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  • 1. Aabloo, A
    et al.
    Klintenberg, M
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of a polymer-inorganic interface.2000In: Electrochim.Acta, Vol. 45, p. 1425-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Aabloo, A.
    et al.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of lithium ion mobility in a PEO surface.2001In: Solid State Ionics, Vol. 143, p. 83-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aabloo, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of Nd3+ ions in a crystalline PEO surface1998In: ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, ISSN 0013-4686, Vol. 43, no 10-11, p. 1361-1364Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(ethylene oxide) based electrolytes are systems in which ionic salts are dissolved into an amorphous EO matrix. Potentials developed earlier to model crystalline and amorphous bulk PEO systems are here used for the MD simulation at 400 K of the behavi

  • 4.
    Aabloo, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulations of a poly(ethylene oxide) surface1997In: POLYMER, ISSN 0032-3861, Vol. 38, no 18, p. A47-A51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potentials developed earlier for crystalline and amorphous bulk PEO systems have been used for the MD simulation of a PEO surface model. The surface comprises the outer region of a 122 Angstrom-thick sheet of PEO in which the PEO, -(CH2-CH2-O)(n)- chains

  • 5.
    Aarik, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Aidla, A.
    Mändar, H.
    Uustare, T.
    Schuisky, M.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Hårsta, A.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Atomic layer growth of epitaxial TiO2 thin films from TiCl4 and H2O on a-Al2O3 substrates2002In: J. Cryst. Growth, no 242, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Aarik, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Sundqvist, J.
    Aidla, A.
    Lu, J.
    Sajavaara, T.
    Kukli, K.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Hafnium tetraiodide and oxygen as precursors for atomic layer deposition of hafnium oxide thin films2002In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 418, p. 69-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Abbrent, S
    et al.
    Plestil, J
    Hlavata, D
    Lindgren, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Tegenfeldt, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Wendsjö, Å
    Crystallinity and morphology of PVdF-HFP based gel electrolytes.2001In: Polymer, Vol. 42, p. 1407-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Huang, Zhehao
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    El-Zohry, Ahmed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zheng, Haoquan
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm Univ, Inorgan & Struct Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT Porous Mat, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Fast and Scalable Approach for Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks and One-Pot Encapsulation of Target Molecules2017In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 56, no 15, p. 9139-9146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trimethylamine (TEA)-assisted synthesis approach that combines the preparation of hierarchical porous zeolitic, imidazolate framework ZIF-8, nanoparticles and one-pot encapsulation of target molecules is presented. Two dye molecules, rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB), and one protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) were, tested as the target molecules. The addition of TEA into the solution of zinc nitrate promoted the formation of ZnO nanocrystals, which rapidly transformed to ZIF-8 nanoparticles after the addition of the linker 2-methylimidazole (Hmim): Hierarchical porous dye@ZIF-8 nanoparticles with high crystallinity, large BET surface areas (1300-2500 m(2)/g), and large pore Volatiles (0.5-1.0 cm(3)/g) could be synthesized. The synthesis procedure was fast (down to 2 min) and scalable. The Hmim/Zn ratio could be greatly reduced (down to 2:1) compared to previously reported ones. The surface areas, and the mesopore size, structure, and density could be modified by changing the TEA or dye concentrations, or by postsynthetic treatment using reflux in methanol. This synthesis and one-pot encapsulation approach is simple and can be readily scaled Up. The photophysical properties such as lifetime and photostability of the dyes could be tuned via encapsulation. The lifetimes of the encapsulated dyes were increased by 3-27-fold for RhB@ZIF-8 and by 20-fold for MB@ZIF-8, compared to those of the corresponding free dyes. The synthesis approach is general, which was successfully applied for encapsulation of protein BSA. It could also be extended for the synthesis of hierarchical porous cobalt-based ZIP (dye@ZIF-67).

  • 9.
    Abdel-Magied, Ahmed F.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Engn, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.;Nucl Mat Author, POB 530,El Maadi, Cairo, Egypt..
    Ashour, Radwa M.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Engn, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.;Nucl Mat Author, POB 530,El Maadi, Cairo, Egypt..
    Fu, Le
    Cent South Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Dowaidar, Moataz
    King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals KFUPM, Dept Bioengn, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia..
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Science.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Engn, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    Assiut Univ, Dept Chem, Adv Multifunct Mat Lab, Assiut 71515, Egypt.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Magnetic metal-organic frameworks for efficient removal of cadmium(II), and lead(II) from aqueous solution2022In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 107467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient and convenient methods for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions especially Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions is of great importance due to their serious threat to public health and the ecological system. In this study, two magnetic metal-organic frameworks (namely: Fe3O4@ZIF-8, and Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2) were synthesized, fully characterized, and applied for the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption efficiencies for the prepared nanocomposites are strongly dependent on the pH of the aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities of Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2, and Fe3O4@ZIF-8 at pH 6.0 were calculated to be 714.3 mg.g(-), and 370 mg.g(-1) for Cd(II), respectively, and 833.3 mg.g(-1), and 666.7 mg.g(-1) for Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model and fit the Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process is endothermic, and spontaneous in nature. A plausible adsorption mechanism was discussed in detail. The magnetic adsorbents: Fe3O4@ZIF-8, and Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2 showed excellent reusability, maintaining the same efficiency for at least four consecutive cycles. These results reveal the potential use of magnetic Fe3O4@ZIF-8, and Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2 as efficient adsorbents in removing Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

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  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Chemical Physics.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Chemical Physics.
    Tocher, Derek
    Nag, Samik
    Datta, Dipankar
    Modulation of the lowest metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state in [Ru(bpy)(2)(N-N)](2+) systems by changing the N-N from hydrazone to azine: Photophysical Consequences2006In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 45, no 23, p. 9580-9586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Ru( II) complexes, [ Ru( bpy) L-2]( ClO4) 2 ( 1) and [ Ru( bpy)(2)L']( BF4) 2 ( 2), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, L is diacetyl dihydrazone, and L' 1: 2 is the condensate of L and acetone, are synthesized. From X-ray crystal structures, both are found to contain distorted octahedral RuN62+ cores. NMR spectra show that the cations in 1 and 2 possess a C-2 axis in solution. They display the expected metal-to-ligand charge transfer ( (MLCT)-M-1) band in the 400 - 500 nm region. Complex 1 is nonemissive at room temperature in solution as well as at 80 K. In contrast, complex 2 gives rise to an appreciable emission upon excitation at 440 nm. The room-temperature emission is centered at 730 nm ( lambda(max)(em)) with a quantum yield ( em) of 0.002 and a lifetime ( tau(em)) of 42 ns in an air-equilibrated methanol - ethanol solution. At 80 K, Phi(em) = 0.007 and tau(em)= 178 ns, with a lambda(max)(em) of 690 nm, which is close to the 0 - 0 transition, indicating an (MLCT)-M-3 excited-state energy of 1.80 eV. The radiative rate constant ( 5 x 10(4) s(-1)) at room temperature and 80 K is almost temperature independent. From spectroelectrochemistry, it is found that bpy is easiest to reduce in 2 and that L is easiest in 1. The implications of this are that in 2 the lowest (MLCT)-M-3 state is localized on a bpy ligand and in 1 it is localized on L. Transient absorption results also support these assignments. As a consequence, even though 2 shows a fairly strong and long-lived emission from a Ru( II) -> bpy CT state, the Ru( II) -> L CT state in 1 shows no detectable emission even at 80 K.

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Lundqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
    Wolpher, Henriette
    Johansson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Rasmussen, Torben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Becker, Hans-Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Åkermark, Björn
    Persson, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
    Steric influence on the excited-state lifetimes of ruthenium complexes with bipyridyl-alkanylene-pyridyl ligands.2008In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 3540-3548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural effect on the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited-state lifetime has been investigated in bis-tridentate Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes based on the terpyridine-like ligands [6-(2,2'-bipyridyl)](2-pyridyl)methane (1) and 2-[6-(2,2'-bipyridyl)]-2-(2-pyridyl)propane (2). A homoleptic ([Ru(2)(2)](2+)) and a heteroleptic complex ([Ru(ttpy)(2)](2+)) based on the new ligand 2 have been prepared and their photophysical and structural properties studied experimentally and theoretically and compared to the results for the previously reported [Ru(1)(2)](2+). The excited-state lifetime of the homoleptic Ru-II complex with the isopropylene-bridged ligand 2 was found to be 50 times shorter than that of the corresponding homoleptic Ru-II complex of ligand 1, containing a methylene bridge. A comparison of the ground-state geometries of the two homoleptic complexes shows that steric interactions involving the isopropylene bridges make the coordination to the central Ru-II ion less octahedral in [Ru(2)(2)](2+) than in [Ru(1)(2))(2+). Calculations indicate that the structural differences in these complexes influence their ligand field splittings as well as the relative stabilities of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((MLCT)-M-3) and metal-centered ((MC)-M-3) excited states. The large difference in measured excited-state lifetimes for the two homoleptic Ru-II complexes is attributed to a strong influence of steric interactions on the ligand field strength, which in turn affects the activation barriers for thermal conversion from (MLCT)-M-3 states to short-lived (MC)-M-3 states.

