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Cloning of two melanocortin (MC) receptors in spiny dogfish: MC3 receptor in cartilaginous fish shows high affinity to ACTH-derived peptides while it has lower preference to gamma-MSH
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
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2004 (English)In: European Journal of Biochemistry, ISSN 0014-2956, E-ISSN 1432-1033, Vol. 271, no 21, 4320-4331 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the cloning and characterization of two melanocortin receptors (MCRs) from the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) (Sac). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these shark receptors are orthologues of the MC3R and MC5R subtypes, sharing 65% and 70% overall amino acid identity with the human counterparts, respectively. The SacMC3R was expressed and pharmacologically characterized in HEK293 cells. The radioligand binding results show that this receptor has high affinity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-derived peptides while it has comparable affinity for alpha- and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), and slightly lower affinity for gamma-MSH when compared with the human orthologue. ACTH(1-24) has high potency in a second-messenger cAMP assay while alpha- and gamma-MSH had slightly lower potency in cells expressing the SacMC3R. We used receptor-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fusion to show the presence of SacMC3R in plasma membrane of Chinese hamster ovary and HEK293 cells but the SacMC5R was retained in intracellular compartments of these cells hindering pharmacological characterization. The anatomical distribution of the receptors were determined using reverse transcription PCR. The results showed that the SacMC3R is expressed in the hypothalamus, brain stem and telencephalon, optic tectum and olfactory bulbs, but not in the cerebellum of the spiny dogfish while the SacMC5R was found only in the same central regions. This report describes the first molecular characterization of a MC3R in fish. The study indicates that many of the important elements of the MC system existed before radiation of gnathostomes, early in vertebrate evolution, at least 450 million years ago.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 271, no 21, 4320-4331 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-70113DOI: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04374.xPubMedID: 15511238OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-70113DiVA: diva2:98024
Available from: 2005-04-15 Created: 2005-04-15 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Function, Pharmacology, Evolution and Anatomical Localization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Solute Carriers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Function, Pharmacology, Evolution and Anatomical Localization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Solute Carriers
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and solute carriers (SLC) are two large families of membrane-bound proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize these two families in terms of evolution and function. The melanocortin (MC) receptors belong to the Rhodopsin family of GPCRs and we cloned the MC4 and MC5 receptors from the rainbow trout, MC3 and MC5 from the spiny dogfish and MCa and MCb from the river lamprey. Pharmacological characterization of the cloned MC receptors demonstrated higher affinity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) compared to melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) peptides (alpha-, beta- and gamma-MSH). We performed expression analysis with reverse transcription PCR, which showed that the MC4 and MC5 receptors in the rainbow trout are expressed centrally as well as in peripheral tissues. The dogfish MC3 and MC5 receptors were expressed in the brain, while the lamprey MCa and MCb receptors were expressed in the periphery. An extensive tissue localization analysis was performed for the entire family of Adhesion GPCRs in the rat and mouse. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) we discovered that the majority of GPCRs were expressed either specifically in the CNS or ubiquitously in the CNS and peripheral tissues. We identified all non-olfactory GPCRs in the dog and classified them into Adhesion, Frizzled, Glutamate, Rhodopsin and Secretin families. The dog GPCR repertoire seemed to be more similar to the human repertoire than to the repertoires in rodents. Solute carrier family 25 includes mitochondrial membrane transporters. Using bioinformatics techniques we identified 14 novel members of the SLC25 family, which now has 46 members. We identified orthologs of the novel SLC25 family members in yeast and performed expression analysis of 9 of them with qRT-PCR on a panel containing 30 central and peripheral tissues from the rat. To conclude, this study has expanded our knowledge of the repertoire of genes coding for membrane-bound proteins and provided information about their functional roles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 49 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 437
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99413 (URN)978-91-554-7466-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-04-24, Room B41, BMC, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-03 Created: 2009-03-13 Last updated: 2009-09-04Bibliographically approved

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