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  • 1.
    Aage, Hans
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    25. Economic Instruments: Three Interlinkages Between Ecology and Economics2012Inngår i: Rural Development and Land Use / [ed] Lars Rydén and Ingrid Karlsson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, s. 280-293Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Aage, Hans
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    51. The environment2002Inngår i: The Baltic Sea Region: Cultures, Politics, Societies / [ed] Witold Maciejewski, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2002, 1, s. 639-650Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Abbott, Benjamin
    et al.
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, ECOBIO,UMR 6553, Rennes, France.
    Baranov, Viktor
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany.
    Mendoza-Lera, Clara
    Ctr LyonVilleurbanne, UR MALY, Irstea, F-69616 Villeurbanne, France.
    Nikolakopoulou, Myrto
    Naturalea, Barcelona, Spain.
    Harjung, Astrid
    Univ Barcelona, E-08007 Barcelona, Spain.
    Kolbe, Tamara
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, OSURGeosci Rennes, UMR 6118, F-35014 Rennes, France.
    Balasubramanian, Mukundh
    BioSistemika Ltd, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Vaessen, Timothy N
    CEAB CSIC, Girona, Spain.
    Ciocca, Francesco
    Silixa, Elstree, England.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Romeijn, Paul
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Antonelli, Marta
    LIST, Esch Sur Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Goncalves, José
    Natl Inst Biol, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Datry, Thibault
    Ctr LyonVilleurbanne, UR MALY, Irstea, F-69616 Villeurbanne, France.
    Laverman, Anniet
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, ECOBIO,UMR 6553, Rennes, France.
    de Dreuzý, Jean-Raynald
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, OSURGeosci Rennes, UMR 6118, F-35014 Rennes, France.
    David, Hannah M.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Krause, Stefan
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Oldham, Carolyn
    Univ Western Australia, Civil Environm & Min Engn, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Pinay, Gilles
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, ECOBIO,UMR 6553, Rennes, France.
    Using multi-tracer inference to move beyond single-catchment ecohydrology2016Inngår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 160, s. 19-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Protecting or restoring aquatic ecosystems in the face of growing anthropogenic pressures requires an understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical functioning across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Recent technological and methodological advances have vastly increased the number and diversity of hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological tracers available, providing potentially powerful tools to improve understanding of fundamental problems in ecohydrology, notably: 1. Identifying spatially explicit flowpaths, 2. Quantifying water residence time, and 3. Quantifying and localizing biogeochemical transformation. In this review, we synthesize the history of hydrological and biogeochemical theory, summarize modem tracer methods, and discuss how improved understanding of flowpath, residence time, and biogeochemical transformation can help ecohydrology move beyond description of site-specific heterogeneity. We focus on using multiple tracers with contrasting characteristics (crossing proxies) to infer ecosystem functioning across multiple scales. Specifically, we present how crossed proxies could test recent ecohydrological theory, combining the concepts of hotspots and hot moments with the Damkohler number in what we call the HotDam framework.

  • 4.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, UMR ECOBIO 6553, F-35014 Rennes, France.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Bowden, William B.
    Univ Vermont, Rubenstein Sch Environm & Nat Resources, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, PNW Res Stn, USDA Forest Serv, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Mack, Michelle C.
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    McGuire, A. David
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Cooperat Fish & Wildlife Res Unit, US Geol Survey, Anchorage, AK USA..
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Biol Sci, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, Environm Change Initiat, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Aiken, George R.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Mississippi State Univ, Forest & Wildlife Res Ctr, Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA..
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Texas A&M Univ, Galveston, TX USA..
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Bergeron, Yves
    Univ Quebec Abitibi Temiscamingue, Forest Res Inst, Rouyn Noranda, PQ, Canada..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. wedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Univ Montreal, Dept Geog, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Pacific NW Natl Lab, Richland, WA 99352 USA..
    Breen, Amy L.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Scenarios Network Alaska & Arctic Planning, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Buffam, Ishi
    Univ Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA..
    Cai, Yihua
    Xiamen Univ, State Key Lab Marine Environm Sci, Xiamen, Peoples R China..
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Ecole Prat Hautes Etud, UMR5023, CNRS Lyon 1, Lyon, France..
    Carey, Sean K.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada..
    Chen, Jing M.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada..
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Lakehead Univ, Fac Nat Resources Management, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada..
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Lund Univ, Arctic Res Ctr, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Aarhus Univ, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Univ Maryland, Ctr Environm Sci, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Syst Ecol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    de Groot, William J.
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Univ Washington, Sch Environm & Forest Sci, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Fetcher, Ned
    Wilkes Univ, Inst Environm Sci & Sustainabil, Wilkes Barre, PA 18766 USA..
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland..
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Michigan Tech Res Inst, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Max Planck Inst Chem, Global Fire Monitoring Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Gough, Laura
    Towson Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Towson, MD USA..
    Grogan, Paul
    Queens Univ, Dept Biol, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada..
    Guo, Laodong
    Univ Wisconsin Milwaukee, Sch Freshwater Sci, Milwaukee, WI USA..
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Univ Montana, Dept Ecosyst & Conservat Sci, Missoula, MT 59812 USA..
    Hinzman, Larry
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Univ Illinois, Dept Plant Biol, Chicago, IL 60680 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Geol, Chicago, IL 60680 USA..
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO USA..
    Jandt, Randi
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Fire Sci Consortium, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Univ Saskatchewan, Dept Biol, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W0, Canada..
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Kelly, Ryan
    Neptune & Co Inc, North Wales, PA USA..
    Keuper, Frida
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;INRA, AgroImpact UPR1158, New York, NY USA..
    Kling, George W.
    Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environm Inst, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kouki, Jari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Joensuu, Finland..
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Inst Natl Rech Sci, Ctr Eau Terre Environm, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Inst Ocean Sci, Dept Fisheries & Oceans, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mann, Paul J.
    Northumbria Univ, Dept Geog, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Joensuu, Finland..
    McClelland, James W.
    Univ Texas Austin, Inst Marine Sci, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Miami, FL 33199 USA..
    Olefeldt, David
    Univ Alberta, Dept Revewable Resources, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Pare, David
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, No Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Payette, Serge
    Univ Laval, Ctr Etud Nord, Quebec City, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada..
    Peng, Changhui
    Univ Quebec, Ctr CEF, ESCER, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada.;Northwest A&F Univ, Coll Forestry, State Key Lab Soil Eros & Dryland Farming Loess P, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    CNRS, Georesources & Environm, Toulouse, France.;Tomsk State Univ, BIO GEO CLIM Lab, Tomsk, Russia..
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Marine Biol Lab, Ctr Ecosyst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA..
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Yale Univ, Sch Forestry & Environm Studies, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Rein, Guillermo
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Mech Engn, London SW7 2AZ, England..
    Reynolds, James F.
    Lanzhou Univ, Sch Life Sci, Lanzhou 730000, Peoples R China.;Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Durham, NC 27706 USA..
    Robards, Martin
    Arctic Beringia Program, Wildlife Conservat Soc, New York, NY USA..
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Schaedel, Christina
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA..
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.;Sukachev Inst Forest, Moscow, Russia..
    Sky, Jasper
    Cambridge Ctr Climate Change Res, Cambridge, England..
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Florida State Univ, Dept Earth Ocean & Atmospher Sci, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA..
    Starr, Gregory
    Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Striegl, Robert G.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, ECOLAB,UPS, Toulouse, France..
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Environm Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK USA..
    Zimov, Sergei
    Russian Acad Sci, Northeast Sci Stn, Moscow 117901, Russia..
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 034014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

  • 5.
    Abeysinghe, Kasun S.
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiao-Dong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Goodale, Eben
    Guangxi Univ, Coll Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi, Peoples R China..
    Anderson, Christopher W. N.
    Massey Univ, Inst Agr & Environm, Soil & Earth Sci, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cao, Axiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China.;Guizhou Normal Univ, Sch Chem & Mat Sci, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Xinbin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Shengjie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Mammides, Christos
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Meng, Bo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Quan, Rui-Chang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Jing
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Coll Resources & Environm Sci, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Qiu, Guangle
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil2017Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 1202-1210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Elin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    In situ-metoder för sanering av klorerade lösningsmedel: utvärdering med avseende på svenska förhållanden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I nuläget finns det 428 områden registrerade som förorenade med klorerade lösningsmedel iSverige. Dessa ämnen har använts inom svensk industri som avfettnings- och lösningsmedelsedan 1930-talet. Klorerade lösningsmedels komplexa spridningsbild medför större svårigheter vid sanering och undersökning jämfört med exempelvis petroleumkolväten. Därför är det viktigt att öka kunskapen om sanering av lösningsmedel. En flitigt användsaneringsmetod av förorenade områden i Sverige är schaktsanering. Där grävs jord upp för att sedan transporteras till behandlingsanläggning eller deponi. På grund av metodens klimat- och miljöpåverkan behöver saneringsmetoder som är mer ekonomiskt och miljömässigt hållbaratillämpas oftare.