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Accelerator mass spectrometry group. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    Wolpher, Henriette
    Johansson, Olof
    Larsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    Kritikos, Mikael
    Eriksson, Lars
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Åkermark, Björn
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    A New Strategy for the Improvement of Photophysical Properties in Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: Synthesis and Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterization of Six Mononuclear Ruthenium(II) Bisterpyridine-Type Complexes2005In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 3215-3225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Afroze, Shammya
    et al.
    Univ Brunei Darussalam, Fac Integrated Technol, Jalan Tungku Link, BE-1410 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei; Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Yilmaz, Duygu
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reza, Md Sumon
    Univ Brunei Darussalam, Fac Integrated Technol, Jalan Tungku Link, BE-1410 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Henry, Paul F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry. Rutherford Appleton Lab, ISIS Pulsed Neutron & Muon Facil, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Cheok, Quentin
    Univ Brunei Darussalam, Fac Integrated Technol, Jalan Tungku Link, BE-1410 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Zaini, Juliana H.
    Univ Brunei Darussalam, Fac Integrated Technol, Jalan Tungku Link, BE-1410 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Azad, Abul K.
    Univ Brunei Darussalam, Fac Integrated Technol, Jalan Tungku Link, BE-1410 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Issakhov, Alibek
    Al Farabi Kazakh Natl Univ, Dept Math & Comp Modelling, Fac Mech & Math, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    Sadeghzadeh, Milad
    Univ Tehran, Dept Renewable Energy & Environm Engn, Tehran, Iran.
    Investigation of Structural and Thermal Evolution in Novel Layered Perovskite NdSrMn2O5+δ via Neutron Powder Diffraction and Thermogravimetric Analysis2020In: International Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1687-806X, E-ISSN 1687-8078, Vol. 2020, article id 6642187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron diffraction is one of the best methods for structural analysis of a complex, layered perovskite material with low symmetry by accurately detecting the oxygen positions through octahedral tilting. In this research, the crystal structure of NdSrMn2O5+δ was identified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) at room temperature (RT), which indicated the formation of a layered structure in orthorhombic symmetry in the Pmmm (no. 47) space group. Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data has confirmed the orthorhombic symmetry with unit cell parameters (a = 3.8367 (1) Å, b = 3.8643 (2) Å, and c = 7.7126 (1) Å), atomic positions, and oxygen occupancy. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the total weight loss of about 0.10% for 20–950°C temperature, which occurred mainly to create oxygen vacancies at high temperatures. Rietveld analyses concurred with the XRD and neutron data allowing correlation of occupancy factors of the oxygen sites.

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  • 14. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Bidirectional non-​innocence of the β-​diketonato ligand 9-​oxidophenalenone (L-​) in [Ru([9]​aneS3)​(L)​(dmso)​]​n, [9]​aneS3 = 1,​4,​7-​trithiacyclononane2014In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 43, p. 3939-3948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new compound [RuII([9]aneS3)(L)(dmso)]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) ([9]aneS3 = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane, HL =9-hydroxyphenalenone, dmso = dimethylsulfoxide) has been structurally characterised to reveal almostequal C–O bond distances of coordinated L−, suggesting a delocalised bonding situation of the β-diketonatoligand. The dmso ligand is coordinated via the sulfur atom in the native (1+) and reduced states(1 and 1−) as has been revealed by X-ray crystallography and by DFT calculations. Cyclic voltammetry of1+ exhibits two close-lying one-electron oxidation waves at 0.77 V and 0.94 V, and two similarly closeone-electron reduction processes at −1.43 V and −1.56 V versus SCE in CH2Cl2. The electronic structuresof 1n in the accessible redox states have been analysed via experiments (EPR and UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry)and by DFT/TD-DFT calculations, revealing the potential for bidirectional non-innocent behaviourof coordinated L•/−/•2−. Specifically, the studies establish significant involvement of L basedfrontier orbitals in both the oxidation and reduction processes: [([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuIII–L•]3+ (13+) ⇌ [([9]-aneS3)(dmso)RuIII–L−]2+/[([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuII–L•]2+ (12+) ⇌ [([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuII–L−]+ (1+) ⇌ [([9]aneS3)-(dmso)RuII–L•2−] (1) ⇌ [([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuII–L3−]−/[([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuI–L•2−]− (1−).

  • 15. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Correspondence of RuIIIRuII and RuIVRuIII Mixed Valent States in a SmallDinuclear Complex2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, p. 5667-5675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dirutheniumACHTUNGTRENUNG(III) compound[(m-oxa){RuACHTUNGTRENUNG(acac)2}2] [1, oxa2=oxamidato(2), acac=2,4-pentanedionato]exhibits an S=1 ground statewith antiferromagnetic spin-spin coupling(J=40 cm1). The molecularstructure in the crystal of 1·2C7H8 revealedan intramolecular metal–metaldistance of 5.433 and a notableasymmetry within the bridging ligand.Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry(EPR, UV/Vis/NIR) of thetwo-step reduction and of the two-stepoxidation (irreversible second step)produced monocation and monoanionintermediates (Kc=105.9) with broadNIR absorption bands (e ca.2000m1cm1) and maxima at 1800 (1)and 1500 nm (1+). TD-DFT calculationssupport a RuIIIRuII formulationfor 1 with a doublet ground state. The1+ ion (RuIVRuIII) was calculated withan S=3/2 ground state and the doubletstate higher in energy (DE=694.6 cm1). The Mulliken spin densitycalculations showed little participationof the ligand bridge in the spin accommodationfor all paramagnetic species[(m-oxa){RuACHTUNGTRENUNG(acac)2}2]n, n=+1, 0, 1,and, accordingly, the NIR absorptionswere identified as metal-to-metal (intervalence)charge transfers. Whereasonly one such NIR band was observedfor the RuIIIRuII (4d5/4d6) system 1,the RuIVRuIII (4d4/4d5) form 1+ exhibitedextended absorbance over the UV/Vis/NIR range.

  • 16. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Electronic structure and catalytic aspects of [Ru(tpm)​(bqdi)​(Cl​/H2O)​]​n, tpm = tris(1-​pyrazolyl)​methane and bqdi = o-​benzoquinonediimine2013In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 42, p. 3721-3734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diamagnetic complexes [Ru(tpm)(bqdi)(Cl)]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) (tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane, bqdi =o-benzoquinonediimine) and [Ru(tpm)(bqdi)(H2O)](ClO4)2 ([2](ClO4)2) have been synthesized. Thevalence state-sensitive bond distances of coordinated bqdi [C–N: 1.311(5)/1.322(5) Å in [1]ClO4;1.316(7)/1.314(7) Å in molecule A and 1.315(6)/1.299(7) Å in molecule B of [2](ClO4)2] imply its fullyoxidised quinonediimine (bqdi0) character. DFT calculations of 1+ confirm the {RuII–bqdi0} versus the antiferromagneticallycoupled {RuIII–bqdi˙−} alternative. The 1H NMR spectra of [1]ClO4 in different solventsshow variations in chemical shift positions of the NH (bqdi) and CH (tpm) proton resonances due to theirdifferent degrees of acidity in different solvents. In CH3CN/0.1 mol dm−3 Et4NClO4, [1]ClO4 undergoesone reversible RuII ⇌ RuIII oxidation and two reductions, the reversible first electron uptake being bqdibased (bqdi0/bqdi˙−). The electrogenerated paramagnetic species {RuIII–bqdi0}(12+) and {RuII–Q˙−}(1)exhibit RuIII-type (12+: <g> = 2.211/Δg = 0.580) and radical-type (1: g = 1.988) EPR signals, respectively, asis confirmed by calculated spin densities (Ru: 0.767 in 12+, bqdi: 0.857 in 1). The aqua complex [2](ClO4)2exhibits two one-electron oxidations at pH = 7, suggesting the formation of {RuIVvO} species. The electronicspectral features of 1n (n = charge associated with the different redox states of the chloro complex:2+, 1+, 0) in CH3CN and of 22+ in H2O have been interpreted based on the TD-DFT calculations. The applicationpotential of the aqua complex 22+ as a pre-catalyst towards the epoxidation of olefins has beenexplored in the presence of the sacrificial oxidant PhI(OAc)2 in CH2Cl2 at 298 K, showing the desiredselectivity with a wide variety of alkenes. DFT calculations based on styrene as the model substratepredict that the epoxidation reaction proceeds through a concerted transition state pathway.IntroductionThe well recognized mixing of ruthenium dπ orbitals andπ orbitals of redox non-innocent quinonoid moieties introducesseveral manifestations with respect to the valence distributionat the metal–quinonoid interface, as depicted in Scheme 1.1This makes the electronic structure of such complexes sensitiveto the molecular frameworks, and in many occasions theexperimental results

  • 17. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Electronic structures and selective fluoride sensingfeatures of Os(bpy)2(HL2−) and [{Os(bpy)2}2(μ-HL2−)]2+(H3L: 5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid)2014In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 43, p. 13932-13947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article deals with the newly designed mononuclear and asymmetric dinuclear osmium(II) complexesOsII(bpy)2(HL2−) (1) and [(bpy)2OsII(μ-HL2−)OsII(bpy)2](Cl)2 ([2](Cl)2)/[(bpy)2OsII(μ-HL2−)OsII(bpy)2](ClO4)2([2](ClO4)2), respectively, (H3L = 5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid and bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine). The identity of 1 has been established by its single crystal X-ray structure. The ligand (HL2−)-basedprimary oxidation process (E°298, 0.23 V versus SCE) along with the partial metal contribution (∼20%) in 1 hasbeen revealed by the ligand-dominated HOMO of 1 (HL2−: 88%, Os: 8%), as well as by the Mulliken spindensity distribution of 1+ (HL2−: 0.878, Os: 0.220). Accordingly, 1+ exhibits a free radical type EPR at 77 K witha partial metal-based anisotropic feature (g1 = 2.127, g2 = 2.096, g3 = 2.046; <g> = 2.089; Δg = 0.08).1H-NMR of the dinuclear 22+ in CDCl3 suggests an intimate mixture of two diastereomeric forms in a 1 : 1ratio. The DFT-supported predominantly Os(II)/Os(III)-based couples of asymmetric 22+ at 0.24 V and 0.50 Vversus SCE result in a comproportionation constant (Kc) value of 8.2 × 104. The class I mixed valent state of23+ (S = 1/2) has, however, been corroborated by the Mulliken spin density distribution of Os1: 0.887, Os2:0.005, HL2−: 0.117, as well as by the absence of a low-energy IVCT (intervalence charge transfer) band in thenear-IR region (up to 2000 nm). The appreciable spin accumulation on the bridge in 23+ or 24+ (S = 1, Os1:0.915, Os2: 0.811 and HL2−: 0.275) implies a mixed electronic structural form of [(bpy)2OsIII(μ-HL2−)-OsII(bpy)2]3+(major)/[(bpy)2OsII(μ-HL•−)OsII(bpy)2]3+(minor) or [(bpy)2OsIII(μ-HL2−)OsIII(bpy)2]4+(major)/[(bpy)2-OsIII(μ-HL•−)OsII(bpy)2]4+ (minor), respectively. The mixed valent {OsIII(μ-HL2−)OsII} state in 23+, however, fails toshow EPR at 77 K due to the rapid spin relaxation process. The DFT-supported bpy-based two reductions forboth 1+ and 22+ appear in the potential range of −1.5 V to −1.8 V versus SCE. The electronic transitions in 1nand 2n are assigned by the TD-DFT calculations. Furthermore, the potential anion sensing features of 1 and22+ via the involvement of the available N–H proton in the framework of coordinated HL2− have been evaluatedby different experimental investigations, in conjunction with the DFT calculations, using a wide variety ofanions such as F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, OAc−, SCN−, HSO4− and H2PO4−. This, however, establishes that both 1 and 22+are equally efficient in recognising the F− ion selectively, with log K values of 6.83 and 5.89, respectively.

