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  • 1.
    Albjär, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sandgrunnorna in Lule Archipelago: Recent Transformation of a Glaciofluvial Deposit in an Environment of Land Uplift1985Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an area of rapid land uplift the geomorphological evolution of the glaciofluvial island of Sandgrunnorna, 25 km SE Luleå, in the Bothnian Bay, is discussed from old maps, air photographs and field studies. The island were marked on a map for the first time in 1790, but the highest parts can be estimated to have reached the sea surface about 100 years earlier. The areal growth has been reconstructed by map and air photograph studies. A model of the geomorphological evolution based on the interaction between bottom morphology, land uplift and waves is presented.

  • 2.
    Alm, Micael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Probability Modelling of Alpine Permafrost Distribution in Tarfala Valley, Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A field data collection has been carried out in Tarfala valley at the turn of March to April 2017. The collection resulted in 36 BTS-measurements (Bottom Temperature of Snow cover) that has been used in combination with data from earlier surveys, to create a model of the occurrence of permafrost around Tarfala. To identify meaningful parameters that permafrost relies on, independent variables were tested against BTS in a stepwise regression. The independent variables elevation, aspect, solar radiation, slope angle and curvature were produced for each investigated BTS-point in a geographic information system.                 The stepwise regression selected elevation as the only significant variable, elevation was applied to a logistic regression to model the permafrost occurrence. The final model showed that the probability of permafrost increases with height. To distinguish between continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost, the model was divided into three zones with intervals of probability. The continuous permafrost is the highest located zone and therefore has the highest likelihood, this zone delimits the discontinuous permafrost at 1523 m a.s.l. The discontinuous permafrost has probabilities between 50-80 % and its lower limit at 1108 m a.s.l. separates the discontinuous zone from the sporadic permafrost. 

  • 3.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Erikson, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    The Ability of Regional Climate Models to Simulate Weather Conditions on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, we analyse the ability of two regional climate models to simulate meteorological conditions on Nordenskiöldbreen, a glacier in Svalbard. To do so, regional climate model output is compared with in situ measurements from an automatic weather station. Detailed information about the weather conditions on Nordenskiöldbreen is important for simulating the glacial mass balance in a changing climate. The parameters analysed were the following: temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind speed and wind direction. The weather station did not measure all parameters, cloud cover was instead estimated through the incoming longwave radiation and temperature, while precipitation was calculated from snow depth. The results show that the models represent certain parameters better than others. Temperature, air pressure and wind speed and direction are found to be simulated with high precision. Poorest agreement is found for precipitation, which appears to be both difficult to simulate and observe. Relative humidity and cloud cover show average agreement with the station.

    The conclusion of the project is that the estimation of some of the parameters is satisfactory, while others are lacking. None of the models can be determined to have performed significantly better than the other.

  • 4.
    Andreas C., Bryhn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Improving the management of aquatic ecosystems through modelling.2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 5.
    Ardung, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Aspektorienterade vittringsprocesser: En studie i ett nordiskt klimat2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Weathering on rocks is an important component of the world’s geomorphology. One way to measure weathering on rocks is to analyse rock hardness. This is a study conducted in the northern hemisphere on granite rocks in Uppsala, Sweden. A Schmidt hammer is used to create a correlation analysis between the aspects on three glacial erratic boulders and rock weathering. Statistics from the Schmidt hammer were then collected and analysed. The results showed a difference between the aspects of the rocks. Although only small differences between the rocks were found, the south and south-east aspects of the rocks were softer and suffered from a more dynamic rock weathering than the north aspects of the rocks. The reason to the more dynamic weathering on the south facing aspects is suggested to be because of a more dynamic thermal stress weathering. The same reason caused the north aspect to have a steeper slope and a more dense lichen cover. 

  • 6.
    Bajdek, Piotr
    et al.
    Aleja Najswietszej Maryi Panny 20-20A, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Owocki, Krzysztof
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Golubev, Valeriy K.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Residues from the Upper Permian carnivore coprolites from Vyazniki in Russia - key questions in reconstruction of feeding habits2017In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 482, p. 70-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues of twenty-five coprolite fragments collected from the Upper Permian of Vyazniki (European Russia) were studied in detail. The phosphatic composition, general shape and size, and bone inclusions of these specimens indicate that medium to large-sized carnivores, such as therocephalian therapsids or early archosauriforms, were the most likely coprolite producers. The contents of the examined fossils (i.e. Scale, bone and tooth fragments, mineral grains, and microbial structures) do not differ significantly among the samples, implying fairly comparable feeding habits of their producers. Fragments of large tooth crowns in two of the analyzed samples imply that either (1) the coprolite producer swallowed the cranial elements of its prey or (2) the coprolite producer broke and swallowed its own tooth while feeding (such tooth damage is known in archosaurs that have tooth replacement, e.g. crocodiles and dinosaurs). Indeed, the most complete tooth fragment in these fossils is serrated, most likely belonging to an early archosauriform known from skeletal records from the Late Permian of Vyaznilci. Another coprolite fragment contains the etched tooth of a lungfish, while putative actinopterygian fish remains (scales and small fragments of bones) are abundant in some samples. Mineral particles (mostly quartz grains, feldspars and mica) may have been swallowed accidentally. The preserved microbial colonies (mineralized fossil fungi and bacteria or their pseudomorphs), manifested in the coprolites as Fe-rich mineral structures, seem to have developed on the expelled feces rather than on the items before they were swallowed.

