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Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University.
2016 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 117, no 22, 228301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 117, no 22, 228301
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303941DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.228301ISI: 000388630000032OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-303941DiVA: diva2:974651
Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modelling collective movement and transport network formation in living systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling collective movement and transport network formation in living systems
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The emergence of collective patterns from repeated local interactions between individuals is a common feature to most living systems, spanning a variety of scales from cells to animals and humans. Subjects of this thesis are two aspects of emergent complexity in living systems: collective movement and transport network formation. For collective movement, this thesis studies the role of movement-mediated information transfer in fish decision-making. The second project on collective movement takes inspiration from granular media and soft mode analysis and develops a new approach to describe the emergence of collective phenomena from physical interactions in extremely dense crowds. As regards transport networks, this thesis proposes a model of network growth to extract simple, biologically plausible rules that reproduce topological properties of empirical ant trail networks.  In the second project on transport networks, this thesis starts from the simple rule of “connecting each new node to the closest one”, that describes ants building behavior, to study how balancing local building costs and global maintenance costs influences the growth and topological properties of transport networks. These projects are addressed through a modeling approach and with the aim of identifying minimal sets of basic mechanisms that are most likely responsible of large-scale complex patterns. Mathematical models are always based on empirical observations and are, when possible, compared to experimental data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Mathematics, 2016. 56 p.
Series
Uppsala Dissertations in Mathematics, ISSN 1401-2049 ; 96
Keyword
animal collective behaviour, transport networks, crowd dynamics, complex systems, ants, fish
National Category
Mathematics
Research subject
Applied Mathematics and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303943 (URN)978-91-506-2599-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-25, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2016-11-15

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Bottinelli, AriannaSumpter, David

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