  • 18. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Four-Center Oxidation State Combinations and Near-Infrared Absorption in[Ru(pap)(Q)2]n (Q=3,5-Di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine,pap=2-Phenylazopyridine)2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, p. 7384-7394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Probing valence and spin situations in selective ruthenium–iminoquinonoidframeworks. An experimental and DFT analysis2011In: Inorganica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0020-1693, E-ISSN 1873-3255, Vol. 374, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ruthenium–iminoquinone complexes, [Ru(tpm)(Cl)(Q)]+ [tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane, Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine, where aryl = C6H5, [1]+; m-(OCH3)2C6H3, [2]+;m-(Cl)2C6H3, [3]+] have been synthesized. The sensitive bond distances of ‘‘Q’’ in [1](ClO4) and[2](ClO4), C–O: 1.294(8), 1.281(2) Å; C–N: 1.352(8), 1.335(2) Å; and C–C(meta): 1.366(10)/1.367(9) Å,1.364(2)/1.353(2) Å, respectively, and other analytical as well as theoretical (DFT) events suggest thevalence configuration of [RuIII(tpm)(Cl)(QSq)]+ for [1]+–[3]+. The paramagnetic [1]+–[3]+ show sharp1H NMR spectra with strikingly small J of 1.8–3.0 Hz. The DFT calculations on [1]+ predict that the triplet(S = 1) state exists above (1004 cm1) the singlet (S = 0) ground state. [1]+ exhibits l = 2.2 BM at 300 Kwhich diminishes to 0.3 BM near 2 K due to the steady decrease in the ratio of triplet to singlet populationwith the lowering of temperature. [1]+–[3]+ exhibit one oxidation and two successive reductions each inCH3CN. Experimental and DFT analyses collectively establish the valence configurations at thenon-innocent {Ru–Q} interface along the redox chain as [(tpm)(Cl)RuIII(QQo)]2+ ([1]2+–[3]2+)?[(tpm)(Cl)RuIII(QSq)]+ ([1]+–[3]+)?[(tpm)(Cl)RuII(QSq)]M[(tpm)(Cl)RuIII(QCat)] (1–3)?[(tpm)(Cl)-RuII(QCat)] ([1]–[3]). The spectral features of [1]n–[3]n (n = +2, +1, 0) have been addressed based onthe TD-DFT calculations on [1]n.

  • 20. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Sensitivity of a Strained C−C Single Bond to Charge Transfer: RedoxActivity in Mononuclear and Dinuclear Ruthenium Complexes ofBis(arylimino)acenaphthene (BIAN) Ligands2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, p. 7389-7403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new compounds [Ru(acac)2(BIAN)], BIAN = bis(arylimino)-acenaphthene (aryl = Ph (1a), 4-MeC6H4 (2a), 4-OMeC6H4 (3a), 4-ClC6H4 (4a), 4-NO2C6H4 (5a)), were synthesized and structurally, electrochemically, spectroscopically,and computationally characterized. The α-diimine sections of the compoundsexhibit intrachelate ring bond lengths 1.304 Å < d(CN) < 1.334 and 1.425 Å < d(CC)< 1.449 Å, which indicate considerable metal-to-ligand charge transfer in the groundstate, approaching a RuIII(BIAN•−) oxidation state formulation. The particularstructural sensitivity of the strained peri-connecting C−C bond in the BIAN ligandstoward metal-to-ligand charge transfer is discussed. Oxidation of [Ru(acac)2(BIAN)]produces electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV−vis−NIR (NIR = near infrared) spectroelectrochemically detectableRuIII species, while the reduction yields predominantly BIAN-based spin, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT)spin-density calculations. Variation of the substituents from CH3 to NO2 has little effect on the spin distribution but affects theabsorption spectra. The dinuclear compounds {(μ-tppz)[Ru(Cl)(BIAN)]2}(ClO4)2, tppz = 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine;aryl (BIAN) = Ph ([1b](ClO4)2), 4-MeC6H4 ([2b](ClO4)2), 4-OMeC6H4 ([3b](ClO4)2), 4-ClC6H4 ([4b](ClO4)2), were alsoobtained and investigated. The structure determination of [2b](ClO4)2 and [3b](ClO4)2 reveals trans configuration of thechloride ligands and unreduced BIAN ligands. The DFT and spectroelectrochemical results (UV−vis−NIR, EPR) indicateoxidation to a weakly coupled RuIIIRuII mixed-valent species but reduction to a tppz-centered radical state. The effect of the πelectron-accepting BIAN ancillary ligands is to diminish the metal−metal interaction due to competition with the acceptor bridgetppz.

  • 21. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Sensitivity of the Valence Structure in Diruthenium Complexes As aFunction of Terminal and Bridging Ligands2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, p. 6082-6093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compounds [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L2−)RuIII(acac)2] (rac, 1, and meso, 1′) and[(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L•−)RuII(bpy)2](ClO4)3 (meso, [2](ClO4)3) have been structurally, magnetically,spectroelectrochemically, and computationally characterized (acac− = acetylacetonate, bpy= 2,2′-bipyridine, and H4L = 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone). The N,O;N′,O′-coordinated μ-H2Ln− forms two β-ketiminato-type chelate rings, and 1 or 1′ are connected via NH···Ohydrogen bridges in the crystals. 1 exhibits a complex magnetic behavior, while [2](ClO4)3 is aradical species with mixed ligand/metal-based spin. The combination of redox noninnocentbridge (H2L0 → → → →H2L4−) and {(acac)2RuII} → →{(acac)2RuIV} or {(bpy)2RuII} →{(bpy)2RuIII} in 1/1′ or 2 generates alternatives regarding the oxidation state formulations for the accessible redox states (1n and2n), which have been assessed by UV−vis−NIR, EPR, and DFT/TD-DFT calculations. The experimental and theoretical studiessuggest variable mixing of the frontier orbitals of the metals and the bridge, leading to the following most appropriate oxidationstate combinations: [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L•−)RuIII(acac)2]+ (1+) → [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L2−)RuIII(acac)2] (1) → [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L•3−)RuIII(acac)2]−/[(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L2−)RuII(acac)2]− (1−) → [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L4−)RuIII(acac)2]2−/[(acac)2RuII(μ-H2L2−)RuII(acac)2]2− (12−) and [(bpy)2RuIII(μ-H2L•−)RuII(bpy)2]4+ (24+) → [(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L•−)RuII(bpy)2]3+/[(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L2−)RuIII(bpy)2]3+ (23+) → [(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L2−)RuII(bpy)2]2+ (22+). The favoring of RuIII by σ-donatingacac− and of RuII by the π-accepting bpy coligands shifts the conceivable valence alternatives accordingly. Similarly, theintroduction of the NH donor function in H2Ln as compared to O causes a cathodic shift of redox potentials with correspondingconsequences for the valence structure.

  • 22. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, Structures, and Oxidation StateDistributions in [(corrolato)FeIII(NO)]n (n = 0, +1, −1) Complexes2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, p. 1417-1429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two novel trans-A2B-corroles and three[(corrolato){FeNO}6] complexes have been prepared andcharacterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In thenative state, all these [(corrolato){FeNO}6] species arediamagnetic and display “normal” chemical shifts in the 1HNMR spectra. For two of the structurally characterized[(corrolato){FeNO}6] derivatives, the Fe−N−O bond anglesare 175.0(4)° and 171.70(3)° (DFT: 179.94°), respectively,and are designated as linear nitrosyls. The Fe−N (NO) bonddistances are 1.656(4) Å and 1.650(3) Å (DFT: 1.597 Å),which point toward a significant FeIII → NO back bonding.The NO bond lengths are 1.159(5) Å and 1.162(3) Å (DFT:1.162 Å) and depict their elongated character. These structural data are typical for low-spin Fe(III). Electrochemicalmeasurements show the presence of a one-electron oxidation and a one-electron reduction process for all the complexes. Theone-electron oxidized species of a representative [(corrolato){FeNO}6] complex exhibits ligand to ligand charge transfer(LLCT) transitions (cor(π) → cor(π*)) at 399 and 637 nm, and the one-electron reduced species shows metal to ligand chargetransfer (MLCT) transition (Fe(dπ) → cor(π*)) in the UV region at 330 nm. The shift of the νNO stretching frequency of arepresentative [(corrolato){FeNO}6] complex on one-electron oxidation occurs from 1782 cm−1 to 1820 cm−1, whichcorresponds to 38 cm−1, and on one-electron reduction occurs from 1782 cm−1 to 1605 cm−1, which corresponds to 177 cm−1.The X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of one-electron oxidation at 295 K in CH2Cl2/0.1 M Bu4NPF6displays an isotropic signal centered at g = 2.005 with a peak-to-peak separation of about 15 G. The in situ generated oneelectronreduced species in CH2Cl2/0.1 M Bu4NPF6 at 295 K shows an isotropic signal centered at g = 2.029. The 99%contribution of corrole to the HOMO of native species indicates that oxidation occurs from the corrole moiety. The results of theelectrochemical and spectroelectrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations clearly display a preferenceof the {FeNO}6 unit to get reduced during the reduction step and the corrolato unit to get oxidized during the anodic process.Comparisons are presented with the structural, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical data of related compounds reportedin the literature, with a particular focus on the interpretation of the EPR spectrum of the one-electron oxidized form.

  • 23.
    Ahmed, Taha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nanostructured ZnO and metal chalcogenide films for solar photocatalysis2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand for clean energy and safe water resources has driven the development of efficient and sustainable technologies. Among these technologies, photocatalysis using semiconducting materials has emerged as a promising solution for both solar hydrogen generation and water purification. Low-dimensional ZnO, including nanorods, nanoparticles, and quantum confined particles (so called quantum dots), has demonstrated excellent photocatalytic properties due to their large surface area, high electron mobility, and tunable band gap.

    The work in this thesis aims to investigate the potential of low-dimensional ZnO alone and in combination with CdS and Fe2O3 for solar hydrogen generation and photocatalytic water purification. The thesis includes a comprehensive analysis of the synthesis, characterization, and optimization of low-dimensional ZnO-based photocatalyst systems for solar hydrogen generation and photocatalytic water purification. Additionally, the thesis will evaluate the performance of the ZnO-based photocatalysts under different experimental conditions, either as photoelectrodes or as distributed particle systems for water purification. The work includes detailed size control of ZnO by itself in dimensions below 10 nm using a hydrothermal method, to provide an increased total surface area and introduce quantum confinement effects that increase the band gap to enable degradation of chemical bonds in a model pollutant in a distributed system for water purification. The work also includes a relatively detailed study of the phonon–phonon and electron–phonon coupling as a function of dimension from 10 nm to 150 nm for ZnO using non-resonant and resonant Raman spectroscopy. Ultimately, the thesis aims to provide insight into the potential of low-dimensional ZnO alone and in combination with other inorganic materials for solar hydrogen generation and photocatalytic water purification and pave the way for the development of efficient and sustainable technologies for clean energy and safe water resources.

    List of papers
    1. A facile approach to ZnO/CdS nanoarrays and their photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A facile approach to ZnO/CdS nanoarrays and their photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties
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    2013 (English)In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 138, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods were successfully deposited on Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) glass by electrochemical deposition, during which initial pulse potential proves important for the fast nucleation and even distribution of ZnO. CdS nanoparticles were coated outside the as-prepared ZnO nanorods by chemical-bath deposition forming ZnO/CdS nanoarrays. The nanoarrays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemistry. The short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of some ZnO/CdS sample showed over 3.3 mA/cm(2) under solar-simulated illumination. The ZnO/CdS nanoarrays showed promising photocatalytic activity with respect to the degradation of Eriochrome Black T (EBT). The relatively high photoelectrochemical properties and photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation can be ascribed to the enhanced visible light harvest from CdS and charge separation by the coupling of the semiconductors. The combination of electrodeposition and chemical-bath deposition can provide a simple and facile approach to the fabrication of one-dimensional nanocomposites. 

    Keywords
    ZnO, CdS, Nanoarray, Photocatalysis, Photoelectrochemistry
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-202887 (URN)10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.02.042 (DOI)000319087900021 ()
    Note

    De två (2) första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2013-07-01 Created: 2013-07-01 Last updated: 2023-10-30
    2. Preparation and characterisation of ZnO/Fe2O3 core–shell nanorods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation and characterisation of ZnO/Fe2O3 core–shell nanorods
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO is a widely used semiconductor photocatalyst. However, the bandgap of ZnO is too large to utilise visible light or solar energy. Therefore, ZnO can couple with a narrow band gap semiconductor that is a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst. ZnO can help with charge seperation through attracting electrons or holes from the other semiconductor. In this work, ZnO nanorods were electrodeposited on FTO glass, and then coated with ultrathin layer of Fe2O3 via ALD.

    SEM, TEM, XPS, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies were used to characterise the prepared samples. Raman shows that ALD-coated Fe2O3 is hematite (α-Fe2O3). The prepared ZnO/Fe2O3 shows photocatalytic activity of EBT degradation under visible light illumination. The synthetic strategy can also beextended to prepare other heterostructured photocatalysts.

    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-515253 (URN)
    Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-30
    3. Optical Quantum Confinement in Ultrasmall ZnO and the Effect of Size on Their Photocatalytic Activity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical Quantum Confinement in Ultrasmall ZnO and the Effect of Size on Their Photocatalytic Activity
    2020 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 6395-6404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide is a well-known metal oxide semiconductor with a wide direct band gap that offers a promising alternative to titanium oxide in photocatalytic applications. ZnO is studied here as quantum dots (QDs) in colloidal suspensions, where ultrasmall nanoparticles of ZnO show optical quantum confinement with a band gap opening for particles below 9 nm in diameter from the shift of the band edge energies. The optical properties of growing ZnO QDs are determined with Tauc analysis, and a system of QDs for the treatment and degradation of distributed threats is analyzed using an organic probe molecule, methylene blue, whose UV/vis spectrum is analyzed in some detail. The effect of optical properties of the QDs and the kinetics of dye degradation are quantified for low-dimensional ZnO materials in the range of 3-8 nm and show a substantial increase in photocatalytic activity compared to larger ZnO particles. This is attributed to a combined effect from the increased surface area as well as a quantum confinement effect that goes beyond the increased surface area. The results show a significantly higher photocatalytic activity for the QDs between 3 and 6 nm with a complete decolorization of the organic probe molecule, while QDs from 6 nm and upward in diameter show signs of competing reduction reactions. Our study shows that ultrasmall ZnO particles have a reactivity beyond that which is expected because of their increased surface area and also demonstrates size-dependent reaction pathways, which introduces the possibility for size-selective catalysis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2020
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Theoretical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-410900 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b11229 (DOI)000526396000057 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00908
    Available from: 2020-05-25 Created: 2020-05-25 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Phonon–phonon and electron–phonon coupling in nano-dimensional ZnO
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonon–phonon and electron–phonon coupling in nano-dimensional ZnO
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal losses through vibrational coupling are critical bottlenecks limiting several materials classes from reaching their full potential. Altering the phonon–phonon and electron–phonon coupling by controlled suppression of vibrational degrees of freedom through low-dimensionality are promising but still largely unexplored approaches. Here we report a detailed study of the first- and second-order Raman processes as a function of size for low-dimensional ZnO. Wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles were synthesised into 3D frameworks of ZnO crystallites, with tailored crystallite diameters from 10 nm to 150 nm and characterised by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and non-resonant and resonant Raman spectroscopy.

    We present a short derivation of how resonance Raman and the relation between the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons can be utilised to quantify the electron–phonon coupling, its merits, and limitations. Theoretical Raman response using density functional theory is corroborating the experimental data in assigning first- and second-order Raman modes. The Lyddane-Sachs-Teller equation was applied to the measured LO–TO split and revealed no change in the ratio between the static and high-frequency dielectric constant with changing ZnO dimension from 10 nm to 150 nm. The second-order Raman revealed a phonon–phonon coupling that generally increased with particle size and markedly so for differential modes. Resonance Raman showed the fundamental LO mode and the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th overtones. The intensity relation between the fundamental LO mode and its overtones enabled the extraction of the change in electron–phonon coupling via the Huang-Rhys parameter as a function of particle size, which showed an increase with particle size.

    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-515256 (URN)
    Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-30
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  • 24.
    Ahmed, Taha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Fondell, Mattis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Donzel-Gargand, Olivier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Solar Cell Technology.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Zhu, Jiefang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Preparation and characterisation of ZnO/Fe2O3 core–shell nanorodsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO is a widely used semiconductor photocatalyst. However, the bandgap of ZnO is too large to utilise visible light or solar energy. Therefore, ZnO can couple with a narrow band gap semiconductor that is a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst. ZnO can help with charge seperation through attracting electrons or holes from the other semiconductor. In this work, ZnO nanorods were electrodeposited on FTO glass, and then coated with ultrathin layer of Fe2O3 via ALD.

    SEM, TEM, XPS, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies were used to characterise the prepared samples. Raman shows that ALD-coated Fe2O3 is hematite (α-Fe2O3). The prepared ZnO/Fe2O3 shows photocatalytic activity of EBT degradation under visible light illumination. The synthetic strategy can also beextended to prepare other heterostructured photocatalysts.

  • 25.
    Aktekin, Burak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The Electrochemistry of LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-δ in Li-ion Batteries: Structure, Side-reactions and Cross-talk2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Li-ion batteries in portable electronic products is today widespread and on-going research is extensively dedicated to improve their performance and energy density for use in electric vehicles. The largest contribution to the overall cell weight comes from the positive electrode material, and improvements regarding this component thereby render a high potential for the development of these types of batteries. A promising candidate is LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO), which offers both high power capability and energy density. However, the instability of conventional electrolytes at the high operating potential (~4.7 V vs. Li+/Li) associated with this electrode material currently prevents its use in commercial applications.

    This thesis work aims to investigate practical approaches which have the potential of overcoming issues related to fast degradation of LNMO-based batteries. This, in turn, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of degradation mechanisms. First, the effect of a well-known electrolyte additive, fluoroethylene carbonate is investigated in LNMO-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) cells with a focus on the positive electrode. Relatively poor cycling performance is found with 5 wt% additive while 1 wt% additive does not show a significant difference as compared to additive-free electrolytes. Second, a more fundamental study is performed to understand the effect of capacity fading mechanisms contributing to overall cell failure in high-voltage based full-cells. Electrochemical characterization of LNMO-LTO cells in different configurations show how important the electrode interactions (cross-talk) can be for the overall cell behaviour. Unexpectedly fast capacity fading at elevated temperatures is found to originate from a high sensitivity of LTO to cross-talk.

    Third, in situ studies of LNMO are conducted with neutron diffraction and electron microscopy. These show that the oxygen release is not directly related to cation disordering. Moreover, microstructural changes upon heating are observed. These findings suggest new sample preparation strategies, which allow the control of cation disorder without oxygen loss. Following this guidance, ordered and disordered samples with the same oxygen content are prepared. The negative effect of ordering on electrochemical performance is investigated and changes in bulk electronic structure following cycling are found in ordered samples, accompanied by thick surface films on surface and rock-salt phase domains near surface.

    List of papers
    1. The Effect of the Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of the Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells
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    2017 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 4, p. A942-A948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the electrolyte additive fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) for Li-ion batteries has been widely discussed in literature in recent years. Here, the additive is studied for the high-voltage cathode LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) coupled to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) to specifically study its effect on the cathode side. Electrochemical performance of full cells prepared by using a standard electrolyte (LP40) with different concentrations of FEC (0, 1 and 5 wt%) were compared and the surface of cycled positive electrodes were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that addition of FEC is generally of limited use for this battery system. Addition of 5 wt% FEC results in relatively poor cycling performance, while the cells with 1 wt% FEC showed similar behavior compared to reference cells prepared without FEC. SEM and XPS analysis did not indicate the formation of thick surface layers on the LNMO cathode, however, an increase in layer thickness with increased FEC content in the electrolyte could be observed. XPS analysis on LTO electrodes showed that the electrode interactions between positive and negative electrodes occurred as Mn and Ni were detected on the surface of LTO already after 1 cycle. (C) The Author(s) 2017. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, 2017
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323509 (URN)10.1149/2.0231706jes (DOI)000400958600056 ()
    Available from: 2017-06-14 Created: 2017-06-14 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Understanding the Capacity Loss in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the Capacity Loss in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures
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    2018 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 21, p. 11234-11248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, (LNMO) is an attractive positive electrode because of its operating voltage around 4.7 V (vs Li/Li+) and high power capability. However, problems including electrolyte decomposition at high voltage and transition metal dissolution, especially at elevated temperatures, have limited its potential use in practical full cells. In this paper, a fundamental study for LNMO parallel to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) full cells has been performed to understand the effect of different capacity fading mechanisms contributing to overall cell failure. Electrochemical characterization of cells in different configurations (regular full cells, back-to-back pseudo-full cells, and 3-electrode full cells) combined with an intermittent current interruption technique have been performed. Capacity fade in the full cell configuration was mainly due to progressively limited lithiation of electrodes caused by a more severe degree of parasitic reactions at the LTO electrode, while the contributions from active mass loss from LNMO or increases in internal cell resistance were minor. A comparison of cell formats constructed with and without the possibility of cross-talk indicates that the parasitic reactions on LTO occur because of the transfer of reaction products from the LNMO side. The efficiency of LTO is more sensitive to temperature, causing a dramatic increase in the fading rate at 55 degrees C. These observations show how important the electrode interactions (cross-talk) can be for the overall cell behavior. Additionally, internal resistance measurements showed that the positive electrode was mainly responsible for the increase of resistance over cycling, especially at 55 degrees C. Surface characterization showed that LNMO surface layers were relatively thin when compared with the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on LTO. The SEI on LTO does not contribute significantly to overall internal resistance even though these films are relatively thick. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed that the Mn and Ni observed on the anode were not in the metallic state; the presence of elemental metals in the SEI is therefore not implicated in the observed fading mechanism through a simple reduction process of migrated metal cations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357732 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b02204 (DOI)000434236700007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 42031-1
    Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO): In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li Ion Full Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO): In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li Ion Full Cells
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    2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 3323-3335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) as the positive electrode are prone to fast capacity fading, especially when operated in full cells and at elevated temperatures. The crystal structure of LNMO can adopt a P4(3)32 (cation-ordered) or Fd (3) over barm (disordered) arrangement, and the fading rate of cells is usually mitigated when samples possess the latter structure. However, synthesis conditions leading to disordering also lead to oxygen deficiencies and rock-salt impurities and as a result generate Mn3+. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was performed on disordered and slightly Mn-rich LNMO samples to follow cation ordering-disordering transformations during heating and cooling. The study shows for the first time that there is not a direct connection between oxygen release and cation disordering, as cation disordering is observed to start prior to oxygen release when the samples are heated in a pure oxygen atmosphere. This result demonstrates that it is possible to tune disordering in LNMO without inducing oxygen deficiencies or forming the rock-salt impurity phase. In the second part of the study, electrochemical testing of samples with different degrees of ordering and oxygen content has been performed in LNMO vertical bar vertical bar LTO (Li4Ti5O12) full cells. The disordered sample exhibits better performance, as has been reported in other studies; however, we observe that all cells behave similarly during the initial period of cycling even when discharged at a 10 C rate, while differences arise only after a period of cycling. Additionally, the differences in fading rate were observed to be time-dependent rather than dependent on the number of cycles. This performance degradation is believed to be related to instabilities in LNMO at higher voltages, that is, in its lower lithiation states. Therefore, it is suggested that future studies should target the individual effects of ordering and oxygen content. It is also suggested that more emphasis during electrochemical testing should be placed on the stability of samples in their delithiated state.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
    Keywords
    high-voltage spinel, neutron diffraction, LNMO, cation ordering, oxygen deficiency
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387975 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.8b02217 (DOI)000469885300040 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 42758-1Swedish Energy Agency, 39043-1StandUp
    Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2020-12-15Bibliographically approved
    4. The role of anionic processes in Li1xNi0.44Mn1.56O4 studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of anionic processes in Li1xNi0.44Mn1.56O4 studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
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    2023 (English)In: Energy Advances, E-ISSN 2753-1457, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 375-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the first lithiation cycle of the positive electrode material Li1−xNi0.44Mn1.56O4 (LNMO) using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the transition metal L- and oxygen K-edges. Our XAS results show that charge compensation in LNMO takes place mostly within the Ni–O bonds, which is consistent with previous similar studies. O K- and Ni L-RIXS reveals how the holes that are created by removal of electrons during delithiation are distributed between the Ni- and O-ions. Non-trivial anionic activity is revealed by O K-RIXS features such as the appearance of low-energy intra-band excitations and re-hybridization with Ni 3d-states forming a new intense band close to the top of the oxygen valence band. At the same time, Ni L-RIXS compares more favorably with covalently than with ionically bonded Ni-oxide based compounds. Thus, a picture emerges where delithiation leads to a gradual transition of the ground state of LNMO from Ni 3d8 to one with non-negligible amounts of ligand holes, i.e. Ni 3d8−x 2−x (0 < x < 2, where stands for a ligand hole) instead of a highly ionic state e.g. Ni 3d6. Our observations highlight the importance of studying the anionic character of redox processes in lithium ion batteries.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    RSC Publishing, 2023
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389847 (URN)10.1039/d2ya00321j (DOI)001105875900001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2014-6019Swedish Research Council, 2016-03545Swedish Research Council, 2018-06465StandUpSwedish Energy Agency, 40495-1Swedish Energy Agency, 45518-1Swedish Energy Agency, 50745-1
    Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2024-06-17Bibliographically approved
    5. How Mn/Ni ordering controls electrochemical performance in high-voltage spinel LiNi0.44Mn1.56O4 (LNMO) with fixed oxygen content
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Mn/Ni ordering controls electrochemical performance in high-voltage spinel LiNi0.44Mn1.56O4 (LNMO) with fixed oxygen content
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    High voltage spinel, LNMO, cation ordering, oxygen deficiency, rock-salt, anionic redox activity
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389799 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-28 Created: 2019-07-28 Last updated: 2019-08-13
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  • 26. Alami, J.
    et al.
    Eklund, P.
    Emmerlich, J.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Högberg, H.
    Hultman, L.
    Helmersson, U.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering of Ti–Si–C thin films from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2006In: Thin Solids Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 1731-1736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have deposited Ti–Si–C thin films using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) from a Ti3SiC2 compound target. The as-deposited films were composite materials with TiC as the main crystalline constituent. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that they also contained amorphous SiC, and for films deposited on inclined substrates, crystalline Ti5Si3Cx. The film morphology was dense and flat, while films deposited with direct-current magnetron sputtering under comparable conditions were rough and porous. We show that, due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered species obtained in HIPIMS, the film composition, in particular the C content, depends on substrate inclination angle and Ar process pressure.

  • 27. Alfredsson, M
    et al.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Hartree-Fock and DFT calculations of quadrupole coupling constants in water clusters and ice1999In: CHEMICAL PHYSICS, ISSN 0301-0104, Vol. 242, no 2, p. 161-175Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic ab initio calculations of the O-17 and H-2 quadrupole coupling constants (QCC) and their shifts have been performed for ice VIII and ice IX. Cluster calculations were done for smaller water clusters and chains. The ice Vm crystal structure was op

  • 28.
    Alfredsson, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    OH frequency calculations for the hydroxylated MgO(001) surface2002In: Molecular Simulation, Vol. 28, p. 663-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Alfredsson, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Dovesi, R
    Periodic ab initio calculations of the spontaneous polarisation in ferroelectric NaNO2(s).2002In: Phys. Chem. Chem.Phys., p. 4204-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Alfredsson, Maria
    et al.
    Ojamae, Lars
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    A comparison of Hartree-Fock, MP2, and DFT results for the HCN dimer and crystal1996In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 767-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of hydrogen-bond related quantities-geometries, interaction energies, dipole moments, dipole moment derivatives, and harmonic vibrational frequencies-were calculated at the Hartree-Fock, MP2, and different DFT levels for the HCN dimer and the pe

  • 31.
    Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao
    et al.
    Jeju Natl Univ, Fac Appl Energy Syst, Nanomat & Syst Lab, Major Mechatron Engn, Jeju 63243, South Korea.;Luxembourg Inst Sci & Technol, Mat Res & Technol Dept, 41 Rue Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg.;Interinst Res Grp Uni Lu LIST Ferro Mat, 41 Rue Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg..
    Raj, Nirmal Prashanth Maria Joseph
    Jeju Natl Univ, Fac Appl Energy Syst, Nanomat & Syst Lab, Major Mechatron Engn, Jeju 63243, South Korea..
    Khandelwal, Gaurav
    Jeju Natl Univ, Fac Appl Energy Syst, Nanomat & Syst Lab, Major Mechatron Engn, Jeju 63243, South Korea..
    Panda, Pritam Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Mishra, Yogendra Kumar
    Univ Southern Denmark, Mads Clausen Inst, NanoSYD, Als 2, DK-6400 Sonderborg, Denmark..
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Dept Phys, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab, India..
    Kim, Sang-Jae
    Jeju Natl Univ, Fac Appl Energy Syst, Nanomat & Syst Lab, Major Mechatron Engn, Jeju 63243, South Korea.;Jeju Natl Univ, Fac Appl Energy Syst, Nanomat & Syst Lab, Major Mech Engn, Jeju 63243, South Korea.;Jeju Natl Univ, Res Inst Energy New Ind, Jeju 63243, South Korea..
    Crystallinity modulation originates ferroelectricity like nature in piezoelectric selenium2022In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 95, article id 107008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern room temperature ferroelectrics/piezoelectrics significantly impact advanced nanoelectronics than conventional chemical compounds. Changes in crystallinity modulation, long-range order of atoms in metalloids permits the design of novel materials. The ferroelectric like nature of a single element (selenium, Se) is demonstrated via in-plane (E perpendicular to(ar) to the Se helical chains in micro-rod (MR)) and out-of-plane (E parallel to(el) to the Se helical chains in MR) polarization. Atomic electron microscopy shows large stacks of covalently bound Se atoms in a c-axis orientation for tip bias voltage-dependent switchable domains with a 180 degrees phase and butterfly displacement curves. The single crystalline Se MR has a high in-plane piezoelectric coefficient of 30 pm/V relative to polycrystalline samples due to larger grains, crystal imperfections in MR, and tuned helical chains. The energy conversion of a single Se-MR demonstrated via d(13), d(12) (or d(15)) piezoelectric modes.

  • 32.
    Alm, Oscar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Landström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Heszler, Peter
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Tungsten oxide nanoparticles synthesised by laser assisted homogeneous gas-phase nucleation2005In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 247, no 1-4, p. 262-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were generated by excimer (ArF) laser assisted chemical vapor deposition from WF6/H2/O2/Ar gas mixtures. The deposited particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The deposition rate as a function of the partial pressures of the reactants and of the laser fluence was measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The mean diameter of the deposited tungsten oxide particles varied with the experimental parameters and was typically 23 nm. Particles with a higher degree of crystallinity were observed at a laser fluence exceeding 130 mJ/cm2, and X-ray amorphous particles were obtained below 110 mJ/cm2. The amorphous tungsten oxide had a stoichiometry ranging from WO2.7 to WO3. Deposits were formed only when hydrogen was present in the gas mixture.

  • 33.
    Alvi, Muhammad Rouf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
    Jahn, Burkhard O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Tibbelin, Julius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Baumgartner, Judith
    Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Technische Universität Graz, Stremayrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Gómez, Cesar Pay
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Ottosson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
    Highly Efficient and Convenient Acid Catalyzed Hypersilyl Protection of Alcohols and Thiols by Tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl-N,N-dimethylmethaneamide2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl-N,N-dimethylmethaneamide, herein named hypersilylamide, is a convenient and efficient source of the hypersilyl group in the first widely applicable acid catalyzed protocol for silyl group protection of primary, secondary, tertiary alkyl as well as aryl alcohols and thiols in high yields. The sole by-product is N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and a range of solvents can be used, including DMF. A high selectivity in the protection of diols can be achieved, also for diols with very small differences in the steric demands at the two hydroxyl groups. Moreover, in the protection of equivalent alcohol and thiol sites the protection of the alcohol is faster, allowing for selective protection in high yields. Quantum chemical calculations at the M062X hybrid meta density functional theory level give insights on the mechanism for the catalytic process. Finally, the hypersilyl group is easily removed from all protected alcohols and thiols examined herein by irradiation at 254 nm.

  • 34.
    Amft, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Thermally Excited Vibrations in Copper, Silver, and Gold Trimers and Enhanced Binding of COManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Amira, Sami
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Classical and Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polyvalent Metal Ions in Water2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aqueous solvation of metal ions is one of the long-standing and complex problems in chemistry, with implications for and applications in a broad range of biochemical and electrochemical systems, where water is the all-pervasive medium.

    This thesis describes computer simulations of Al3+(aq), Fe2+(aq), Fe3+(aq) and Cu2+(aq). Various aspects of the solvation of these polyvalent metal ions in water are addressed, at different levels of theory, using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics, classical molecular dynamics and quantum-mechanical cluster calculations. Polyvalent metal ions are particularly interesting because of their large influence on the solvent structure, dynamics and thermodynamics, as well as on the properties of the individual solvent molecules. Polyvalent metal ions in aqueous solution also constitute a challenging subject for computer simulations since a sophisticated interaction model is needed to incorporate the large many-body effects.

    All the ion-water coordination figures in this thesis are octahedral, except in the Cu2+(aq) solution, where the ion is penta-coordinated with four equatorial neighbours in a plane and one axial neighbour located ~0.45 Å further out from the ion. The equatorial ion-water bonds have covalent character, while the axial water molecule is only electrostatically bound. For all the ions, the OD stretching frequencies of the first-shell water molecules are much more downshifted than in liquid water. In the case of Cu2+(aq), however, only the OD frequencies of the equatorial water molecules are downshifted with respect to bulk water whereas the OD frequencies of the axial water molecule are slightly upshifted.

    Various limitations of the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations have been explored and compared, such as finite system-size effects and shortcomings in the electronic structure calculations. The Car-Parrinello simulations are found to give reasonable descriptions of the polyvalent metal ions in aqueous solution.

    List of papers
    1. Derivation and evaluation of a flexible SPC model for liquid water
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Derivation and evaluation of a flexible SPC model for liquid water
    2004 (English)In: Chemical Physics, ISSN 0301-0104, E-ISSN 1873-4421, Vol. 303, no 3, p. 372-334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a new flexible water model are presented. The potential function is based on the simple point charge (SPC) model combined with an accurate experimental quartic intramolecular potential (CCL). This potential not only reproduces the key structural, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of liquid water, but also generates the correct values for both the absolute O–H vibrational frequency and the gas-to-liquid frequency shift. Thus, the model yields a value of ca. 3420 cm−1 for the peak maximum of the anharmonic OH stretching band for liquid water (experiment 3400 cm−1) and a corresponding gas-to-liquid downshift of −300 cm−1 (experiment −310 cm−1). The paper also emphasizes the importance of parameterizing correctly both the harmonic and anharmonic force constants in the gas-phase when developing flexible water models to be used in the liquid state.

    Keywords
    Molecular dynamics, Liquid water, SPC, Flexible
    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92887 (URN)10.1016/j.chemphys.2004.04.024 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-07 Created: 2005-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Molecular Dynamics simulation of Fe2+(aq) and Fe3+(aq)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular Dynamics simulation of Fe2+(aq) and Fe3+(aq)
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 496-502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations of single-ion Fe2+(aq) and Fe3+(aq) solutions have been performed with two rigid-water models (SPC and SPC/E) and a newly constructed SPC-based flexible-water model (SPC+CCL). The SPC+CCL water model in combination with effective Fe2+ and Fe3+ ion-water potentials manages to reproduce many experimental structural and dynamical properties of the solutions. Special attention is given to the large ion-induced frequency shifts of the OH stretching bands, which are also well reproduced by the SPC+CCL model.

    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92888 (URN)10.1021/jp034855k (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-07 Created: 2005-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics simulation of Fe3+(aq)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics simulation of Fe3+(aq)
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 109, no 29, p. 14235-14242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The optimized geometry and energetic properties of Fe(D2O)n3+ clusters, with n = 4 and 6, have been studied with density-functional theory calculations and the BLYP functional, and the hydration of a single Fe3+ ion in a periodic box with 32 water molecules at room temperature has been studied with Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and the same functional. We have compared the results from the CPMD simulation with classical MD simulations, using a flexible SPC-based water model and the same number of water molecules, to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two MD methods. The classical MD simulations and the CPMD simulations both give Fe-water distances in good agreement with experiment, but for the intramolecular vibrations, the classical MD yields considerably better absolute frequencies and ion-induced frequency shifts. On the other hand, the CPMD method performs considerably better than the classical MD in describing the intramolecular geometry of the water molecule in the first hydration shell and the average first shell···second shell hydrogen-bond distance. Differences between the two methods are also found with respect to the second-shell water orientations. The effect of the small box size (32 vs 512 water molecules) was evaluated by comparing results from classical simulations using different box sizes; non-negligible effects are found for the ion-water distance and the tilt angles of the water molecules in the second hydration shell and for the O-D stretching vibrational frequencies of the water molecules in the first hydration shell.