  • 7.
    Bayard, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Validering av modellerad skredkänsligheti finkornig jordart2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A landslide is a type of mass movement down a slope. It is a natural part of the evolution of the landscapearound us but can cause extensive damages on buildings, infrastructure and pose a threat to human livesif they occur in populated areas. It is therefore important to know which areas that are prone to landslidesso that appropriate measures can be taken in time. It is possible to calculate how stable a certain soil isby taking samples of it and testing it in the lab. In these tests it is determined how sensitive the soil is tovibrations, a higher water content and/or if it is remolded. However, this takes time and require a lot ofwork. Since not all soil types are equally sensitive these tests do not have to be performed on everyslope, but it is important that the most sensitive areas are not overlooked. For this reason, a model hasbeen developed that displays areas where the slope stability might need to be examined prior, forexample, larger infrastructure projects are started. From previous studies it has been found thatlandslides mostly occur in fine grained soils, like silt and clay, and where the slope is steeper than 5.7degrees. Areas that consist of any of these soil types and has a slope over this threshold are consideredpotentially sensitive to landslides in the model. The purpose of this study was to assess how well themodel is at identifying areas that might be prone to landslides. This was done by determining how manyof previous landslides, that are registered in two databases, that fall within the areas marked aspotentially sensitive. Why some landslides were located outside of these areas was also examined. Themain reasons were that the soil type the landslide occurred in is not considered sensitive by the modelor the inclination of the slope have changed since the landslide occurred. 90 - 94 % of the previouslandslides were found to be located within areas that the model point out as potentially sensitive.

  • 8.
    Beaudoin, Anne
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Pienitz, Reinhard
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Francus, Pierre
    INRS-ETE, Québec, Canada.
    Zdanowicz, Christian M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    St-Onge, Guillaume
    Université du Québec à Rimouski, Canada.
    Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Nettilling Lake area (Baffin Island, Nunavut): A multi-proxy analysis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paleoclimate and paleolimnological history of several Arctic regions remains poorly known. This is the casefor the area around Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut), the largest lake of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.To reconstruct the past environmental history of this area, a highly innovative multi-proxy approach combiningphysical, magnetic, chemical and biological properties preserved in lake sediments was used. One particular goalof this study was to investigate the possible coupling between sedimentation processes observed in the lake andmelt rates of nearby Penny Ice Cap.A 1-m long sediment core was retrieved from a small bay in the northeastern part of Nettilling Lake duringthe summer of 2010. This sampling area was chosen based on the hypothesis that incoming glacial meltwatersfrom Penny Ice Cap would leave a strong climate-modulated signal that would be reflected in the sedimentarysequence. The core was analyzed by both non-destructive (X-radiography (X-ray), microfluorescence-X (-XRF),magnetic susceptibility) and destructive (Loss On Ignition, grain size, water content, thin sections, diatoms)techniques. Radiometric AMS 14C and 210Pb/137Cs age determinations, as well as paleomagnetic measurements,were used to develop the core chronology, yielding an estimated bottom age of approximately 1365 AD.The sedimentation rate (0.15 cm.yr-1) in Nettilling Lake was found to be high compared to other Arctic lakes,due to inputs of highly turbid meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap with high suspended sediment loads. Significantcorrelations were found between geochemical profiles of elements linked to detrital inputs (Si, Ti, K, Ca) and meltrates from Penny Ice Cap since the 19th century. This suggests that variations in detrital elements in NettillingLake sediments might be used as an indirect indicator of regional climate fluctuations (e.g., summer temperatures) that determine glacier melt rates.

  • 9.
    Beaudon, Emelie
    et al.
    U Lapland.
    Moore, John C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Martma, Tönu
    Pohjola, Veijo A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    van De Wal, Roderik S.W.
    Kohler, Jack
    Isaksson, Elisabeth
    Lomonosovfonna and Holtedahlfonna ice cores reveal east west disparities of the Spitsbergen environment since AD 17002013In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652, Vol. 59, no 218, p. 1069-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ice core extracted from Holtedahlfonna ice cap, western Spitsbergen, record spanning the period 1700–2005, was analyzed for major ions. The leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) component is correlated with an index of summer melt (log([Na + ]/[Mg 2+ ]) from 1850 and shows that almost 50% of the variance can be attributed to seasonal melting since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The Holtedahlfonna d 18 O value is less negative than in the more easterly Lomonosovfonna ice core, suggesting that moist air masses originate from a closer source, most likely the Greenland Sea. During the Little Ice Age the lower methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration and MSA non-sea-salt sulfate fraction are consistent with the Greenland Sea as the main source for biogenic ions in the ice cores. Both the melt index and the MSA fraction suggest that the early decades of the 18th century may have exhibited the coldest summers of the last 300 years in Svalbard. Ammonium concentrations rise from 1880, which may result from the warming of the Greenland Sea or from zonal differences in atmospheric pollution transport over Svalbard. During winter, neutralized aerosols are trapped within the tropospheric inversion layer, which is usually weaker over open seas than over sea ice, placing Holtedahlfonna within the inversion more frequently than Lomonosovfonna.