    Detta examensarbete syftade till att utvärdera in situ-saneringsmetoder för mark och grundvatten förorenade av klorerade lösningsmedel utifrån funktions-, tids-, hållbarhets- och kostnadsaspekter. Vidare syftade arbetet till att undersöka vilka metoder som lämpar sig bäst under svenska förhållanden. För att utvärdera in situ-metoders lämplighet och olika funktionsaspekter beskrevs lämpliga in situ-metoder. En fallstudie genomfördes där fem områden förorenade med klorerade lösningsmedel runtom i Sverige studerades. För samtliga områden beskrevs området och föroreningssituationen. Därefter presenterades konsulternas utvärdering och val av saneringsmetod samt resultat av utförd sanering. Metoder som studerades i fallstudien var två tekniker tillhörande kemisk reduktion, multifasextraktion,biostimulering och termisk behandling. De fem projekten värderades även med SGI:s beslutstödsverktyg för saneringsmetoder, SAMLA. Där poängsattes metoderna utifrån olika kriterier tillhörande miljö, sociala faktorer samt ekonomi. Vidare gjordes en allmän utvärdering av in situ-metoder för klorerade lösningsmedel utifrån svenska förhållanden, vad gäller geologi, hydrogeologi, geokemi och klimat. De utvärderades även utifrån dess styrkor och svagheter med avseende på tillämpningsområden, kostnad, saneringstid,energiförbrukning samt användning i Sverige som sammanställdes i matriser.

    Värderingen i SAMLA av de fem projekten visade på liknande resultat jämfört med tidigare genomförda riskvärderingar. De metoder som valdes i riskvärderingarna fick även högst tilldelad poäng i SAMLA. Valet av metod för respektive projekt valdes utifrån rådande förhållanden på området, såsom geologi och befintliga byggnader. Slutsatser som kan drasfrån detta arbete är att samtliga in situ-metoder som utvärderades kan tillämpas i Sverige utifrån de geologiska förhållandena. Däremot är det de platsspecifika förhållandena, såsom stort grundvattenflöde eller heterogen jord, som styr valet av saneringsmetod. Även förutsättningar för fastigheten måste beaktas, exempelvis byggnader på platsen eller exploatering av området. Dock kan tillämpningen av in situ-metoder eventuellt utvecklas mo ten viss typ av geologiska förhållanden (högpermeabla jordar) där klorerade lösningsmedel troligen kan påträffas oftare.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Ekelund, My
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Human Exposure from Mercury in Rice in the Philippines2015Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the western part of the Philippines, in the Palawan province, studies have shown that large quantities of mercury are spread to the surrounding area during heavy rainfall. In addition, mercury is spread to rice fields and bioaccumulated in marine fish and seafood. The mercury originates from the abandoned Palawan Quicksilver Mine. Since mercury is toxic for the human body and new studies have shown that mercury accumulates in rice, it is important to investigate human exposure from mercury in rice.

    This project investigates the total amount of mercury and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulated in rice, soil and water from four different rice fields in Palawan. The soil samples have been taken directly from the fields and water samples have been taken from nearby streams and springs. Rice grains harvested earlier this year from the same fields have been collected from farmers. The soil, water and rice samples were analyzed in Manila and rice samples were as well analyzed in Sweden and China. Furthermore, this project contains a dietary survey and calculation of daily exposure values of MeHg. The survey investigates how often people eat fish and rice and if they have dental amalgam. It also investigates possible health problems related to mercury exposure from rice and fish consumption.

    The analyses from China show that rice samples from all barangays contain total mercury and MeHg. Analyses from Sweden also show that rice from the barangays contains total mercury but the levels were found to be higher than the ones analyzed in China. Furthermore, the health problems found in the diet survey were hard to relate to mercury exposure from rice since the health problems can be caused by other factors. When calculating daily exposure values, the values were found to be as high as the recommended maximum acceptable daily intake in one of the barangays. There might therefore be a risk of eating rice from these four barangays. It is important to consider that these daily exposure values were only based on MeHg exposure from rice consumption, not taking dental amalgam and fish consumption into consideration. This means that the daily exposure values might be even higher than the ones calculated in this study.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Kristina
    Institutionen för Energi och Teknik, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Analys av olika metoder för att uppskatta olika livsmedels effekt på kvävecykeln2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Intensifiering av jordbruket globalt har lett till förhöjda halter reaktivt kväve (Nr) i omlopp på jorden. Användningen av stora mängder av framförallt handelsgödselkväve har rubbat balansen mellan reaktivt kväve och icke reaktivt kväve i kvävecykeln, vilket orsakar stora problem i form av övergödning. För att motverka denna negativa miljöpåverkan är det viktigt att uppmärksamma både makthavare och konsumenter på problemen och redovisa vilken påverkan som sker vid produktion av olika livsmedel. Detta så att konsumenter har möjlighet göra hållbara val vid köp av livsmedel och så att ett hållbart jordbruk kan utvecklas. För att beräkna ett livsmedels påverkan på kvävecykel kan flera olika metoder användas. I denna studie analyseras indikatorerna kväveffektivitet (NUE), kvävefotavtryck samt övergödningspotential för att undersöka vilken av indikatorerna som lämpar sig bäst för konsumentvägledning. NUE definieras som Nut/Nin och beräknar hur stor andel av inflödet av N som kommer ut i slutprodukten. Kvävefotavtrycket beräknas som (Nin-Nut) per kg produkt och övergödningspotential som utsläpp av olika övergödande ämnen per kg produkt. Indikatorerna applicerades på olika svenska livsmedel samt sojabönor från Brasilien och resultatet visade på att högst övergödningspotential och kvävefotavtryck fås för kött från kyckling, gris och nötkreatur. För samma indikatorer beräknades lägst potential och fotavtryck för gurka, tomat och morot. NUE beräknades vara högst för gurka på 0,90 och lägst för hallon och jordgubbe på 0,05 samt 0,08. Vid jämförelse av indikatorerna fastställdes att kvävefotavtrycket är bäst lämpad för konsumentvägledning eftersom resultatet är lättförståeligt och det kan kopplas till specifika miljöproblem så som övergödning. Övergödningspotentialen är också en lättförståelig indikator men N som resurs analyseras inte. Indikatorn kräver också mycket data som kan vara svår att få tag på för produkter som produceras i andra länder. Resultatet av NUE är lite mer komplicerat och indikatorn kan passa bättre som ett mått på hur kväveeffektivt en gård eller land är och därav lämpar sig indikatorn bättre för bönder och makthavare än konsumenter.

  • 9. Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Fick, Jerker
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Sumpter, John P.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Ruden, Christina
    Improving Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 9, s. 5336-5345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

  • 10.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysikalisk och analytisk kemi, Analytisk kemi.
    Organic Phosphorus Compounds in Aquatic Sediments: Analysis, Abundance and Effects2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) is often the limiting nutrient in lacustrine and brackish eco-systems, and enhanced input of P into an aquatic system might therefore negatively impact the environment. Because modern waste water manage-ment have reduced external P input to surface waters, internal P loading from the sediment has become one of the main P sources to aquatic ecosys-tems, in which relatively unknown organic P compounds seem to be more active in P recycling than previously thought.

