Individual-level effects of antibiotics on colonizing otitis pathogens in the nasopharynx
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 88, 17-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background: Although there is evidence of an association between antibiotic consumption and resistant bacteria on a population level, the relationship on an individual level has been less well studied, particularly in terms of nasopharyngeal colonization. We have therefore analysed this association, using data from a closely followed cohort of children taking part in a vaccination trial. Methods: 109 children with early onset of acute otitis media (AOM) were randomised to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) or no vaccination. They were followed for three years with scheduled appointments as well as sick visits. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained at all visits. Antibiotic treatments were recorded, as were risk factors for AOM, including siblings, short breast-feeding and parental smoking. Data were entered into a Cox regression model, and the findings of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae with reduced susceptibility to the penicillin group were related to the number of previous courses of antibiotics. Results: There was evidence of an association between the amount of previously consumed betalactams and colonization with beta-lactamasenegative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.03-1.43; p = 0.03), and also with the most commonly prescribed drug; amoxicillin (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.09-1.76; p = 0.01). There was no evidence for an association between antibiotic consumption and betalactamase producing H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an association between resistant bacteria and AOM risk factors or PCV7. Conclusion: In this subgroup of children, most of whom were given several courses of antibiotics in early childhood, there was evidence of an association between betalactam/amoxicillin consumption and nasopharyngeal colonization with BLNAR strains, bacteria that have increased in prevalence during the last 10-15 years, and that are notoriously difficult to treat with oral antibiotics.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 88, 17-21 p.
Antibiotic resistance, Nasopharyngeal colonization, Acute otitis media, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, BLNAR
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303261DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.06.036ISI: 000381842000004PubMedID: 27497379OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-303261DiVA: diva2:971488
FunderSwedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions