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  • 1.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Nut - The Goddess of Life in Text and Iconography2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study delineates the basic characteristics of the ancient Egyptian goddess Nut as expressed in funerary texts and iconography. The goddess is treated as conceptual in character (Begriffsgottheit), i.e. as an animate expression for the ideas that the ancient Egyptians associated with the sky: space and water. These ideas are termed core attributes and are treated as the basic components employed in the imagery used to describe the goddess.

    Chapter 1 presents the forms of appearance that the goddess is given in different contexts. These forms provide information as to the way in which she is perceived. The goddess's maternal role is decisive in their selection.

    Chapter 2 focuses on the presentation of the goddess as space and the way in which this aspect of her character is integrated in the world of myth. The occurrence of textual references to the goddess, within the spatial arrangement of the inscribed royal tombs of the Old Kingdom, defines the ontological levels within which the process that turns death into life takes place. Specific sets of texts, connected to the different levels of this process, are categorized after thematic criteria. The reformulation of later versions of these texts is also examined.

    Chapter 3 treats the metaphorical expressions used for Nut as space. An analysis reviews a number of objects and concepts, formulating the idea of enclosure ("container") associated with the goddess. These function as "vehicles" in relation to a "target domain", primarily characterized by the concept of mother.

    Chapter 4 discusses the personification of the tree, the so called "tree goddess". This iconographic form was created at the beginning of the New Kingdom. With an emphatic mother symbolism, the tree was a manifestation form for a number of goddesses. An analysis of the textual and iconographic elements connected to this motif reveals Nut as the dominate identity of the tree goddess. This connection between the tree and this goddess is, once again, based on the core attributes of space and water, inherent in the life generating role of Nut.

    Chapter 5 provides a comprehensive summary of the study.

  • 2.
    Engsheden, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Egyptology.
    La reconstitution du verbe en égyptien de tradition 400–30 avant J.-C.2003Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two variants of ancient Egyptian were used for different categories of written communication during the last millennium B.C. The vernacular, known as Demotic, served as the written language for administrative, legal and literary documents. Traditional Egyptian (égyptien de tradition), written in the hieroglyphic script and with linguistic structures that are purported to imitate those of the Classical Egyptian, was still used to compose mainly religious documents.

    The present work treats the verbal system of Traditional Egyptian using texts dated to the period 400-30 B.C. These documents include royal stelae and priestly decrees, among these the Rosetta Stone, as well as biographical inscriptions. After a general introduction, and a presentation of morphological characteristics, the study takes up the basic verbal patterns. The suffix conjugations, the sDm=f and sDm.n=f , in its various meanings and combinations, affirmative and negative, are dealt with, as is the pseudoparticiple. The infinitive, as it appears in e.g. pseudoverbal constructions and the sDm pw ir.n=f is examined in a separate section, with an additional chapter covering the passive forms of the suffix conjugation.

    A summary of the conclusions that are reached by this study are presented in the final chapter. Graphic variations show that morphemes formerly used to distinguish verbal classes are largely ignored. Only a few irregular verbs still display, at times, writings that retain the old inflections, often, however, without corresponding to the category that would be expected given the context. These writings are unevenly distributed among the documents, testifying to the existence of local, or perhaps rather individual, grammatical systems. Similarly, the co-existence in Traditional Egyptian of the two forms of the suffix conjugation sDm.n=f and sDm=f, both used to express a completed event, is best understood when each document is studied separately. There is a general avoidance of forms and expressions that parallel those found in Demotic. This appears to have been of greater importance than following the rules of Classical Egyptian. The use of the conjunctive and infinitival constructions, under certain conditions, confirms this observation.

  • 3.
    Engsheden, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    La reconstitution du verbe en égyptien de tradition 400-30 avant J.-C.2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two variants of ancient Egyptian were used for different categories of written communication during the last millennium B.C. The vernacular, known as Demotic, served as the written language for administrative, legal and literary documents. Traditional Egyptian (égyptien de tradition), written in the hieroglyphic script and with linguistic structures that are purported to imitate those of the Classical Egyptian, was still used to compose mainly religious documents.