    This thesis focus is on improving analysis methods for organic P com-pounds in lacustrine and brackish sediments, as well as determining which of these compounds might be degraded, mobilized and subsequently recycled to the water column and on what temporal scale this occur. In both lacustrine and brackish environments, the most labile P compound was pyrophosphate, followed by different phosphate diesters. Phosphate monoesters were the least labile organic P compounds and degraded the slowest with sediment depth. In regulated lakes, it was shown that pyrophosphate and polyphos-phate compound groups were most related to lake trophic status, thus indi-cating their involvement in P cycling. This thesis also indicates faster P turn-over in sediment from the brackish environment compared to sediment from the lacustrine environment.

    A comparison of organic P extraction procedures showed that pre-extraction with EDTA, and NaOH as main extractant, was most efficient for total P extraction. Using buffered sodium dithionite (BD) as a pre-extractant and NaOH as main extractant was most efficient for extracting the presuma-bly most labile organic P compound groups, pyrophosphate and polyphos-phate. Furthermore, it was determined that organic P compounds associated with humic substances were more recalcitrant than other P compounds, that the BD step used in traditional P fractionation might extract phosphate monoesters, and that NMR is a statistically valid method for quantification of organic P compounds in sediment extracts.

    Delarbeid
    1. Depth attenuation of biogenic phosphorus compounds in lake sediment measured by 31P NMR
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Depth attenuation of biogenic phosphorus compounds in lake sediment measured by 31P NMR
    Vise andre…
    2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 867-872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94212 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-31 Laget: 2006-03-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Characterization of phosphorus in sequential extracts from lake sediments using P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Characterization of phosphorus in sequential extracts from lake sediments using P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Vise andre…
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 63, nr 8, s. 1686-1699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) compounds in three different lake surface sediments were extracted by sequential P extraction and identified by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (P-31 NMR) spectroscopy. The extraction procedure primarily discriminates between inorganic P-binding sites but most extraction steps also contained P not reacting (nrP) with the molybdenum complex during P analyses. In all three lakes, the nrP dominated in the NaOH extracts. Nonreactive P from the dystrophic lake was dominated by potentially recalcitrant P groups such as orthophosphate monoesters, while the nrP in the two more productive lakes also contained polyphosphates, pyrophosphate, and organic P groups such as P lipids and DNA-P that may be important in remineralization and recycling to the water column. In addition, polyphosphates showed substantial dynamics in settling seston. The Humic-P pools (P associated with humic acids) showed strong signals of orthophosphate monoesters in all three lakes, which supported the assumption that P-containing humic compounds are indeed recovered in this fraction, although other organic P forms are also present. Thus, in addition to expanding the understanding of which organic P forms that are present in lake sediments, the P-31 NMR technique also demonstrated that the chemical extraction procedure may provide some quantification of recalcitrant versus labile organic P forms.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94213 (URN)10.1139/F06-070 (DOI)000239655100003 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-31 Laget: 2006-03-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Degradation of organic phosphorus compounds in anoxic Baltic Sea sediments: A P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Degradation of organic phosphorus compounds in anoxic Baltic Sea sediments: A P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study
    Vise andre…
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 2341-2348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The composition and abundance of phosphorus extracted by NaOH-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid from anoxic Northwest Baltic Sea sediment was characterized and quantified using solution P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance. Extracts from sediment depths down to 55 cm, representing 85 yr of deposition, contained 18.5 g m(-2) orthophosphate. Orthophosphate monoesters, teichoic acid P, microbial P lipids, DNA P, and pyrophosphate corresponded to 6.7, 0.3, 1.1, 3.0, and 0.03 g P m(-2), respectively. The degradability of these compound groups was estimated by their decline in concentration with sediment depth. Pyrophosphate had the shortest half-life (3 yr), followed by microbial P lipids with a half-life of 5 yr, DNA P (8 yr), and orthophosphate monoesters (16 yr). No decline in concentration with sediment depth was observed for orthophosphate or teichoic acid P.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94214 (URN)000240673800036 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-31 Laget: 2006-03-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Biogenic phosphorus in oligotrophic mountain lake sediments: Differences in composition measured with NMR spectroscopy
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Biogenic phosphorus in oligotrophic mountain lake sediments: Differences in composition measured with NMR spectroscopy
    Vise andre…
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, nr 20, s. 3705-3712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) composition in alkaline sediment extracts from three Swedish oligotrophic mountain lakes was investigated using P-31-NMR spectroscopy. Surface sediments from one natural lake and two mature reservoirs, one of which has received nutrient additions over the last 3 years, were compared with respect to biogenic P composition. The results show significant differences in the occurrence of labile and biogenic P species in the sediments of the different systems. The P compound groups that varied most between these three systems were pyrophosphate and polyphosphates, compound groups known to play an important role in sediment P recycling. The content of these compound groups was lowest in the reservoirs and may indicate a coupling between anthropogenic disturbances (i.e., impoundment) to a water system and the availability of labile P species in the sediment. A statistical study was also conducted to determine the accuracy and reliability of using P-31-NMR spectroscopy for quantification of sediment P forms.

    Emneord
    phosphorus species, P-31-NMR spectroscopy, reservoirs, oligotrophication, method validation, P-31-NMR accuracy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94215 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2006.09.006 (DOI)000242988600005 ()17070896 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-31 Laget: 2006-03-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Degradation rates of organic phosphorus in lake sediment
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Degradation rates of organic phosphorus in lake sediment
    Vise andre…
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 82, nr 1, s. 15-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) binding groups were identified in phytoplankton, settling particles, and sediment profiles by 31P NMR spectroscopy from the Swedish mesotrophic Lake Erken. The 31P NMR analysis revealed that polyphosphates and pyrophosphates were abundant in the water column, but rapidly mineralized in the sediment. Orthophosphate monoesters and teichoic acids degraded more slowly than DNA-P, polyphosphates, and P lipids. Humic acids and organic acids from phytoplankton were precipitated from the NaOH extract by acidification and identified by 31P NMR spectroscopy. The precipitated P was significantly more recalcitrant than the P compound groups remaining in solution, but does not constitute a major sink of P as it did not reach a stable concentration with depth, which indicates that it may eventually be degraded. Since P also precipitated from phytoplankton, the origin of humic-P can not be related solely to allochthonous P.

    Emneord
    Organic P, 31P NMR, Lake sediment, Degradation rates
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97627 (URN)10.1007/s10533-006-9049-z (DOI)000244070900002 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-10-15 Laget: 2008-10-15 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Sediment Phosphorus Extractants for Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis: A Quantitative Evaluation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sediment Phosphorus Extractants for Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis: A Quantitative Evaluation
    Vise andre…
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 892-898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pre-extractant, extractant, and post-extractant on total extracted amounts of P and organic P compound groups measured with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) in lacustrine sediment was examined. The main extractants investigated were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hydroxide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) with bicarbonate buffered dithionite (BD) or EDTA as pre-extractants. Post extractions were conducted using either NaOH or NaOH-EDTA, depending on the main extractant. Results showed that the most efficient combination of extractants for total P yield was NaOH with EDTA as pre-extractant, yielding almost 50% more than the second best procedure. The P compound groups varying the most between the different extraction procedures were polyphosphates and pyrophosphates. NaOH with BD as pre-extractant was the most efficient combination for these compound groups.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94217 (URN)10.2134/jeq2006.0235 (DOI)000246430500028 ()17485721 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-31 Laget: 2006-03-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 11.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015Inngår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, s. 77-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether shortterm responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 12.
    Albihn, Ann
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Hans
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    O’Hara Ruiz, Marilyn
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    38. Preparing for Climate Change2012Inngår i: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, s. 311-328Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Almeida, Rafael M.
    et al.
    Cornell University, USA.
    Paranaíba, José R.
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Barbosa, Ícaro
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Kosten, Sarian
    University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Linkhorst, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Mendonça, Raquel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Quadra, Gabrielle
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Roland, Fábio
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Barros, Nathan
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Carbon dioxide emission from drawdown areas of a Brazilian reservoir is linked to surrounding land cover2019Inngår i: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 81, artikkel-id 68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoir sediments exposed to air due to water level fluctuations are strong sources of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The spatial variability of CO2 fluxes from these drawdown areas are still poorly understood. In a reservoir in southeastern Brazil, we investigated whether CO2 emissions from drawdown areas vary as a function of neighboring land cover types and assessed the magnitude of CO2 fluxes from drawdown areas in relation to nearby water surface. Exposed sediments near forestland (average = 2733 mg C m−2 day−1) emitted more CO2 than exposed sediments near grassland (average = 1261 mg C m−2 day−1), congruent with a difference in organic matter content between areas adjacent to forestland (average = 12.2%) and grassland (average = 10.9%). Moisture also had a significant effect on CO2 emission, with dry exposed sediments (average water content: 13.7%) emitting on average 2.5 times more CO2 than wet exposed sediments (average water content: 23.5%). We carried out a systematic comparison with data from the literature, which indicates that CO2 efflux from drawdown areas globally is about an order of magnitude higher than CO2 efflux from adjacent water surfaces, and within the range of CO2 efflux from terrestrial soils. Our findings suggest that emissions from exposed sediments may vary substantially in space, possibly related to organic matter supply from uphill vegetation, and that drawdown areas play a disproportionately important role in total reservoir CO2 emissions with respect to the area they cover.

  • 14.
    Alsmyr, Michaela
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Utvärdering av lufthalts- och nedfallsmätningar gjorda vid Korsnäsverken: Samband mellan miljöförbättrande arbete i pappers- och massaindustrin och föroreningar i närområdet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En nedgång har setts i Sverige och Europa när det gäller luftföroreningar de senast årtiondena. Nedgången beror bland annat på minskade emissioner från industrier, övergång från uppvärmning med olje- och kolpannor till fjärrvärme och förbättrad bränslekvalitet. Denna studie utvärderar lufthalts- och nedfallsmätningar gjorda i närheten av pappers- och massaindustrin Korsnäs i Gävle. Mätserierna startar vid sent 1970-tal och går fram till årsskiftet 2009/2010. Nedfall av stoft, sulfat, natrium, kalcium och lufthalter av svaveldioxid samt sot studerades. Jämförelser gjordes med Korsnäs miljöförbättrande åtgärder och emissioner under tidsperioden och med andra mätningar gjorda i Sverige och Gävleborgs län.

    Studien visade en nedgång av svaveldioxidhalterna i luften. Detta stämmer bra med en kraftig reduktion av svavelemissionerna från fabriksområdet under tidigt 1990-tal då installationer av reningsanläggningar skedde på de största emissionskällorna av svaveldioxid. En minskning av svavelhalten i eldningsoljan från Karskär Energi AB, ett energikombinat ägt av Korsnäs på samma fabriksområde, bidrog under samma tidperiod även till emissionsminskningen. Sothalten visade ingen nedåtgående trend under perioden men var säsongsberoende med i genomsnitt högre halter på vinterhalvåret. Troligtvis berodde detta på förbränningsanläggningar i närområdet, så som enskild förbränning och Karskär Energi AB. Fördelning av de högsta lufthalterna visade inte högre halter av svaveldioxid och sot när medelvindriktningen var ostlig och därmed blåste från fabriksområdet mot mätstationen utan när vindriktningen var sydvästlig och blåste från inlandet. Det totala stoft- och kalciumnedfallet visade ingen nedgång men hade i genomsnitt högre uppmätta halter på sommarhalvåret. Sulfatnedfallet visade högre halter under sent 1980-tal för att därefter minska och natriumnedfallet minskade något under perioden. Inga tydliga kopplingar kunde ses mellan lufthalter respektive nedfall och emissionerna från fabriksområdet när dataserierna sorterades efter vindriktning, vindhastighet och efter sommar- respektive vinterhalvår. Nedfall och lufthalter var inte högre, förutom för svaveldioxid, när jämförelser gjordes med andra mätningar i Sverige och Gävleborgs län och samtliga mätningar låg under periodens gällande nationella gränsvärden.

  • 15.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala. Univ Manchester, Energy & Climate Change, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Peters, Glen
    Ctr Int Climate & Environm Res, Oslo, Norway..
    Act now, not tomorrow2016Inngår i: New scientist (1971), ISSN 0262-4079, Vol. 232, nr 3098, s. 20-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala. Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Peters, Glen
    Ctr Int Climate & Environm Res Oslo CICERO, N-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    The promise of negative emissions Response2016Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 354, nr 6313, s. 714-715Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Hagberg, Jeannette
    Weidner, Helmut
    Social Science Research Center, Berlin.
    Jänicke, Martin
    Social Science Research Center, Berlin.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Semeniene, Daiva
    Ministry of Environment, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    22. Making and Implementing Environmental Policy2003Inngår i: Environmental Science: Understanding, protecting and managing the environment in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Lars Rydén, Pawel Migula and Magnus Andersson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, s. 662-689Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg.
    Graham, L. Phil
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Bergström, Sten
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Azar, Christian
    University of Gothenburg.
    10. Impacts on the Global Atmosphere: Climate Change and Ozone Depletion2003Inngår i: Environmental Science: Understanding, protecting and managing the environment in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Lars Rydén, Pawel Migula and Magnus Andersson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, s. 294-323Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19. Andersson, Robin
    Mat för idag och imorgon: Utmaningar och möjligheter för hållbara livsmedelssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
  • 20.
    Andersson, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, Cemus.
    Att samverka för hållbar utveckling: Om Cemus mötesplats och universitetets ansvar att inspirera till förändring2010Inngår i: Över gränserna: om Cemus utbildning för förändring / [ed] Hald, Matilda, Uppsala: CEMUS/CSD Uppsala , 2010, s. 39-47Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,.
    Tikhomirov, Valery
    Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus.
    15. Forests and Forestry in three Eastern European Countries2012Inngår i: Rural Development and Land Use / [ed] Lars Rydén and Ingrid Karlsson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, s. 176-185Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Ansnaes, Karl-Markus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Falu gruva och hållbar utveckling2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Falu Copper Mine and Sustainable Development

    Karl-Markus Ansnaes

    Falu copper mine was Sweden’s oldest mine industry which lasted for almost a thousand years. Throughout the history its area has been vastly contaminated by sulfur oxide. The contaminations has created the mining area to an environmental risk zone which has the ability to spread out into the Falu River. The river has its connections to the Dal River which is discharging towards its mouth in the Baltic Sea. In the year 1968 the first measurement from the polluted Falu River took place. Its metal content came from the mining area, although the decontamination expenses were too high for the running company Stora Kopparbergs Bergsslag AB to pay which then led to conflicts with the Environmental Protection Agency of Sweden on terms none of them could agree on. It was not until the year 1983 when they both agreed on a cooperation which contained of continuing measurements until a suffi-cient decontamination method could be applied. The cooperation was named Projekt Falu gruva. The first obligation was to improve the sewage plant in Främby by con-necting the contaminated water from the mining area with the waste water though a chemical treatment. In the year 1987 the treatment successfully began and the same year the Swedish government financed a delegation, called Dalälvsdelegationen, and its purpose was to decontaminate the pollutions along the Dal River. The delegation’s research led to three reports which contained the areas involved in the river’s pollu-tion as well how the mining area would be treated. In 1992 the Country Administra-tive Board of Dalarna, the Environmental Authority of Falun Municipality, the Environ-mental Protection Agency of Sweden and Stora Kopparbergs Bergsslag AB began cooperation in order to treat the polluted area of Falu copper mine. This cooperation became a project called Faluprojektet. The project consisted of three decontamina-tion priorities with different treatments in the area. The first decontamination priority resulted in a reducing amount of the polluted mining water by 80 % in the Falu River. The second and the third decontamination priorities had some issues during its treat-ment due to new environmental laws influenced in 1999 and the recognition from UNESCO as this area was since 2001 a world cultural heritage. Both the law and the recognition stated that it was forbidden to remove the waste on the ground from the area since it was a part of the cultural protection. This meant the waste was removed closer to the mine pit and became part of a slower and natural hydrological treatment which caused the sulfur dioxide penetrating into the ground. By doing this type pf treatment it reflects upon the environmental quality goals which Sweden is aiming for in order to reach for sustainable development.