  • 10.
    Beaudon, Emilie
    et al.
    Lapplands Universitetet, Finland.
    Arppe, Laura
    Jonsell, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Martma, Tonu
    Möller, Marco
    Pohjola, Veijo A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Scherer, Dieter
    Moore, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Spatial and temporal variability of net accumulation from shallow cores from Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard)2011In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 287-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse ice cores from Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard). Oxygen isotopic measurements were made on three firn cores (6.0, 11.0 and 15.5 m deep) from the two highest summits of the glacier located on the SW–NE and NW–SE central ridges. Sub-annual δ18O cycles were preserved and could be counted visually in the uppermost parts of the cores, but deeper layers were affected by post-depositional smoothing. A pronounced δ18O minimum was found near the bottom of the three cores. We consider candidates for this δ18O signal to be a valuable reference horizon since it is also seen elsewhere in Nordaustlandet. We attribute it to isotopically depleted snow precipitation, which NCEP/NCAR reanalysis shows was unusual for Vestfonna, and came from northerly air during the cold winter of 1994/95. Finding the 1994/95 time marker allows establishment of a precise depth/age scale for the three cores. The derived annual accumulation rates indirectly fill a geographical gap in mass balance measurements and thus provide information on spatial and temporal variability of precipitation over the glacier for the period spanned by the cores (1992–2009). Comparing records at the two locations also reveals that the snow net accumulation at the easternmost part of Vestfonna was only half of that in the western part over the last 17 years.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Knut-Erland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Att undervisa i hållbar utveckling: Samarbeten, ämnesdidaktik och geografi2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how teachers use collaboration, didactics and geography to teach sustainable development to upper secondary pupils in Swedish schools. A qualitative and interview method was chosen in order to catch the strategies amongst teachers and their perceptions in these matters. Five in depth interviews were held with experienced teachers in four different schools. These interviews were selected by different strategies such as the Possibility Principle and the understanding of gatekeepers’ roles’. A narrative material was collected. Four theoretical areas were developed for analysing the retrieved material. A school with a clear sustainability profile has both resources and the developed didactical methods, to enhance the understanding of sustainable development. However, the investigated schools have their own varieties of tackling lacking time and resources which have developed competencies’ in different ways. These are complementary didactical methods in order to enhance sustainable development. For further research a historical perspective was suggested.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Meteorological Conditions on Nordenskiöldbreen Glacier, Svalbard (2009 – 2015)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Glacial environments in the Arctic are a much-studied topic as well as a field of research with strong influences regarding the current and future global climate of our planet. This report is focused on the meteorological conditions on Nordenskiöldbreen glacier from 2009-2015 and how they correlate with each other, the glacier surface and the surrounding terrain. With data gathered from an automatic weather station located at the centre of the glacier, a range of meteorological parameters is examined; wind direction and velocity, snow depth, cloud cover, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, temperature deficit, albedo and drifting snow. Seasonal differences were discovered, especially for wind direction and velocity where winds from the northeast occurred more frequently in the winter, indicating katabatic winds, whereas winds from the west and southwest were more pronounced in the summer. The calculated temperature deficit shows that katabatic winds blow down-glacier under stably stratified conditions and are shown to increase in strength with increasing temperature deficit (atmospheric temperature minus surface temperature). The mean albedo at Nordenskiöldbreen during this period is within the expected limits, 0.8 for snow and 0.3 for ice and the cloud cover was 0.58. Additionally, it could be observed that the occurrence of dry, drifting snow is present in the winter season as snow depth shows pronounced drops during high-wind events in winter. Overall, it is concluded that most of the examined parameters correlate and need each other to function and act as mechanisms within the cryosphere and as such it is crucial for scientists to understand their connected relationships when attempting to study global climate changes.

  • 13.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    A conceptual model of climate-related effects on lake ecosystems2005In: Hydrobiologia, Vol. 553, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Blomdahl, Klara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Changes in the Cold Surface Layer on a Polythermal Glacier during Substantial Ice Mass Loss2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change in the Arctic and sub-Arctic has induced substantial changes in the inland cryosphere. The warming climate is causing a reduction in glacier size and extent and the average net mass balance for Arctic glaciers have been negative over the past 40 years. Relatively few studies have been conducted concerning the development of the thermal distribution in glaciers during extensive volume changes. There is a possible diversity in how the thermal structure might change with a changing climate. Storglaciären is losing the cold surface layer in the ablation area and progressively becomes more temperate, while Kårsaglaciären is losing the zone of temperate ice in the ablation area and consequently becoming colder. The overall objective of this study has been to improve the understanding of the thermal response of polythermal glaciers to climate change. The results from Pårteglaciären, northern Sweden, indicate a decrease in volume by 18% in the last 15 years with an expected decrease of 35% of its present size during the coming century. As a consequence of the prevailing climate and volume decrease Pårteglaciären is experiencing a thinning of the cold surface layer at an average rate of 1.13 m a-1. The volumetric and cold surface layer changes are in the same magnitude, which may indicate that the CTS adapts relatively rapidly to the present changes. Assuming a climatic effect similar to what has been observed on Storglaciären, it can be concluded that the thinning has influenced the thermal regime. But in contrast to Kårsaglaciären, the thermal distribution on Pårteglaciären has become more temperate as a result of the substantial mass loss. 

  • 15.
    Blomdahl, Klara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Förändringar i BTS-temperatur i Storglaciärens ablationsområde mellan 2001 till 20112013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climatological changes have a direct impact on glacial systems by altering the thermal structure of glaciers. Sub-Arctic Scandinavia has experienced a climatic warming since the 1980s and the Tarfala valley has showed an increase in winter temperature by 1°C during the same period. Increased winter temperatures result in changes in the glacial temperature distribution, since higher temperatures contribute to a longer melt season. Storglaciären in the Kebnekaise massif in Swedish Lapland has a polythermal temperature distribution with a cold surface layer in the ablation area. The cold surface layer has experienced a thinning by 22% since the late 1980s and, since no significantly increased summer ablation has been noted, the increased winter temperature may be an indicator that the ice surface temperature is a controlling factor for the preservation of the cold surface layer. The aim of my project is to detect changes in the ice surface temperature in the ablation area of Storglaciären between 2001 and 2011. The changes are related to the pattern of the cold surface layer thickness and its change over time. In March-April 2011, before the spring melt, the temperature at the ice surface was measured at 46 locations distributed in the ablation area of Storglaciären. The bottom temperature of snow cover (BTS) is stable through the winter under the premise that the snow cover is sufficiently thick (>0.8 meters) to insulate the ice surface from short-term variations in air temperature. Since the manual temperature measurement only provides point data, an interpolation was made for the entire ablation area. The interpolated BTS-temperatures from 2011 show relatively warmer temperatures in the northernmost parts of the ablation area. The measured BTS-temperatures from 2011 show similarities with the distribution of the cold surface layer thickness of the glacier from 2009. Areas with higher BTS-temperatures coincide with areas with a thinner cold surface layer, whilst a thicker cold surface layer is associated with lower BTS-temperatures. Areas with the highest BTS-temperatures in 2011 also correlate with the areas where the thinning of the cold surface layer was greatest between 2001 until 2009. The pattern of the thinning is reflected in the BTS-temperatures, despite that there are other conditions and the BTS-temperature might therefor be a possible indicator for changes in the CTS position and the cold surface layer thickness.