    The present work treats the verbal system of Traditional Egyptian using texts dated to the period 400-30 B.C. These documents include royal stelae and priestly decrees, among these the Rosetta Stone, as well as biographical inscriptions. After a general introduction, and a presentation of morphological characteristics, the study takes up the basic verbal patterns. The suffix conjugations, the sDm=fand sDm.n=f , in its various meanings and combinations, affirmative and negative, are dealt with, as is the pseudoparticiple. The infinitive, as it appears in e.g. pseudoverbal constructions and the sDm pw ir.n=f is examined in a separate section, with an additional chapter covering the passive forms of the suffix conjugation.

    A summary of the conclusions that are reached by this study are presented in the final chapter. Graphic variations show that morphemes formerly used to distinguish verbal classes are largely ignored. Only a few irregular verbs still display, at times, writings that retain the old inflections, often, however, without corresponding to the category that would be expected given the context. These writings are unevenly distributed among the documents, testifying to the existence of local, or perhaps rather individual, grammatical systems. Similarly, the co-existence in Traditional Egyptian of the two forms of the suffix conjugation sDm.n=fand sDm=f, both used to express a completed event, is best understood when each document is studied separately. There is a general avoidance of forms and expressions that parallel those found in Demotic. This appears to have been of greater importance than following the rules of Classical Egyptian. The use of the conjunctive and infinitival constructions, under certain conditions, confirms this observation.

  • 4.
    Häggman, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Directing Deir el-Medina: The External Administration of the Necropolis2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    HÄGGMAN, SOFIA, 2002. Directing Deir el-Medina. The External Administration of the Necropolis. Uppsala Studies in Egyptology 4, Uppsala. x + 453 pages.

    This study analyses the administrative structure of the Theban Necropolis, with focus on the changes it underwent in the mid- and late 20th dynasty. The structure of the administration is studied in terms of a patterns of contact between the Necropolis and officials representing other institutions. The officials and institutions that are discussed are the king, the vizier, the mayors of Thebes, and the House of Amun, most commonly represented by its head, the high priest of Amun.

    The analysis is divided into four chronological phases. The 19th and early 20th dynasties (c. 1294-1153 BC) represent a period during which the administration followed the pattern established in the late 18th dynasty. This phase of relative stability is followed by a period of change in the mid-20th Dynasty, including the end of the reign of Ramesses III as well as the short reigns of Ramesses IV-VIII (c. 1153-1123 BC). The source material from this period reflects a change in the patterns of contact between the Necropolis and external authorities.

    An examination of the administrative patterns of the late 20th Dynasty, covering the reigns of Ramesses IX-XI, with the era termed wHm mswt, (c. 1123-1070 BC) as well as the early 21st dynasty (c. 1070-996 BC) concludes the study. The administrative structure detectable in the documentation from the reign of Ramesses XI is further crystallized in the wHm mswt. In the 21st Dynasty the same pattern is found in a more condensed form, as formerly independent offices linked to the Necropolis are merged and held by one person, as the complex central government of the New Kingdom is replaced by a regional administrative focus.

    This study also deals with the effects that these changes had on the workmen’s community of Deir el-Medina. In this context the abandonment of the walled village and changes in the character of Necropolis work, as well as in the internal administration of the work force, are discussed.

  • 5.
    Lundh, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Actor and Event: Military Activity in Ancient Egyptian Narrative Texts from Tuthmosis II to Merenptah2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study treats the function of the military writings of ancient Egypt, from Tuthmosis II to Merenptah (c. 1492–1203 B.C.). They are described and defined using the terms Actor and Event. Chapter 1 deals with present state of research, aims and method, and sources. Chapters 2 to 5 discuss the texts, presented in four categories, defined and distinguished by their function. Chapter 6 concludes this study with a summary and a conclusion.

    Chapter 2 treats The Dominion Records, consisting of texts in which the focus is on the disruption of the king's control, expressed in terms of a rebellion. The monuments on which these texts are inscribed are found in two contexts, either in areas that define the borders of Egypt, or in temples, emphasizing the king's dominion as part of the reciprocal relationship between the king and the god.