  • 23.
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Dispersal and environmental impact of contaminants in organic rich, fibrous sediments of industrial origin in the Baltic Sea2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The health of the Baltic Sea is negatively affected by hazardous substances such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which include legacy pollutants that were banned decades ago, but still circulate in the ecosystem. Elevated levels of legacy pollutants, identified by HELCOM as key hazardous substances, have been found in accumulations of fibrous sediments, so-called fiberbanks and fiber-rich sediments, which derive from old pulp mills along the Swedish north coast. The fiberbanks are deposited in shallow water and bathymetrical models show evidence of their erosion, potentially caused by propeller wash, submarine landslides and gas ebullition. This thesis addresses the potential dispersal of key substances from three fiberbank sites located in a non-tidal Swedish estuary, in which metals and POPs are present in concentrations that may pose a risk for benthic organisms. Metals and POPs are partitioned to organic material and, as expected, show the highest partitioning coefficients (KD) in fiberbanks that have higher TOC levels compared to adjacent areas with fiber-rich sediments (natural clay sediments mixed up with fibers) or relatively unaffected postglacial clays. However, many analytes were found to be present in quantifiable concentrations in pore water, which indicates diffusion of substances from the solid phase to the aqueous phase. To assess the dispersive influence of an abrupt erosional event on dispersion, metals were measured in undisturbed bottom water and in bottom water disturbed by artificial re-suspension of fibrous sediments. The bioavailable, dissolved fraction of metals decreased in bottom water after re-suspension, probably due to the particle concentration effect. In contrast, the total concentrations of metals and number of quantifiable metals increased with particle concentration caused by re-suspension. At one station, the total concentration of chromium (Cr) was elevated to a level where it may lower the ecological status of the water body during periods of substantial erosion (e.g. spring floods or submarine landslides). Analyses of disturbed bottom water revealed, however, that minerogenic particles were preferentially re-suspended compared to organic. This suggests that physical erosion and re-suspension of fiberbank sediments might have a larger effect on dispersal of metals than on POPs.

    Delarbeid
    1. Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    (engelsk)Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Emneord
    Fiberbank, fiber-rich sediments, metals, bottom water, pore water, dispersal, sorption
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349805 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    TREASURE
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2014-63The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 362-1493/2013The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 411-1578/2013
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-02 Laget: 2018-05-02 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-02
    2. Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Emneord
    Chlorinated pollutants, organic carbon, fibrous sediment, pore water, pulp and paper emissions.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349824 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2014-63
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-02 Laget: 2018-05-02 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-02
  • 24.
    Apler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin2019Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 215, s. 470-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial emissions can impact aquatic environments and unregulated discharges from pulp and paper factories have resulted in deposits of cellulose fiber along the Swedish coast. These deposits are contaminated by metals, but due to their unique fibrous character the extent of sorption and dispersal of the metals is unclear. Fibrous sediments were sampled at two sites in the Ångermanälven river estuary, Sweden. The partitioning of metals between the sediment, pore water and bottom water was investigated and the degree of bioavailability was evaluated. The levels of metals in the sediment were high in fibrous or offshore samples, depending on the metal, whereas the levels of dissolved metals in pore water were low or below the limit of quantification. Partition coefficients (KD) showed that sorption to the sediment was stronger at one of the fibrous sites, possibly related to the type and size of organic matter. Undisturbed bottom water samples contained low levels of both dissolved and particle bound metals, but when comparing measured metal concentrations to threshold values of ecological status and ecotoxicological assessment criteria, both sediments and bottom water may be detrimental to living organisms. In-situ re-suspension experiments showed that the concentrations of particle bound metals increased whereas the dissolved concentrations decreased. The analyzed metals are probably retained by the solid phases of the fibrous sediment or adsorbed to particles in the water, reducing their bioavailability.

  • 25.
    Arellano, Santiago
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Yalire, M.
    Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Galle, Bo
    Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bobrowski, M.
    Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Dingwell, Adam
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Johansson, M.
    Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Norman, P.
    Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Long-term monitoring of SO2 quiescent degassing from Nyiragongo’s lava lake2017Inngår i: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 134, s. 866-873Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The activity of open-vent volcanoes with an active lava-lake, such as Nyiragongo, is characterized by persistent degassing, thus continuous monitoring of the rate, volume and fate of their gas emissions is of great importance to understand their geophysical state and their potential impact. We report results of SO2 emission measurements from Nyiragongo conducted between 2004 and 2012 with a network of ground-based scanning-DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) remote sensors. The mean SO2 emission rate is found to be 13 ± 9 kg s−1, similar to that observed in 1959. Daily emission rate has a distribution close to log-normal and presents large inter-day variability, reflecting the dynamics of percolation of magma batches of heterogeneous size distribution and changes in the effective permeability of the lava lake. The degassed S content is found to be between 1000 and 2000 ppm from these measurements and the reported magma flow rates sustaining the lava lake. The inter-annual trend and plume height statistics indicate stability of a quiescently degassing lava lake during the period of study.

  • 26.
    Arnlund, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Utredning av reningsfunktionen hos Kungsängens dagvattendamm: en studie med flödesproportionell provtagning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagvatten kallas det regn- och smältvatten som rinner av från hårdgjorda ytor i stadsmiljön. Detta vatten för ofta med sig stora mängder av föroreningar som tungmetaller, näringsämnen och oljerelaterade ämnen, vilka kan göra stor skada om de når recipienter. För att rena dagvattnet och därmed minska föroreningsbelastningen byggs det allt fler öppna dagvattensystem som t.ex. våtmarker och dammar. Studier har visat att dessa system har hög reningseffekt och dessutom är de kostnadseffektiva. Kunskapen om hur avskiljningen i dessa system fungerar och om hur de bäst utvärderas är dock begränsad.

    Kungsängsdammen utanför Uppsala är en nybyggd dagvattenanläggning som är avsedd att rena och fördröja dagvattnet från industri- och handelsområdet Boländerna. Detta examensarbete syftar till att utreda reningsfunktionen av anläggningen. Framför allt genomfördes flödesproportionell provtagning vid inlopp och utlopp under 8 veckor. Ämnen som analyserades var näringsämnena P och N, suspenderat material, tungmetallerna As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn och oljekolväten. Vid några tillfällen analyserades också de oljerelaterade organiska föreningarna PAH:er, oktyl- och nonylfenoler samt tributyltenn.

    Flödesproportionell provtagning rekommenderas för att säkert avgöra avskiljningseffektiviteten av en damm, men nackdelen är att den tar mycket tid och stora resurser i anspråk. Utöver denna metod genomfördes kompletterande mätningar med sedimentfällor samt en beräkning av föroreningsbelastning vid inloppet med programmet StormTac.

    Den flödesproportionella provtagningen visade att Kungsängsdammen fungerar väl som avskiljningsanläggning för föroreningar. Suspenderat material, näringsämnen och tungmetaller avskiljs effektivt och utloppshalterna understiger föreslagna riktvärden för dagvatten. Detta trots att både zink, koppar, kväve och suspenderat material hade inloppshalter som låg över riktvärdena. Flödesberäkningar visade att andelen av flödet som bräddas i bypass-diket förbi dammen är viktig vid bedömning av avskiljningseffektiviteten. För organiska föreningar uppmättes tributyltenn i halter över miljökvalitetsnormen för ytvatten både vid inlopp och vid utlopp. Inloppskoncentrationer framräknade i StormTac gav överensstämmande resultat med den flödesproportionella provtagningen för tungmetaller och näringsämnen. Vidare visade undersökningen av sediment att sedimentationen sker främst i fördiket och i inloppet till dammen. Fördiket är i stort behov av rensning, då sediment riskerar att spolas bort vid höga flöden.