  • 16.
    Boelhouwers, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. ELD.
    Sumner, Paul
    Blockfields and blockstreams in southern Africa: a review2003In: Permafrost: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Boelhouwers, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Landscape Dynamics.
    Active-layer climate, landforms and processes at Basen and Fossilrygen2005Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 18.
    Boelhouwers, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Miljö och Landskaps Dynamik.
    New perspectives on autochthonous blockfield development2004In: Polar Geography, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of coarse blocky mantles in cold regions has played a central role in the both the original definition of the periglacial facies by Lozinski and the establishment of a perception on the widespread efficacy of frost weathering amongst periglacial geomorphologists. This paper challenges these notions as simplistic “geomyths” that limit the understanding of blocky weathering and blockfield development, whether in cold or warm regions. Mechanisms of block production increasingly appear the result of a-zonal weathering processes such as chemical weathering and thermal stress fatigue, with bedrock fractures a prequisite rather than an outcome of frost action. Observations from outside cold regions and the long-term landscape development associated with many blockfields further lead to broaden perspectives beyond simplistic frost action. Instead blockfields appear the result of complex process interactions and climatic histories that defy straightforward palaeoclimatic interpretations.

  • 19.
    Boelhouwers, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. ELD.
    Southern Hemisphere permafrost studies - A pole apart2004In: Ice and Climate News: the WCRP Climate and Cryosphere Newsletter, no 5, p. 5-7Article, review/survey (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 20.
    Boelhouwers, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Jonsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Critical assessment of the 2°C min−1 threshold for thermal stress weathering2013In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock surface temperature changes in excess of 2°C min−1 have been argued to result in permanent strain in rock. The single threshold value and the supposed importance of a rate of 2°C min−1 rock temperature change is rejected, based on lack of a sufficient empirical basis, contrasting results from acoustic emission studies, varying strength properties of different rock types, lack of data on actual strain resulting from short-term temperature variations, and lack of notable long-term weathering effects in Nordic environments. Based on the presented discussion, the role of thermal shock weathering in cold regions is questioned and renewed emphasis is placed on the importance of absolute temperature and measurement of strain, as well as spatial temperature gradients.

  • 21.
    Boelhouwers, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Meiklejohn, Ian
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Holness, Stephen
    Hedding, David
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Geology, Geomorphology and Climate Change: land-sea interactions in a changing ecosystem2008In: The Prince Edward Islands: Land-Sea Interactions in a Changing Ecosystem, Stellenbosch: Sun Press , 2008, p. 65-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Boelhouwers, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Miljö och Landskapsdynamik.
    Scheepers, Theo
    The role of antelope trampling on scarp erosion in a hyper-arid environments, Skeleton Coast, Namibia2004In: Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 58, p. 545-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of animal trampling in an hyper-arid environment is evaluated. Field observations on fluvial terraces of the Uniab fan in Namibia suggest that animal impact on level surfaces with gravel armouring is minimal. However, animal trampling along tracks across scarp slopes result in scarp recess and initiate cutback development. With continued growth ephemeral fluvial processes become more dominant and obscure the animal impact. Animal trampling effects are pronounced in hyper-arid environments due to the low rates of other slope processes. However, it is argued that large herd migration may have contributed significantly to cutback development in other environments, especially in Africa, but may be very difficult to substantiate by landform analysis.

  • 23.
    Bolzan, JF
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Pohjola, V
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Reconstruction of the undiffused seasonal oxygen isotope signal in central Greenland ice cores2000In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, ISSN 0148-0227, Vol. 105, no C9, p. 22095-22106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climatologically important seasonal signal in ice core oxygen isotope records is altered by diffusion with time. Here we use the diffusion model of Whillans and Grootes [1985] to calculate the effects of isotopic diffusion in nine shallow ice cores recovered over a 150 x 150 km grid centered on Summit, Greenland. Two different computational methods give similar results for the back-diffused delta(18)O seasonal extrema. Although back diffusing the ice core delta(18)O records improves the correlations between the individual ice core oxygen isotope and Greenland coastal temperature records; the correlations remain poor, particularly for the low-accumulation sites. Stacking the back-diffused isotopic records from several cores results in much higher correlations, with a strong winter linkage between west coast stations and central Greenland. These correlations are also significantly greater than the correlations between the stacked measured (diffused) isotopic profiles and coastal temperatures. Our results indicate that the use of ice core isotopic records to identify anomalous seasons requires that diffusion effects be accounted for.

  • 24.
    Borg, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mechanisms controlling valley asymmetry development at Abisko, northern Sweden and Sani Pass, southern Africa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The main goal of this study is to examine mechanisms controlling valley asymmetry development at two locations with distinctly differing environmental parameters and to develop a model for the two locations. As a secondary aim the knowledge gained from the main goal is thought to help understand the very uncertain glacial past of the high Drakensberg as it can be compared to the much accepted glacial history of Abisko.

    Parameters studied were slope angle, landforms, vegetation cover, block abundance, available moisture, bedrock characteristics, temperature and soil moisture. Some parameters were not studied in the field due to time issues; these were instead gathered by literature study. These parameters were structural weakness, soil depth and glaciation.

    Results show that the environmental differences noted between each sites north and south facing slope are clear. The side facing the equator is at both locations less steep, warmer and has more diverse vegetation. Temperature development with elevation was statistically analyzed and showed no correlation or not statistically significant correlation on all slopes. The expectation the south facing side of the Sani Pass transect showed where a statistically significant decline in temperature with elevation.

    The main conclusion drawn is that valley asymmetry development at both locations is controlled by the increased intensity of denudational processes on the side facing the equator as a result of the larger input of radiative energy there. It is also suggested that internal feedback mechanisms are related to the hastening of asymmetric development.

    The main constraint of the study is that not large enough data sets were gathered and that some important parameters like soil depth could not be included in the study. More research is needed in the field of vegetation’s role in interacting with physical processes on mountain slopes. The role of vegetation as an enhancer or retarder of geomorphic processes is not sufficiently understood.

