-cell derived lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), has been rapidly unraveled, identifying recurrent genetic mutations with potential clinical impact. Interestingly, ~30% of all CLL patients can be assigned to more homogeneous subsets based on the expression of a similar or “stereotyped” B-cell receptor (BcR). Considering that biased distribution of genetic mutations was recently indicated in specific stereotyped subsets, in paper I, we screened 565 subset cases, preferentially assigned to clinically aggressive subsets, and confirm the SF3B1 mutational bias in subset #2 (45%), but also report on similarly marked enrichment in subset #3 (46%). In contrast, NOTCH1 mutations were predominantly detected in subsets #1, #8, #59 and #99 (22-34%). This data further highlights a subset-biased acquisition of genetic mutations in the pathogenesis of at least certain subsets. Aberrant NF-κB signaling due to a deletion within the NFKBIE gene previously reported in CLL warranted extended investigation in other lymphoid malignancies. Therefore, in paper II, we screened 1460 patients with various lymphoid malignancies for NFKBIE deletions and reported enrichment in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (27%) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) (23%). NFKBIE-deleted PMBL cases had higher rates of chemorefractoriness and inferior overall survival (OS). NFKBIE-deletion status remained an independent prognostic marker in multivariate analysis. EGR2 mutations were recently reported in advanced stage CLL patients; thus, in paper III we screened 2403 CLL patients for mutations in EGR2. An overall mutational frequency of 3.8% was reported and EGR2 mutations were associated with younger age, advanced stage and del(11q). EGR2 mutational status remained an independent marker of poor outcome in multivariate analysis, both in the screening and validation cohorts. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 70 CLL cases, assigned to poor-prognostic subsets #1 and #2 and indolent subset #4, were investigated in Paper IV and revealed a similar skewing of SF3B1 mutations in subset #2 and NOTCH1 mutations in subset #1 to that reported in Paper I. Additionally, an increased frequency of the recently proposed CLL driver gene RPS15 was observed in subset #1. Finally, novel non-coding mutational biases were detected in both subset #1 and #2 that warrant further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 82 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1312
Keyword
Lymphoid malignancies, mutations, CLL, stereotypy, subsets, PMBL, NFKBIE, EGR2, whole-genome sequencing
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Hematology
Research subject
Molecular Genetics; Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314956 (URN)978-91-554-9850-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-05, Rudbecksalen, Dag Hammarskjölds Väg 20, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-07 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-04-21

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