  • 27.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. WasserCluster Lunz, Lunz Am See, Austria.
    Catalan, Nuria
    Catalan Inst Water Res ICRA, Girona, Spain.
    Einarsdóttir, Karólina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Freixa, Anna
    Catalan Inst Water Res ICRA, Girona, Spain.
    Groeneveld, Marloes M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Organic Carbon Processing During Transport Through Boreal Inland Waters: Particles as Important Sites2018Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, nr 8, s. 2412-2428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation and transformation of organic carbon (C) in inland waters result in significant CO2 emissions from inland waters. Even though most of the C in inland waters occurs as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), studies on particulate organic carbon (POC) and how it influences the overall reactivity of organic C in transport are still scarce. We sampled 30 aquatic ecosystems following an aquatic continuum including peat surface waters, streams, rivers, and lakes. We report DOC and POC degradation rates, relate degradation patterns to environmental data across these systems, and present qualitative changes in dissolved organic matter and particulate organic matter during degradation. Microbial degradation rates of POC were approximately 15 times higher compared to degradation of DOC, with POC half-lives of only 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SE) days across all sampled aquatic ecosystems. Rapid POC decay was accompanied by a shift in particulate C: N ratios, whereas dissolved organic matter composition did not change at the time scale of incubations. The faster degradation of the POC implies a constant replenishment to sustain natural POC concentrations. We suggest that degradation of organic matter transported through the inland water continuum might occur to a large extent via transition of DOC into more rapidly cycling POC in nature, for example, triggered by light. In this way, particles would be a dominant pool of organic C processing across the boreal aquatic continuum, partially sustained by replenishment via flocculation of DOC.

  • 28. Audet, Joachim
    et al.
    Bastviken, David
    Bundschuh, Mirco
    Buffam, Ishi
    Feckler, Alexander
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Natchimuthu, Siva
    Öquist, Mats
    Peacock, Michael
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Forest streams are important sources for nitrous oxide emissions2019Inngår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Audet, Joachim
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, POB 7050, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Kyllmar, Katarina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, POB 7014, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, POB 7014, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, POB 7050, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nitrous oxide emissions from streams in a Swedish agricultural catchment2017Inngår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 236, s. 295-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess nitrogen fertiliser in agricultural soils might be leached to streams and converted to the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). To assess the importance of N2O emissions from agricultural streams, concentration dynamics and emissions N2O emissions in streams were investigated in a 32 km2 lowland agricultural catchment located in Sweden. Dissolved N2O concentration was measured at nine occasions between December 2014 and August 2015 at nine stream stations. The stream stations represented sub-catchments with different land use characteristics with agricultural land use ranging from 0 to 63% of the area. Stream N2O percentage saturation ranged 40-2701% and showed large spatial and temporal variations. Statistical analysis using mixed models revealed that N2O concentration was significantly linked to nitrate concentration in the stream water, to the percentage arable land in the sub catchments as well as to the stream water discharge. Using two empirical equations to estimate the N2O emissions showed that streams were generally a source of N2O to the atmosphere (mean 108 and 175 mu g N m(-2) h(-1) with first and second equation). The catchment scale estimate of N2O stream emissions was compared to the estimate obtained using IPCC guidelines linking N fertilisation inputs and leaching to N2O emissions. The comparison suggested that N2O stream emission calculated using the IPCC methodology might be underestimated. A coarse estimate suggests that N2O stream emissions represent about 4% of the total N2O emissions from N-fertiliser at the catchment scale. Hence while streams covered only 0.1% of the catchment area they were of disproportionate importance as a source of N2O to the atmosphere.

  • 30.
    Back, Emil
    Institutionen för energi och teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Förbehandlingstekniker och LCA för rötning av organiskt avfall: Modellkonstruktion och Utvärdering med ORWARE2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this master thesis project was to develop computer models of some plausiblepretreatment techniques and to assess the potential benefits/costs of using pretreatment andanaerobic digestion for waste management of organic waste from a system perspective. Forthis purpose a computer program called ORWARE has been used. ORWARE (organic wasteresearch) is a program for making life cycle assessments of waste management. As the mainpart of the project work the ORWARE system has been provided with three new models ofpretreatment techniques. The additions consist of: One model of pretreatment with ultrasound,one model of thermal hydrolysis and one model of a screw press. All three technologies hadthe potential to deal with technical hindrances of treating certain waste types with anaerobicdigestion.With ORWARE, life cycle assessment was made by simulations of various wastemanagement scenarios. A total of nine scenarios were simulated for the waste management ofthree different types of wastes: Bio sludge, fibre sludge and food waste, with three scenariosfor each waste type. Bio sludge is microbial sludge from biological waste water treatment.Fibre sludge is lignocellulosic sludge mainly from the pulp and paper industries. Food wasteis generally considered to be the unwanted part of food from households, restaurants and foodindustry.Three primary waste management scenarios, one scenario for each waste type, which includedpretreatment and anaerobic digestion, were simulated. There was a “bio sludge scenario” withultrasonication pretreatment, a “fibre sludge scenario” with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment(THP) and a “food waste scenario” with screw press pretreatment. The rest of the ninescenarios were assessed as comparative references to the three primary ones. These scenariosrepresented conventional methods of waste management or variations of the primaryscenarios.The resulting life cycle assessments show that anaerobic digestion of some organicwastes produces about the same amount of greenhouse gases, acidifying pollutants andeutrophying pollutants as incineration does (where the heat from incineration is made useful).The biggest downside of the anaerobic digestion waste management process is the electricityuse needed for pretreatment and for heating the anaerobic digestion. An electricity cost that inthis case is assumed to be provided through coal power, which is a common assumption whenassessing the impact of margin power utilization in life cycle assessment. If that assumptioncould instead be that the electricity is provided by a less polluting power source, the anaerobicdigestion alternative could lessen the overall pollution since the methane is commonly used asa renewable substitute for fossil fuels.In this master thesis project the ecological and economical benefits and costs of managingorganic waste through pretreatment and anaerobic digestion were assessed. These benefits andcosts were compared to conventional waste management in Sweden. The comparison showsthat anaerobic digestion of organic waste is beneficial for reduction of global warming butlikely has a greater economical cost than the conventional methods, e.g. incineration.

  • 31.
    Backström, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Heynen, Martina
    Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Brännäs, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Anaesthesia and handling stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr2017Inngår i: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 100, nr 5, s. 471-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress responsiveness differs between individuals and is often categorized into different stress coping styles. Using these stress coping styles for selection in fish farming could be beneficial, since stress is one main factor affecting welfare. In Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) carotenoid pigmentation is associated with stress responsiveness and stress coping styles. Thus this could be an important tool to use for selection of stress resilient charr. However, anaesthetics seem to affect carotenoid pigmentation, and it would be better if the method for selection could be implemented during normal maintenance, which usually includes anaesthetics. Therefore, this study investigated how the use of anaesthetics affected carotenoid pigmentation, i.e. number of spots, over time compared to no-anaesthetic treatment. Additionally, the stress indicators monoamines and glucocorticoids were investigated. The results indicate that the anaesthetic MS-222 affects number of spots on the right side. This anaesthetic also increased dopaminergic activity in the telencephalon. Both brain dopaminergic and serotonergic activity was associated with spottiness. Further, behaviour during anaesthetization was associated with spots on the left side, but not the right side. Repetition of the same treatment seemed to affect spot numbers on the right side. In conclusion, this study shows that inducing stress in charr affects the carotenoid spots. Thus, it is possible to use anaesthetics when evaluating spottiness although careful planning is needed.