  • 25.
    Borg, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Höjdförändringar på Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, 1996-20122013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate changes and the global warming have a great impact on the Arctic environments. This partially depends on that the albedo is getting lower when snow and ice is melting and exposes more and more dark surfaces of the land and sea. This leads to a feedback effect; the melting accelerates because dark surfaces attract more sun radiation. Because of the heating the glaciers in Arctic retreat. The purpose of this report is to obtain an eventual change in elevation on the glacier Lomonosovfonna that is located on Svalbard by comparing elevation data collected by NASA and GPS data from 1996-2012. The data was processed in ArcGIS and Matlab and the result is a change in elevation during the periods 1996-2012, 1996-2002 and 2002-2012. The result shows an average height decrease of Lomonosovfonna of -0,44 meters per year. When the result is reviewed, one can notice that both an increase and a decrease in height are observed on Lomonosovfonna. On the edge of the glacier, that border to Billefjorden, only a decrease in elevation is noticed. Some differences in elevation is very high in this area, and this can be due to three causes; the highest amount of melting occurs on the edges because of the higher air temperature at low elevation cause high melt, a calving have occurred or the difference is due to that the glacier is steepest in this area and therefore small position errors between measurements can cause big differences. The result also shows that the melting is accelerating, since the average melting of Lomonosovfonna was -0,26 meters per year during the period 1996-2002 and during the period 2002-2012 the melting had increased to -0,54 meters per year. The results are all in line with earlier measurements and reports and also with predictions for the climate. 

  • 26.
    Borghero, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Study of morphological evolution of dune fields in Cantabria  (N. Spain) during the Anthropocene2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The beach-dune system constitutes a dynamic system in which several natural processes interact, both at short and long time scale. Beaches are important because are the source of sediment for the dunes that form at the limit of the shore and that create barriers that protect the mainland from the high energy waves and from floods. However dunes are quite fragile features because susceptible to erosion and for this reason they need particular attention and management, tasks not always easy to carry out since the factors involved are numerous. Along the Cantabrian coast, northern Spain, extended dune fields are present in correspondence with estuarine environments. In the last few decades they have experienced erosion due to natural agents such as winds, superficial water currents and river discharge and due to the anthropogenic influence, which after the Second World War started to increase, until the present. Additionally, intense erosive events such as storms occur seasonally, causing eventually damages to the infrastructures; the last remarkable events happened precisely in January and February 2014. The objective of this work is the analysis of the evolution of the surface and limits of four representative dune fields in the region of Cantabria in the northern Spain, describing first the main factors involved. The study is based on nine sets of aerial photographs and orthophotos ranging from 1956 to 2014 for each site, overlapped and elaborated through the software ArcGIS; the digital work allowed the calculation of the rates of migration for each interval of time along with the computation of the surface extent of each dune field. The results indicate that as general trend the coastline has retroceded in the last 58 years at average rates of 0.7m/y, but still exist, even within same dune fields, different behaviors, making of each site a complex dynamic system. The interpretation of the results led to the recognition of a rough conceptual model of evolution for each dune field: three out of four respond mainly to natural forces, while the other one migrates because of the anthropogenic pressure. The study here presented constitutes a rough attempt to examine the different processes that are implicated in the formation of large dune fields and, even though 58 years are not enough to delineate a precise evolution trend, it can be useful for future researches about coastal management

  • 27. Brand, G
    et al.
    Pohjola, V
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hooke, R. LeB.
    Evidence for a till layer beneath Storglaciären, Sweden, based on electrical resistivity measurements.1987In: Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 33, no 115, p. 311-314Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Braun, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Alaska.
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Möller, Marco
    Finkelnburg, Roman
    Falk, Ulrike
    Scherer, Dieter
    Schneider, Christoph
    Changes of glacial front positions of Vestfonna (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard)2011In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glaciers in Svalbard have shown considerable mass loss in recent years with a reported acceleration in the western and southern parts of the archipelago. However, for the ice cap Vestfonna, in northeastern Svalbard, climatic mass balance modelling has suggested almost balanced conditions over a period of nine years (2000–2009). A slightly positive geodetic mass balance (1990–2005) has been reported from a comparison of laser altimetry to older DEMs. A heterogeneous situation has been depicted for the various catchments, and hence changes in glacier extent can reveal additional information of glacier status, in particular when dealing with surge-type glaciers. We analysed a 34-year data record of multi-spectral satellite imagery in order to study changes in glacier frontal positions of the ice cap Vestfonna. A consistent pattern of almost steady retreat of the southern and north-eastern outlet glaciers of the ice cap is observed while Franklinbreen, the only major outlet glacier draining towards the north-west shows re-advance. This is consistent with an observed speed up and potential upcoming surge of this outlet. The glacier retreat on the southern coast also agrees with ICESat elevation change measurements. However, due to the glacier response time no direct relations between frontal retreat and surface mass balance can be drawn from the short observation period. The heterogeneous pattern of changes with on-going dynamic adjustments in some areas make the ice cap Vestfonna an ideal test site for future monitoring activities including novel techniques like differential interferometry from bi-static SAR systems.

  • 29. Bueler, Ed
    et al.
    van Pelt, Ward
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Mass-conserving subglacial hydrology in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model version 0.62015In: Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1613-1635Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Cans, Elias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bengtsson, Lovisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Snömätningsanalys för utveckling av vårflodsprognosering i Vängelsjöns delavrinningsområde2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, spring flood forecasts are calculated through a hydrological model, the HBVmodel. It is a model that is used operationally both in Sweden and in other countries to obtain catchment forecasts. One problem with these forecasts is that they often give errors in calculations to the inflow volume. In this study the Vängelsjö sub catchment will be examined. A forecast area where the HBV-model flow forecasting has given large volume errors. In the report it is therefore examined if the operational model can be corrected with snow measurement data. In this report snow depth observations and density measurements from Vattenregleringsföretagen (VRF) have been analyzed, together with snow depth observations from the Swedish Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (SMHI) to see if the data can be used to improve the forecasting for Vängelsjö sub catchment. The study shows that there is a potential in using snow measurement observations to reduce insecurities in the flow forecast for Vängelsjö sub catchment. The best result was received by using three snow stations from SMHI and two from VRF. The result from those five stations gave a volume error in measured snow water equivalent (SWE) at 6 %, 7 %, 22% and 17 % for Mars during the period 2014-2017, which gave a significant improvement against the modelled forecast value with volume errors of 40 %, 77 %, 24 % and 49 % for the same period.