    The king's participation in the royal campaign is the most important feature of the Expedition Records, treated in Chapter 3. The Expedition records focus on the king's performance on one or several military campaign(s).

    Chapter 4 discusses the Achievement Records. These describe a variety of royal achievements, non-military as well as military, presented as separate episodes. The texts credit the king's ability to act to the god, which motivates the placement of the Achievement Reports in a temple context.

    The Reciprocity Records (Chapter 5) presents a different perspective on the reciprocal interchange between the king and the god. While the other categories focus on the ability and achievements of the king, the Reciprocity Reports describe the gifts given by the king in exchange for that ability and those accomplishments. The perspective taken by this category of texts is that military success is a gift of the god, and the king, in return, compensates the god for his success through reciprocal gifts.

    Military events were used, during the period covered by this study, as integrated components in narratives that belong to several categories, entailing a varied use of the documentation of historical occasions. The use of the same occurrence in different textual categories results in there being considerable distinction, and even partial disagreement, between different versions of the same event.

  • 6.
    Strandberg, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Egyptology.
    The Gazelle in Ancient Egyptian Art: Image and Meaning2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis establishes the basic images of the gazelle in ancient Egyptian art and their meaning. A chronological overview of the categories of material featuring gazelle images is presented as a background to an interpretation.

    An introduction and review of the characteristics of the gazelle in the wild are presented in Chapters 1-2. The images of gazelle in the Predynastic material are reviewed in Chapter 3, identifying the desert hunt as the main setting for gazelle imagery.

    Chapter 4 reviews the images of the gazelle in the desert hunt scenes from tombs and temples. The majority of the motifs characteristic for the gazelle are found in this context. Chapter 5 gives a typological analysis of the images of the gazelle from offering processions scenes. In this material the image of the nursing gazelle is given particular importance.

    Similar images are also found on objects, where symbolic connotations can be discerned (Chapter 6). References to healing and regeneration are found, particularly in relationship to the context of the objects.

    The gazelle is found in a divine context in a limited material (Chapter 7). A discussion of these sources sees a focus on the gazelle as representative for the desert mountains as the setting for death and rebirth. This relates to the gazelle as a feminine image with a connection to the models of female divinity (Chapter 8).

  • 7.
    Wallin, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Celestial Cycles: Astronomical Concepts of Regeneration in the Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the astronomical references found in the ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. Chapter i presents the aim and method of this study as well as describing the primary sources and previous research. Chapter 2 deals with the conceptual background for the three cycles, as related to the year, month and the day as units of time. Chapters 3 to 5 discuss the source material and describe how the patterns of movement of the different celestial phenomena were used to describe the regeneration of the deceased as he was incorporated into each of these cycles, thereby enjoying an existence in .cosmic" eternal time. Chapter 6 concludes this study with a summary and conclusion.

    The cycle of the year (Chapter 3) is present in the texts in the form of the annual heliacal rising of the star Sirius, deified as the goddess Sothis. This was combined with references to the yearly return of the inundation of the Nile, that occurred at approximately the same time, generating imagery of a yearly rejuvenation. The astronomical features of the Egyptian constellation S3h, approximately equivalent to Orion, were used to complement that of Sothis, and together they represented a celestial version of Isis and Osiris, providing a mythic context for resurrection.

    Joining the morrthly cycle (Chapter 4), the deceased was transformed into, and identified with, the moon. The different phases of the moon were used to described stages of regeneration. The deification of the moon as Thoth, and as the Eye of Horus, allowed the deceased to interact with the gods and partake of the powers of the regeneration of the Eye, that culminated at the Full Moon.

    The collective appearance of the stars of the northern and southern skies each night provides a background for a daily cycle (Chapter 5). The group of stars called the Imperishable Stars of the northern sky were visible all night, and functioned as an image of an eternal celestial abode. The group of stars called the Unwearying Stars of the southern sky were used to calculate the hours of the night as illustrated by the diagonal star-clocks. The two groups were also identified with the crews of the night and day barks of the sun god, giving the deceased access to the 24-hour journey of the sun, as he joined the daily cycle.

    The three temporal cycles of the year, month and day, seen in astronomical phenomena of the night sky, were used to endow the deceased with continual cyclical renewal.

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