  • 32.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Hildebrand, Falk
    Forslund, Sofia K
    Anderson, Jennifer L
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A
    Bodegom, Peter M
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Anslan, Sten
    Coelho, Luis Pedro
    Harend, Helery
    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime
    Medema, Marnix H
    Maltz, Mia R
    Mundra, Sunil
    Olsson, Pål Axel
    Pent, Mari
    Põlme, Sergei
    Sunagawa, Shinichi
    Ryberg, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Tedersoo, Leho
    Bork, Peer
    Structure and function of the global topsoil microbiome.2018Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 560, nr 7717, s. 233-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soils harbour some of the most diverse microbiomes on Earth and are essential for both nutrient cycling and carbon storage. To understand soil functioning, it is necessary to model the global distribution patterns and functional gene repertoires of soil microorganisms, as well as the biotic and environmental associations between the diversity and structure of both bacterial and fungal soil communities1-4. Here we show, by leveraging metagenomics and metabarcoding of global topsoil samples (189 sites, 7,560 subsamples), that bacterial, but not fungal, genetic diversity is highest in temperate habitats and that microbial gene composition varies more strongly with environmental variables than with geographic distance. We demonstrate that fungi and bacteria show global niche differentiation that is associated with contrasting diversity responses to precipitation and soil pH. Furthermore, we provide evidence for strong bacterial-fungal antagonism, inferred from antibiotic-resistance genes, in topsoil and ocean habitats, indicating the substantial role of biotic interactions in shaping microbial communities. Our results suggest that both competition and environmental filtering affect the abundance, composition and encoded gene functions of bacterial and fungal communities, indicating that the relative contributions of these microorganisms to global nutrient cycling varies spatially.

  • 33.
    Beaudoin, Anne
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Pienitz, Reinhard
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Francus, Pierre
    INRS-ETE, Québec, Canada.
    Zdanowicz, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    St-Onge, Guillaume
    Université du Québec à Rimouski, Québec, Canada.
    Palaeoenvironmental history of the last six centuries in the Nettilling Lake area (Baffin Island, Canada): A multi-proxy analysis2016Inngår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 26, nr 11, s. 1835-1846Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baffin Island region in the eastern Canadian Arctic has recently experienced a rapid warming, possibly unprecedented in millennia. To investigate theresponse of freshwater environments to this warming and place it in a secular perspective, we analyzed a 90-cm-long sediment core from Nettilling Lake,the largest lake of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The core was taken from a part of the lake basin that receives meltwater and sediment inputs from thenearby Penny Ice Cap. The core time scale, established using 137Cs and palaeomagnetic techniques, spans an estimated 600 years. A multi-proxy approachwas used to document changes in the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sediments. We found evidence for a relatively warm period (mid/late 15th century to mid/late 16th century) during the early part of the ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA), characterized by high sedimentation rates and laminations.This was followed by colder, drier, and windier conditions corresponding to the coldest phase of LIA and coinciding with the latest and most extensiveperiod of regional ice cap expansion (early 16th to late 19th centuries). A rapid warming occurred at the beginning of the 20th century. Variations intitanium (Ti) content in the core, a proxy for detrital sediment inputs, showed good agreement with reconstructed secular variations in summer meltrates on Penny Ice Cap between the mid-14th century and the present-day, providing supporting evidence for a climatic–hydrological connection betweenthe ice cap and Nettilling Lake.

  • 34.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Albanova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi. IUF Leibniz Res Inst Environm Med, Hennekamp 50, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, KBC 6A Linnaeus Vag 6, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis2017Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, s. 342-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Kappala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87-95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Kappala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O-3/m(3)) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O-3/m(3)) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Kappala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A5 and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

  • 35.
    Bender, Anke
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Effects from wave power generators on the distribution of two sea pen species on the Swedish west coast2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global electricity demand doubled between 1990 and 2016 and several countries are planning for a significant increase in offshore renewable energies along the European coast. In 2015 renewable energy accounted for more than half of the new generating capacity installed in the power sector worldwide. These activities bring up an increased interest about possible environmental impacts or additional values of the new technologies. The Wave Energy Park "Sotenäs Project" is located on the west coast of Sweden, 120 km north of Gothenburg, and was the site for environmental impact studies from wave energy generators on two sea pen species, Virgularia mirabilis (Müller, 1776) and Pennatula phosphorea (Linnaeus, 1758). Sea pens and burrowing mega fauna communities are designated threatened or declining habitats or species by the OSPAR convention. Investigations of those taxa in relation to marine renewable energies are thereby both interesting and important. A ROV aided seabed survey in the wave power park and respective control areas were primarily conducted to assess Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) abundance and video footages were used to compare the abundance of the two sea pen species within the same area. Preliminary results show a significant difference between the transects and years. However, a clear increased number of individuals inside the wave power park for the two sea pen species compared to the control transects were not identified. Long-term observations and complementary studies are necessary in order to draw firm conclusions.

  • 36.
    Bender, Anke
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Environmental Effects from Wave Power –Practical Insight from two Wave Power Sites2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Bender, Anke
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Langhamer, Olivia
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Environmental Studies of Wave Power Devices – Status Update of the Lysekil Test Side2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Bengtsson, Stefan L.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, SWEDESD - Internationellt center för lärande för hållbar utveckling.
    Aporias, politics of ontology, ethics, and “we”?2016Inngår i: The Journal of Environmental Education, ISSN 0095-8964, E-ISSN 1940-1892, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 163-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Berg, Per G.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    4. The city as a sustainable living system: Hågaby as a demonstration model of the conditions required for creating a sustainable living system2002Inngår i: Basic patterns of sustainability: Reports from the Superbs project / [ed] Lars Rydén and Madeleine Granvik, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2002, 1, s. 24-33Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Living systems in general and urban structures in particular finda large number of ways to make themselves sustainable. In thischapter the five properties for sustainability applied to the modelneighbourhood Hågaby is described, and discussed as a generaltheory for sustainability of urban environments.

  • 40.
    Berg, Per G.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    5. Demonstrating sustainability in human habitats: Six resources and 50 aspects of sustainability in Hågaby settlement2002Inngår i: Basic patterns of sustainability: Reports from the Superbs project / [ed] Lars Rydén and Madeleine Granvik, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2002, 1, s. 34-38Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Methods to demonstrate resources for sustainability in the modelarea Hågaby are described. Physical, economic, organisational,human and cultural resources are studied using a mix of quantitativeand qualitative assessments.

  • 41.
    Berg, Per G.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    6. Developing sustainability in Hågaby village2002Inngår i: Basic patterns of sustainability: Reports from the Superbs project / [ed] Lars Rydén and Madeleine Granvik, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2002, 1, s. 39-56Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The results of the first four years of development (1996-2000) ofthe model project Hågaby are reported. Data include quantitativeanalysis of a series of practical projects such as solar energy,wastewater treatment, household composting, as well as socialand economic aspects of a sustainable community life.

  • 42.
    Berg, Per G
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    11. Urbanisation and Urban-Rural Cooperation2012Inngår i: Rural Development and Land Use / [ed] Lars Rydén and Ingrid Karlsson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, s. 141-154Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Bergqvist, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Ridsportens miljö- och klimatpåverkan: Miljöarbete bland Sveriges ridklubbar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla berörs av de utmaningar som samhället står inför med miljöproblem och klimatförändringar, inte minst en av Sveriges största idrotter, ridsporten. Svenska Ridsportförbundet har sedan 2016 en miljö- och hållbarhetsstrategi, och den här studien ämnar ta reda på hur ridklubbar i Sverige arbetar med två utav fem verksamhetsinriktningar i strategin: utbildning och fortbildning samt anläggning och drift. Påverkan från hästverksamheter inkluderar de sex kategorierna foder, gödselhantering, elförbrukning, transporter, häst- och ryttarutrustning samt kemikalier, som i studien kopplas till de svenska miljömålen. Det står klart att hästar och stall har en betydande påverkan på lokal miljö, och bidrar till den globala uppvärmningen, men hur stor påverkan en hästverksamhet har varierar med åtgärder som görs för att minska det ekologiska fotavtrycket. En enkätundersökning utfördes för att ta reda på hur de svenska ridklubbarna arbetar med miljö- och klimatfrågor, med förankring i utbildning och fortbildning, anläggning och drift samt kategorierna nämnda ovan. Det som slog igenom i enkäten var en uppenbar kommunikationsbrist mellan det centrala ridsportförbundet och ridklubbarna, samt en betydande kunskapsbrist om vilken påverkan hästverksamheter har på miljön och klimatet. 