  • 31.
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    et al.
    Bavarian Acad Sci & Humanities, Munich, Germany..
    Fischer, Andrea
    Austrian Acad Sci, Inst Interdisciplinary Mt Res, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Kuhn, Michael
    Univ Innsbruck, Inst Atmospher & Cryospher Sci, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Lambrecht, Astrid
    Bavarian Acad Sci & Humanities, Munich, Germany..
    Mayer, Christoph
    Bavarian Acad Sci & Humanities, Munich, Germany..
    Thomaidis, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Weber, Markus
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, Munich, Germany..
    Mass-Budget Anomalies and Geometry Signals of Three Austrian Glaciers2018In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glacier mass-budget monitoring documents climate fluctuations, provides context for observed glacier-geometry changes, and can provide information on the glaciers' states. We examine the mass-budget series and available geometries of three well-documented glaciers located in the same catchment area less than 10 km from one another in the Austrian Otztal Alps. The altitudinal profiles of the 1981-2010 average specific mass budgets of each glacier serve as climatic reference. We apply these reference mass-budget profiles on all available glacier geometries, thereby retrieving for each glacier reference-climate mass budgets that reveal in a discrete way each glacier's geometric adjustment over time and its impact on mass loss; interpolation of the reference-climate mass budgets over the 1981-2010 period provides the glaciers' geometry signals. The geometric mass-budget anomalies derived with respect to these geometry signals indicate decreasing mass budgets over the 1981-2010 period by 0.020 m water equivalent (w.e.) a(-2), or 31% additional mass loss compared to the centered anomalies derived with respect to the 1981-2010 averages of the conventional mass-budget series. Reference-climate mass budgets with respect to 1981-2010 of older geometries highlight Hintereisferner's adapting geometry by almost continuous retreat since 1850. Further retreat is inevitable as Hintereisferner is the furthest from a steady state amongst the three glaciers. The relatively small Kesselwandferner has been also mostly retreating, while briefly advancing in response to short-term climatic trends. In a stable 1981-2010 climate, Kesselwandferner would relatively quickly reach a steady state. Vernagtferner's geometry since 1979 favors mass loss by thinning, primarily due to extended surge-related mass losses since 1845; this inability to retreat has led to - and will further - Vernagtferner's disintegration.

  • 32.
    Chen, P.
    et al.
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Z. B.
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China..
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. United Arab Emirates Univ, Dept Geol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Yi, P.
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China..
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Mugwaneza, Vincent de Paul
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Peoples R China..
    Comparison of measurement and modeling results of the global Be-10 flux in topsoil2017In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 311, no 3, p. 2039-2045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soils are among the major terrestrial reservoirs of atmospheric Be-10 isotope and provide information of landscape evolution history. Despite this importance, there is no overview of the global soil Be-10 fluxes in topsoil that is linked with atmospheric flux models. A comparison between measured (in topsoil) and atmospherically modeled Be-10 fluxes is presented here. The data show relatively good agreement in the latitudinal trends. This feature demonstrates the potential to use the modeling data in estimating soil development/erosion rates in large scale basins where extensive Be-10 measurements can be limited.

  • 33. Christianson, Knut
    et al.
    Kohler, Jack
    Alley, Richard
    Nuth, Chris
    van Pelt, Ward
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Dynamic perennial firn aquifer on an Arctic glacier2015In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1418-1426Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Copland, Luke
    et al.
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Schaffer, Nicole
    University of Ottawa, Canada .
    Zdanowicz, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CALTECH, USA.
    Ligtenberg, Stefan
    Universiteit Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Gray, Laurence
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Surface Elevation Changes Over the Past Decade Across Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geodetic methods have been relied on heavily to quantify the response of glaciers and ice caps to warmingover the past few decades (e.g. Abdalati et al., 2004; Gardner et al., 2011; Gardner et al., 2012). Typicallyin such studies, the observed surface elevation change of a glacier or ice cap over a given time interval is used to directly calculate its mass loss. However, there can be a change elevation due to a change in firndensification rate or ice dynamics without actual mass loss. For example, at the summit of Penny Ice Cap,Baffin Island, the firn density increased due to the formation of infiltration ice layers, resulting in a 6%increase in cumulative ice‐equivalent thickness between 1995 and 2010 (Zdanowicz et al., 2012).To our knowledge no studies have previously measured the vertical component of ice motion (firncompaction and/or ice dynamics) or adjusted geodetic data over an entire ice cap in the Canadian Arctic. Inthis study we use NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimetry data, ICESat data, as well as insitu geodetic and surface mass balance measurements, to determine surface elevation changes over Penny Ice Cap from 2005‐2013, and correct these data to account for the effects of vertical motion due to ice dynamics and firn densification. Our results show that failure to account for vertical ice motion and firn densification would result in an~19% overestimation of mass loss for this ice cap.

  • 35.
    Cosgrove, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Environmental Controls on Snow Cover Thickness and Water Equivalent in Two Sub-Arctic Mountain Catchments2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial variability of snow cover characteristics (depth, density, and snow water equivalent [SWE]) has paramount importance for the management of water resources in mountain environments. Passive microwave (PM) inference of SWE from space-borne instrumentation is increasingly used but the reliability of this technique remains limited in mountainous areas. Complex topography and the transition between forest and alpine tundra vegetation zones create large spatial heterogeneities in the snowpack in such environments. A better understanding of the factors that control these heterogeneities is therefore needed to improve and extend the use of PM-derived SWE estimation to mountain settings.

    In this study, two seasonally snow-covered sub-Arctic mountain catchments at comparable latitudes, one in Hemavan, northern Sweden and the other in Wolf Creek, Yukon, Canada, were investigated to evaluate the relative influence of climate vs. landscape factors on the variability of snow cover characteristics. Field measurements of snowpack stratigraphy and SWE were performed at the approximate time of late winter snow depth maximum using various in situ methodologies. Regression analysis was then employed to identify possible relationships between snow depth, density and SWE, and landscape properties (altitude, slope angle and aspect) at both sites, both within and between different vegetation zones.