    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92889 (URN)10.1021/jp050186u (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-07 Created: 2005-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Distorted fivefold coordination of Cu2+(aq) from a Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distorted fivefold coordination of Cu2+(aq) from a Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulation
    2005 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 2874-2880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The solvation shell structure and dynamics of a single Cu2+ ion in a periodic box with 32 water molecules under ambient conditions has been investigated using Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations in a time-window of 18 ps. Five-fold coordination with four equidistant equatorial water molecules at 2.00 and one axial water molecule at 2.45 from the Cu2+ ion is found. A hole without water molecules is found on the opposite side of the axial water. The ion–water bonding character for the equatorial water molecules is different from that of the axial water molecules, as shown by a localized orbital analysis of the electronic structure. Moreover, the calculated OD stretching vibrational band for the equatorial water molecules lies ca. 175 cm–1 below the axial-water band, in good agreement with experimental data. The equatorial-water band lies below, and the axial-water band above, the pure liquid D2O band, also in agreement with experimental data.

    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92890 (URN)10.1039/b502427g (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-07 Created: 2005-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. OD vibrations and hydration structure in an Al3+(aq) solution from a Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>OD vibrations and hydration structure in an Al3+(aq) solution from a Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulation
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 124, no 10, p. 104501-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The optimized geometry, energetics, and vibrational properties of Al(D2O) clusters, with n=1,2,4, and 6, have been studied using plane waves, different local basis sets, different methodologies [density-functional theory, MP2, CCSD(T)], and different functionals (BLYP, PBE). Moreover, Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations using the BLYP functional, plane waves, and the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials have been performed for an aqueous Al3+ solution with 1 ion and 32 D2O molecules in a periodic box at room temperature, studied for 10 ps. The cluster calculations were performed to pinpoint possible shortcomings of the electronic structure description used in the Car-Parinello MD (CPMD) simulation. For the clusters, the hydration structure and interaction energies calculated with the `BLYP/plane-wave' approach agree well with high-level ab initio methods but the exchange-correlation functional introduces errors in the OD stretching frequencies (both in the absolute values and in the ion-induced shifts). For the aqueous solution, the CPMD simulation yields structural properties in good agreement with experimental data. The CPMD-simulated OD stretching vibrational band for the first-shell water molecules around Al3+ is strongly downshifted by the influence of the ion and is compared with experimental data from the literature. To make such a comparison meaningful, the influences of a number of systematic effects have been addressed, such as the exchange-correlation functional, the fictitious electron mass, anharmonicity effects, and the small box size in the simulation. Each of these factors (except the last one) is found to affect the OD frequency by 100 cm–1 or more. The final "corrected" frequencies agree with experiment within ~30 cm–1 for bulk water but are too little downshifted for the first-shell Al3+(aq) water molecules (by ~200 cm–1).

    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92891 (URN)10.1063/1.2131062 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-07 Created: 2005-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
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  • 36.
    Amira, Sami
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Derivation and evaluation of a flexible SPC model for liquid water2004In: Chemical Physics, ISSN 0301-0104, E-ISSN 1873-4421, Vol. 303, no 3, p. 372-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a new flexible water model are presented. The potential function is based on the simple point charge (SPC) model combined with an accurate experimental quartic intramolecular potential (CCL). This potential not only reproduces the key structural, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of liquid water, but also generates the correct values for both the absolute O–H vibrational frequency and the gas-to-liquid frequency shift. Thus, the model yields a value of ca. 3420 cm−1 for the peak maximum of the anharmonic OH stretching band for liquid water (experiment 3400 cm−1) and a corresponding gas-to-liquid downshift of −300 cm−1 (experiment −310 cm−1). The paper also emphasizes the importance of parameterizing correctly both the harmonic and anharmonic force constants in the gas-phase when developing flexible water models to be used in the liquid state.

  • 37.
    Amira, Sami
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Distorted fivefold coordination of Cu2+(aq) from a Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulation2005In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 2874-2880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solvation shell structure and dynamics of a single Cu2+ ion in a periodic box with 32 water molecules under ambient conditions has been investigated using Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations in a time-window of 18 ps. Five-fold coordination with four equidistant equatorial water molecules at 2.00 and one axial water molecule at 2.45 from the Cu2+ ion is found. A hole without water molecules is found on the opposite side of the axial water. The ion–water bonding character for the equatorial water molecules is different from that of the axial water molecules, as shown by a localized orbital analysis of the electronic structure. Moreover, the calculated OD stretching vibrational band for the equatorial water molecules lies ca. 175 cm–1 below the axial-water band, in good agreement with experimental data. The equatorial-water band lies below, and the axial-water band above, the pure liquid D2O band, also in agreement with experimental data.

  • 38.
    Amira, Sami
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    OD vibrations and hydration structure in an Al3+(aq) solution from a Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulation2006In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 124, no 10, p. 104501-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimized geometry, energetics, and vibrational properties of Al(D2O) clusters, with n=1,2,4, and 6, have been studied using plane waves, different local basis sets, different methodologies [density-functional theory, MP2, CCSD(T)], and different functionals (BLYP, PBE). Moreover, Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations using the BLYP functional, plane waves, and the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials have been performed for an aqueous Al3+ solution with 1 ion and 32 D2O molecules in a periodic box at room temperature, studied for 10 ps. The cluster calculations were performed to pinpoint possible shortcomings of the electronic structure description used in the Car-Parinello MD (CPMD) simulation. For the clusters, the hydration structure and interaction energies calculated with the `BLYP/plane-wave' approach agree well with high-level ab initio methods but the exchange-correlation functional introduces errors in the OD stretching frequencies (both in the absolute values and in the ion-induced shifts). For the aqueous solution, the CPMD simulation yields structural properties in good agreement with experimental data. The CPMD-simulated OD stretching vibrational band for the first-shell water molecules around Al3+ is strongly downshifted by the influence of the ion and is compared with experimental data from the literature. To make such a comparison meaningful, the influences of a number of systematic effects have been addressed, such as the exchange-correlation functional, the fictitious electron mass, anharmonicity effects, and the small box size in the simulation. Each of these factors (except the last one) is found to affect the OD frequency by 100 cm–1 or more. The final "corrected" frequencies agree with experiment within ~30 cm–1 for bulk water but are too little downshifted for the first-shell Al3+(aq) water molecules (by ~200 cm–1).

  • 39.
    Amira, Sami
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Probst, Michael
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Molecular Dynamics simulation of Fe2+(aq) and Fe3+(aq)2004In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 496-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations of single-ion Fe2+(aq) and Fe3+(aq) solutions have been performed with two rigid-water models (SPC and SPC/E) and a newly constructed SPC-based flexible-water model (SPC+CCL). The SPC+CCL water model in combination with effective Fe2+ and Fe3+ ion-water potentials manages to reproduce many experimental structural and dynamical properties of the solutions. Special attention is given to the large ion-induced frequency shifts of the OH stretching bands, which are also well reproduced by the SPC+CCL model.

  • 40.
    Amira, Sami
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Zelin, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Probst, Michael
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics simulation of Fe3+(aq)2005In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 109, no 29, p. 14235-14242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimized geometry and energetic properties of Fe(D2O)n3+ clusters, with n = 4 and 6, have been studied with density-functional theory calculations and the BLYP functional, and the hydration of a single Fe3+ ion in a periodic box with 32 water molecules at room temperature has been studied with Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and the same functional. We have compared the results from the CPMD simulation with classical MD simulations, using a flexible SPC-based water model and the same number of water molecules, to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two MD methods. The classical MD simulations and the CPMD simulations both give Fe-water distances in good agreement with experiment, but for the intramolecular vibrations, the classical MD yields considerably better absolute frequencies and ion-induced frequency shifts. On the other hand, the CPMD method performs considerably better than the classical MD in describing the intramolecular geometry of the water molecule in the first hydration shell and the average first shell···second shell hydrogen-bond distance. Differences between the two methods are also found with respect to the second-shell water orientations. The effect of the small box size (32 vs 512 water molecules) was evaluated by comparing results from classical simulations using different box sizes; non-negligible effects are found for the ion-water distance and the tilt angles of the water molecules in the second hydration shell and for the O-D stretching vibrational frequencies of the water molecules in the first hydration shell.

  • 41.
    Ammothum Kandy, Akshay Krishna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Linear models for multiscale materials simulations: Towards a seamless linking of electronic and atomistic models for complex metal oxides2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiscale modelling approaches, connecting data from electronic structure calculations all the way towards engineering continuum models, have become an important ingredient in modern materials science. Materials modelling in a broader sense is already amply used to address complex chemical problems in academic science, but also in many industrial sectors. As far as multiscale modelling is concerned, however, many challenges remain, in particular when it comes to coupling and linking the various levels along the multiscale ladder in a seamless and efficient fashion.        

    This thesis focusses on the development of new and efficient linear models to improve the quality and parameterisation processes of the two-body potentials used in empirical and semi-empirical methods within a multiscale materials modelling framework. In this regard, a machinery called curvature constrained splines (CCS) based on cubic splines to approximate general two-body potentials has been developed. The method is linear, and parameters can be easily solved in a least-square sense using a quadratic programming approach. Moreover, the objective function is  convex, implying that global minima can be readily found. This makes the optimisation process easy to handle and requires little to no human effort. Initial tests to validate the method were performed on molecular and bulk neon systems. Later, the method was extended to incorporate long-range interactions by including atomic charges. The capability of the method was demonstrated for ZnO polymorphs, and at the same time benchmarked towards the conventional  Buckingham potentials applied to the same problem. The results indicate that the CCS+Q method performs on par with the Buckingham approach, but is much faster and easier to parameterise. The merits of the method is further demonstrated with an exploration of size and shape dependent stability of CeO2 nanoparticles.