  • 44.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Ekotoxikologi. ekotoxikologi.
    Olsson, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Ekotoxikologi. ekotoxikologi.
    Hvidsten, Torgeir R
    Komorowski, Jan
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Ekotoxikologi. ekotoxikologi.
    Neurotoxicity of the Olfactory toxicant 2,6-Dichlorophenyl Methylsulphone in Olfactory bulb:Impaired expression of genes relating to neurodegenerative disease2007Inngår i: DIOXIN2007, 2007, s. 1841-1844Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Berkelund, Linn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för skoglig mykologi och växtpatologi.
    Nitrifierande mikrobiella samhällen som indikatorer för förorenad jord: Jämförelse av den genetiska och funktionella potentialen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns det ungefär 25 000 riskklassade förorenade områden samt ännu fler områden som potentiellt är förorenade. Naturvårdsverket har tagit fram generella riktvärden för olika förorenade ämnen. Halter över riktvärdena antyder att risken för negativa effekter på människan eller miljön bedöms vara stor och att efterbehandling av området är aktuellt. Ett vanligt, men kostsamt efterbehandlingsalternativ är urschaktning och bortforsling av jord innehållandes halter av ämnen över riktvärdena. Ett intresse finns för att utveckla lätt tillämpbara metoder för platsspecifik riskbedömning av mark i syfte att skydda markmiljön och dess funktioner. Mikroorganismer som ingår i kvävets kretslopp utför nyckelfunktioner i jorden. Flera studier indikerar att dessa mikroorganismers abundans och aktivitet påverkas av flera olika markföroreningar.

    Inom forskningsprojektet APPLICERA har ett lysimeterexperiment genomförts där två jordar, med olika egenskaper med avseende på bland annat kornstorleksfördelning och pH (svagt basisk sandy loam respektive sur sand), förorenats med koppar respektive PAH:er i varierande halter. Halterna motsvarar riktvärden för känslig markanvändning (KM), mindre känslig markanvändning (MKM) och 3xMKM. Provtagning av jorden har skett vid tre tillfällen under en period av 16 månader. I detta examensarbete har nitrifierande mikroorganismers potential för att användas som indikatorer för förändrad markfunktion i förorenad jord undersökts. Detta har gjorts genom att kvantifiera ammoniakoxiderande arkéer (AOA), ammoniakoxiderande bakterier (AOB) samt de nitritoxiderande bakteriesläktena Nitrospira och Nitrobacter i jord som provtagits vid de olika tidpunkterna i lysimeterexperimentet. Mätning av potentiell ammoniakoxidation (PAO) har skett för jord från det sista provtagningstillfället.

    Resultaten visade att abundansen av mikroorganismerna generellt var större i den svagt basiska jorden klassificerad som sandy loam än i den sura jorden klassificerad som sand. Med tiden minskade AOA:s abundans för den högsta koncentrationen av koppar och PAH, särskilt utpräglad var minskningen i den sura jorden. Även Nitrospira minskade i abundans i PAH-förorenad jord för båda jordtyperna, dock kunde en minskning i abundans i kopparförorenad jord statistisk endast säkerställas för den sura jorden. AOB:s och Nitrobacters abundans visade inte på någon tydlig uppåt- eller nedåtgående trend varken över tid eller för ökande föroreningshalt. Skillnaden i kvantitet av mikroorganismer mellan jordtyperna antyder att jordens kemiska och fysiska egenskaper påverkade mikroorganismernas abundans såväl som föroreningarnas biotillgänglighet. PAO minskade med ökande kopparhalt för båda jordtyper, däremot sågs en minskning i PAO med ökande PAH-halt endast i den sura jorden. Resultaten antyder att abundansen av AOA och Nitrospiras verkar ha störst potential att utgöra generella indikatorer över ändrad markfunktion, dock lämpligen med komplettering av förbättrade mätningar av PAO för att få mer information om kvävets kretslopp i förorenad jord.

  • 46.
    Bernabó, Ilaria
    et al.
    Department of Animal Biology, University of Calabria, Italy.
    Brunelli, Elivra
    Department of Animal Biology, University of Calabria, Italy.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Ekotoxikologi.
    Bonacci, Antonella
    Department of Animal Biology, University of Calabria, Italy.
    Tripepi, Sandro
    Department of Animal Biology, University of Calabria, Italy.
    Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization2008Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 447-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC(50)). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles.

  • 47. Berry, Pam
    et al.
    Fabok, Veronika
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Bredin, Yennie
    Garcia-Llorente, Marina
    Kovacs, Eszter
    Gaemana, Nicoleta
    Stanciu, Adina
    Termansen, Mette
    Jääskeläinen, Tiina
    Haslett, John R.
    Harrison, Paula A.
    Why conserve biodiversity? A multi-national exploration of stakeholders views on the arguments for biodiversity conservation2018Inngår i: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 27, s. 1741-1762Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Birkholzer, Jens T.
    et al.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Bond, Alexander E.
    Quintessa Ltd, Warrington, Cheshire, England.
    Hudson, John A.
    Imperial Coll Emeritus, London, England.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH Royal Inst Technol Emeritus, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tsang, Chin-Fu
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Shao, Hua
    BGR Fed Inst Geosci & Nat Resources, Hannover, Germany.
    Kolditz, Olaf
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Leipzig, Germany;TUDD Tech Univ Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    DECOVALEX-2015: an international collaboration for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geological systems2018Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 77, nr 14, artikkel-id 539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Björnberg, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Elenström, Anna-Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Concentrations Found in the Water, Soil and Crops in Kampala2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In Kampala, the capital of Uganda, there is an extensive use of water mixed with wastewater for irrigation of crops. The water is taken from Nakivubo channel that flows through the centre of the city, and since the wastewater treatment in the city is insufficient, the channel water might contain pharmaceuticals that are spread to the farmlands and the crops that are grown in Nakivubo wetland. The aim of this Master’s thesis was to examine the concentration of some selected pharmaceuticals in water, soil and crop samples collected from Nakivubo channel and the area surrounding it. The water was analysed from five measurement points in the Nakivubo channel and Lake Victoria. The solid samples comprised of soil and crops collected from cocoyam, maize and sugar cane fields in the Nakivubo area. The pharmaceutical analyses were carried out through pharmaceutical extraction (solid phase extraction and QuEChERS) and the use of LC-MS (liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry). The capacities of the water and soil to reduce pharmaceuticals were analysed and a risk assessment was made in order to determine if it was harmful to drink water from Lake Victoria, the source of drinking water for Kampala, or to eat the crops that were grown in the wetland.

    A majority of the pharmaceuticals studied (42 substances) were detected in the water samples (29 substances). The most common pharmaceuticals detected in the water were atenolol, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole showed the highest average concentrations in the various water samples (26100 ng/l and 3790 ng/l respectively). Fewer pharmaceuticals were detected in the soil compared to the water (11 substances). The pharmaceuticals most frequently found in the soil were carbamazepine and pyrimethamine and they also had the highest average concentrations along with trimethoprim, 4.6-9.4 ng/g, 8.4-14.0 ng/g and 39.6 ng/g, respectively. No pharmaceuticals could be detected in the edible part of maize and sugar cane, but lidocaine, trimethoprim and pyrimethamine were found in detectable concentrations in the yam (on average 1.2-2.2 ng/g). A significant negative correlation could be found between carbamazepine and total suspended solids (TSS) in the water (linear regression: y = -0.67x +3.98, R2 = 0.35, p < 0.05, n = 14). The risk assessment showed that the concentrations found in the yam and water in Lake Victoria together with the average daily intake of yam and drinking water was not hazardous to the people of Kampala. However, eating more than 0.5 kg of yam daily might pose a risk with regards to pyrimethamine. On the other hand, the concentration in the yam might decrease when it is boiled, and this has not been accounted for.

  • 50.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Johansson, Frank
    Effects of management, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016Inngår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, s. 103-112-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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