    Snow depth, density and SWE were found to be greatest in the alpine tundra zone of both catchments, and were largest in Hemavan, probably on account of the relatively warmer and wetter winter climate of northern Sweden compared to that of the Yukon. Elevation was the only quantifiable landscape property found to show a positive and significant relationship with SWE in both catchments. Notable differences in the spatial variability of snowpack properties were also found between the two study sites. The local variability of snow depth was greatest in the forest-alpine transition zone at Hemavan, but greatest in the alpine zone at Wolf Creek. Differences in the vegetation cover type between the two catchments (coniferous vs. deciduous in the forest zone) is suspected to exert an important influence on spatial patterns of snow depth, density and SWE, likely because of differences in the efficiency of snow interception. Further investigations of how different vegetation characteristics (e.g. leaf area index) influence snowpack properties over the course of the winter are recommended in order to improve and extend the use of PM-based SWE retrievals in high-latitude mountain environments. 

  • 36. Dahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Wilson, David I.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    A combined suspended particle and phosphorus water quality model: Application to Lake Vänern.2006In: Ecological Modelling, Vol. 190, p. 55-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Das, Indrani
    et al.
    Hock, Regine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Berthier, Etienne
    Lingle, Craig S.
    21st-century increase in glacier mass loss in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska, USA, from airborne laser altimetry and satellite stereo imagery2014In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652, Vol. 60, no 220, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alaskan glaciers are among the largest regional contributors to sea-level rise in the latter half of the 20th century. Earlier studies have documented extensive and accelerated ice wastage in most regions of Alaska. Here we study five decades of mass loss on high-elevation, land-terminating glaciers of the Wrangell Mountains (similar to 4900 km(2)) in central Alaska based on airborne center-line laser altimetry data from 2000 and 2007, a digital elevation model (DEM) from ASTER and SPOT5, and US Geological Survey topographic maps from 1957. The regional mass-balance estimates derived from center-line laser altimetry profiles using two regional extrapolation techniques agree well with that from DEM differencing. Repeat altimetry measurements reveal accelerated mass loss over the Wrangell Mountains, with the regional mass-balance rate evolving from -0.07 +/- 0.19 m w.e. a(-1) during 1957-2000 to -0.24 +/- 0.16 m w.e. a(-1) during 2000-07. Nabesna, the largest glacier in this region (similar to 1056 km(2)), lost mass four times faster during 2000-07 than during 1957-2000. Although accelerated, the mass change over this region is slower than in other glacierized regions of Alaska, particularly those with tidewater glaciers. Together, our laser altimetry and satellite DEM analyses demonstrate increased wastage of these glaciers during the last 50 years.

  • 38. Den Ouden, M. A. G.
    et al.
    Reijmer, C. H.
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    van de Wal, R. S. W.
    Oerlemans, J.
    Boot, W.
    Stand-alone single-frequency GPS ice velocity observations on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard2010In: The Cryosphere, ISSN 1994-0416, E-ISSN 1994-0424, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 593-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise measurements of ice-flow velocities are necessary for a proper understanding of the dynamics of glaciers and their response to climate change. We use stand-alone single-frequency GPS receivers for this purpose. They are designed to operate unattended for 1–3 years, allowing uninterrupted measurements for long periods with hourly temporal resolution. We present the system and illustrate its functioning using data from 9 GPS receivers deployed on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, for the period 2006–2009. The accuracy of the receivers is 1.62 m based on the standard deviation in the average location of a stationary reference station (NBRef). Both the location of NBRef and the observed flow velocities agree within one standard deviation with DGPS measurements. Periodicity (6, 8, 12, 24 h) in the NBRef data is largely explained by the atmospheric, mainly ionospheric, influence on the GPS signal. A (weighed) running-average on the observed locations significantly reduces the standard deviation and removes high frequency periodicities, but also reduces the temporal resolution. Results show annual average velocities varying between 40 and 55 m yr−1 at stations on the central flow-line. On weekly to monthly time-scales we observe a peak in the flow velocities (from 60 to 90 m yr−1) at the beginning of July related to increased melt-rates. No significant lag is observed between the timing of the maximum speed between different stations. This is likely due to the limited temporal resolution after averaging in combination with the relatively small distance (max. ±13 km) between the stations.

  • 39.
    Deschamps-Berger, Cesar
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Geosci, POB 1047, N-0316 Oslo, Norway;Univ Toulouse, LEGOS, CNES, CNRS,IRD,UPS, F-31400 Toulouse, France;UPS, CNRS, CESBIO, IRD,CNES,INRS, F-31400 Toulouse, France.
    Nuth, Christopher
    Univ Oslo, Dept Geosci, POB 1047, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Van Pelt, Ward
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Berthier, Etienne
    Univ Toulouse, LEGOS, CNES, CNRS,IRD,UPS, F-31400 Toulouse, France.
    Kohler, Jack
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Polar Environm Ctr, NO-9296 Tromso, Norway.
    Altena, Bas
    Univ Oslo, Dept Geosci, POB 1047, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Closing the mass budget of a tidewater glacier: the example of Kronebreen, Svalbard2019In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652, Vol. 65, no 249, p. 136-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we combine remote sensing, in situ and model-derived datasets from 1966 to 2014 to calculate the mass-balance components of Kronebreen, a fast-flowing tidewater glacier in Svalbard. For the well-surveyed period 2009-2014, we are able to close the glacier mass budget within the prescribed errors. During these 5 years, the glacier geodetic mass balance was -0.69 +/- 0.12 m w.e. a(-1), while the mass budget method led to a total mass balance of -0.92 +/- 0.16 m w.e. a(-1), as a consequence of a strong frontal ablation (-0.78 +/- 0.11 m w.e. a(-1) ), and a slightly negative climatic mass balance (-0.14 +/- 0.11 m w.e. a(-1) ). The trend towards more negative climatic mass balance between 1966-1990 (+0.20 +/- 0.05 m w.e. a(-1) ) and 2009-2014 is not reflected in the geodetic mass balance trend. Therefore, we suspect a reduction in ice-discharge in the most recent period. Yet, these multidecadal changes in ice-discharge cannot be measured from the available observations and thus are only estimated with relatively large errors as a residual of the mass continuity equation. Our study presents the multidecadal evolution of the dynamics and mass balance of a tidewater glacier and illustrates the errors introduced by inferring one unmeasured mass-balance component from the others.