    Having established the framework of the CCS methodology, the method was further used to develop repulsive potentials for the semi-empirical self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method. The generation of the repulsive potentials is normally a tedious and time-consuming task. The  CCS methodology  makes this process significantly more efficient, and further provides new opportunities to explore the limits of the SCC-DFTB method. The development of repulsive potentials for bulk Si polymorphs showed that it is possible to retrieve a good description of each individual polymorph, but impossible to obtain an acceptable joint description of all polymorphs. The results indicated that a transferable repulsive potential needs to have coordination dependence, and by the  use of a many-body artificial neural network representation for the repulsive potential, it was indeed possible to obtain a global transferability. The CCS methodology was finally used to model a system of considerable chemical diversity and complexity, namely reduced CeO2 within the SCC-DFTB formalism. Here, the CCS framework facilitated the development of an efficient workflow that yielded a harmonized description of Ce ions in different oxidation states. In short, the introduced CCS-based workflow proved to extend the applicability of SCC-DFTB to complex oxide systems with correlated electronic states.               

    To conclude, the CCS methodology is demonstrated to be a versatile tool for efficient linking between (and within) electronic and atomistic models.

    List of papers
    1. CCS: A software framework to generate two-body potentials using Curvature Constrained Splines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>CCS: A software framework to generate two-body potentials using Curvature Constrained Splines
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: Computer Physics Communications, ISSN 0010-4655, E-ISSN 1879-2944, Vol. 258, article id 107602Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed an automated and efficient scheme for the fitting of data using Curvature Constrained Splines (CCS), to construct accurate two-body potentials. The approach enabled the construction of an oscillation-free, yet flexible, potential. We show that the optimization problem is convex and that it can be reduced to a standard Quadratic Programming (QP) problem. The improvements are demonstrated by the development of a two-body potential for Ne from ab initio data. We also outline possible extensions to the method. Program summary Program Title: CCS CPC Library link to program files: http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/7dt5nzxgbs.1 Developer's repository link:gttp://github.com/aksam432/CCS Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: Python External routines/libraries: NumPy, matplotlib, ASE, CVXOPT Nature of problem: Ab initio quantum chemistry methods are often computationally very expensive. To alleviate this problem, the development of efficient empirical and semi-empirical methods is necessary. Two-body potentials are ubiquitous in empirical and semi-empirical methods. Solution method: The CCS package provides a new strategy to obtain accurate two body potentials. The potentials are described as cubic splines with curvature constraints.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ElsevierELSEVIER, 2021
    Keywords
    Two-body potential, Force field, Quadratic programming, Cubic splines, Python
    National Category
    Computer Sciences Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-426306 (URN)10.1016/j.cpc.2020.107602 (DOI)000587360000039 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncileSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
    Available from: 2020-11-30 Created: 2020-11-30 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Development of efficient linearly parametrized force fields for ionic materials
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of efficient linearly parametrized force fields for ionic materials
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) In press
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-434542 (URN)
    Available from: 2021-02-10 Created: 2021-02-10 Last updated: 2021-02-10
    3. Curvature Constrained Splines for DFTB Repulsive Potential Parametrization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Curvature Constrained Splines for DFTB Repulsive Potential Parametrization
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1771-1781Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Curvature Constrained Splines (CCS) methodology has been used for fitting repulsive potentials to be used in SCC-DFTB calculations. The benefit of using CCS is that the actual fitting of the repulsive potential is performed through quadratic programming on a convex objective function. This guarantees a unique (for strictly convex) and optimum two-body repulsive potential in a single shot, thereby making the parametrization process robust, and with minimal human effort. Furthermore, the constraints in CCS give the user control to tune the shape of the repulsive potential based on prior knowledge about the system in question. Herein, we developed the method further with new constraints and the capability to handle sparse data. We used the method to generate accurate repulsive potentials for bulk Si polymorphs and demonstrate that for a given Slater-Koster table, which reproduces the experimental band structure for bulk Si in its ground state, we are unable to find one single two-body repulsive potential that can accurately describe the various bulk polymorphs of silicon in our training set. We further demonstrate that to increase transferability, the repulsive potential needs to be adjusted to account for changes in the chemical environment, here expressed in the form of a coordination number. By training a near-sighted Atomistic Neural Network potential, which includes many-body effects but still essentially within the first-neighbor shell, we can obtain full transferability for SCC-DFTB in terms of describing the energetics of different Si polymorphs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-434543 (URN)10.1021/acs.jctc.0c01156 (DOI)000629135700038 ()33606527 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncileSSENCE - An eScience CollaborationSwedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)German Research Foundation (DFG), RTG 2247
    Available from: 2021-02-10 Created: 2021-02-10 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Accurate description of Ce 4f states in reduced ceria using SCC-DFTB+U simulations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accurate description of Ce 4f states in reduced ceria using SCC-DFTB+U simulations
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) In press
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-434544 (URN)
    Available from: 2021-02-10 Created: 2021-02-10 Last updated: 2021-02-10
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  • 42. Ananta, M.
    et al.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Aibibu, D.
    Brown, R. A.
    Mudera, V.
    A Novel Poly(L-Lactide-co-e-Caprolactone)-Collagen Hybrid Construct for Application in Tissue Engineering2007In: Termis-EU Meeting Abstracts, London, UK September 4-7 2007: [Published in Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, nr. 7], Mary Ann Liebert Inc. , 2007, p. 1637-1637Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A biodegradable hybrid construct consisting of a slow degrading poly(L-lactide-co-e-caprolactone) (PLA-e-CL) knitted mesh, plastically compressed (1) between two collagen gels was fabricated and tested in vitro for tissue engineering applications. The polymer mesh was incorporated to give greater mechanical stability to the compressed collagen scaffolds.

    The hybrid construct was characterized for fluid (weight) loss and cell viability during compression and mechanical properties.

    Hybrid constructs embedded and surface layered with human dermal

    fibroblasts (2, Eþ5 per 5 ml) were cultured for up to one week

    in static culture. Quantitative and qualitative data on cell viability

    and proliferation were obtained.

    It was found that the fluid (weight) loss in plastic compression

    of the hybrid construct was time dependent and not weight dependent

    at an applied load of 240 grams. No significant cell death

    was observed during the plastic compression process and a homogenous

    cell distribution was achieved. One week of static culture

    showed that the cultivated hybrid construct retained its

    mechanical properties with no evidence of degradation, and cells

    inside the constructs as well as layered on top of the constructs

    proliferated.

    We found the PLA-e-CL-Collagen hybrid construct a useful

    three-dimensional scaffold for tissue engineering of stratified tissues

    and potential applications in bladder wall, blood vessels and

    skin are currently being explored.

  • 43.
    Andersson, AM
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Chemical Composition and Morphology of the Elevated Temperature SEI-layer on Graphite2001In: J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 148, p. A1100-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Andersson, A.M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Characterisation of the ambient and elevated temperature performance of a graphite electrode1999In: JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, ISSN 0378-7753, Vol. 82, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal stability of the SEI layer on graphite in < Li(liquid electrolyte)graphite > half-cells has been investigated. DSC measurements reveal a two-stage exothermal reaction. The first, corresponding to a breakdown of the SEI layer, begins at 58 degrees

  • 45.
    Andersson, A.M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Herstedt, Marie
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Bishop, A.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    The influence of lithium salt on the interfacial reactions controlling the thermal stability of graphite anodes2002In: Electrochim. Acta, Vol. 47, p. 1885-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Andersson, Anna M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Henningsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Electrochemically lithiated graphite characterised by photoelectron spectroscopy2003In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 119-121, p. 522-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the depth profile of the solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on a graphite powder electrode in a Li-ion battery. The morphology of the SEI-layer, formed in a 1 M LiBF4 EC/DMC 2:1 solution, consists of a 900 Å porous layer of polymers (polyethylene oxide) and a 15–20 Å thin layer of Li2CO3 and LiBF4 reduction–decomposition products. Embedded LiF crystals as large as 0.2 μm were found in the polymer matrix. LiOH and Li2O are not major components on the surface but rather found as a consequence of sputter-related reactions. Monochromatised Al Kα XPS-analysis based on the calibration of Ar+ ion sputtering of model compounds combined with a depth profile analysis based on energy tuning of synchrotron XPS can describe the highly complex composition and morphology of the SEI-layer.

  • 47.
    Andersson, A.S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. strukturkemi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Kalska, B
    Jönsson, P
    Häggström, L
    Nordblad, P
    Tellgren, Roland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. strukturkemi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. strukturkemi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    The magnetic structure and properties of rhombohedral Li3Fe2(PO4)3.2000In: J. Mater. Chem., Vol. 10, p. 2542-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Andersson, A.S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    The source of first-cycle capasity loss in LiFePO4.2001In: J. Power Sources, Vol. 97-98, p. 498-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Andersson, A.S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Kalska, B
    Häggström, L
    Lithium extraction/insertion in LiFePO4: an XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy Study.2000In: Solid State Ionics, Vol. 130, p. 41-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Andersson, Claes-Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis and characterization of a ferrocene-linked bis-fullerene[60] dumbbell2012In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 2374-2381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new [60]fullerene dumbbell consisting of two fulleropyrrolidines connected to a central ferrocene unit by amide linkages has been prepared and fully characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, UV/Vis, fluorescence and mass spectrometry. The electrochemical properties as determined by cyclic voltammetry show ground state electronic communication between the ferrocene and the fullerene units. In addition, the preparaton of a ferrocene building block for an alternative linking approach is presented.

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