  • 40.
    Di Napoli, Claudia
    et al.
    Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
    Pappenberger, Florian
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Forecast Dept, Reading, Berks, England.
    Cloke, Hannah L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England;Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci, CNDS, Uppsala, Sweden;Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
    Assessing heat-related health risk in Europe via the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)2018In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 62, no 7, p. 1155-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the potential of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) as a heat-related health risk indicator in Europe is demonstrated. The UTCI is a bioclimate index that uses a multi-node human heat balance model to represent the heat stress induced by meteorological conditions to the human body. Using 38 years of meteorological reanalysis data, UTCI maps were computed to assess the thermal bioclimate of Europe for the summer season. Patterns of heat stress conditions and non-thermal stress regions are identified across Europe. An increase in heat stress up to 1 A degrees C is observed during recent decades. Correlation with mortality data from 17 European countries revealed that the relationship between the UTCI and death counts depends on the bioclimate of the country, and death counts increase in conditions of moderate and strong stress, i.e., when UTCI is above 26 and 32 A degrees C. The UTCI's ability to represent mortality patterns is demonstrated for the 2003 European heatwave. These findings confirm the importance of UTCI as a bioclimatic index that is able to both capture the thermal bioclimatic variability of Europe, and relate such variability with the effects it has on human health.

  • 41.
    Di Napoli, Claudia
    et al.
    Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
    Pappenberger, Florian
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Forecast Dept, Reading, Berks, England.
    Cloke, Hannah L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England;Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England; Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Verification of Heat Stress Thresholds for a Health-Based Heat-Wave Definition2019In: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, ISSN 1558-8424, E-ISSN 1558-8432, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 1177-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat waves represent a threat to human health and excess mortality is one of the associated negative effects. A health-based definition for heat waves is therefore relevant, especially for early warning purposes, and it is here investigated via the universal thermal climate index (UTCI). The UTCI is a bioclimate index elaborated via an advanced model of human thermoregulation that estimates the thermal stress induced by air temperature, wind speed, moisture, and radiation on the human physiology. Using France as a test bed, the UTCI was computed from meteorological reanalysis data to assess the thermal stress conditions associated with heat-attributable excess mortality in five cities. UTCI values at different climatological percentiles were defined and evaluated in their ability to identify periods of excess mortality (PEMs) over 24 years. Using verification metrics such as the probability of detection (POD), the false alarm ratio (FAR), and the frequency bias (FB), daily minimum and maximum heat stress levels equal to or above corresponding UTCI 95th percentiles (15 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and 34.5 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C, respectively) for 3 consecutive days are demonstrated to correlate to PEMs with the highest sensitivity and specificity (0.69 <= POD <= 1, 0.19 <= FAR <= 0.46, 1 <= FB <= 1.48) than minimum, maximum, and mean heat stress level singularly and other bioclimatological percentiles. This finding confirms the detrimental effect of prolonged, unusually high heat stress at day- and nighttime and suggests the UTCI 95th percentile as a health-meaningful threshold for a potential heat-health watch warning system.

  • 42.
    Divine, Dmitri
    et al.
    Universitetet i Tromsö.
    Isaksson, Elisabeth
    Martma, Tonu
    Meijer, Harro A. J
    Moore, John C
    Pohjola, Veijo A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    van de Wal, Roderick S. W.
    Godtliebsen, Fred
    Thousand years of winter surface air temperature variations in Svalbard and northern Norway reconstructed from ice-core data2011In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 30, p. 7379-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two isotopic ice core records from western Svalbard are calibrated to reconstruct more than 1000 years of past winter surface air temperature variations in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, and Vardo, northern Norway. Analysis of the derived reconstructions suggests that the climate evolution of the last millennium in these study areas comprises three major sub-periods. The cooling stage in Svalbard (ca. 800-1800) is characterized by a progressive winter cooling of approximately 0.9 degrees C century(-1) (0.38 degrees C century(-1) for Vardo) and a lack of distinct signs of abrupt climate transitions. This makes it difficult to associate the onset of the Little Ice Age in Svalbard with any particular time period. During the 1800s, which according to our results was the coldest century in Svalbard, the winter cooling associated with the Little Ice Age was on the order of 4 degrees C (1.3 degrees C for Vardo) compared to the 1900s. The rapid warming that commenced at the beginning of the 20th century was accompanied by a parallel decline in sea-ice extent in the study area. However, both the reconstructed winter temperatures as well as indirect indicators of summer temperatures suggest the Medieval period before the 1200s was at least as warm as at the end of the 1990s in Svalbard.

  • 43.
    Divine, Dmitri V.
    et al.
    Tromsö universitet.
    Sjolte, J
    Isaksson, E
    Meijer, H. A. J.
    van de Wal, R. S. W.
    Martma, T
    Pohjola, Veijo A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sturm, C
    Godtliebsen, F
    Modeling the regional climate and isotopic composition of Svalbard precipitation using REMOiso model: a comparison with available GNIP and ice core data2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 24, p. 3748-3759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations of a regional (approx. 50 km resolution) circulation model REMOiso with embedded stable water isotope module covering the period 1958-2001 are compared with the two instrumental climate and four isotope series (d18O) from western Svalbard. We examine the data from ice cores drilled on Svalbard ice caps in 1997 (Lomonosovfonna, 1250 m asl) and 2005 (Holtedahlfonna, 1150 m asl) and the GNIP series from Ny-angstrom lesund and Isfjord Radio. The surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation data from Longyearbyen and Ny-angstrom lesund are used to assess the skill of the model in reproducing the local climate. The model successfully captures the climate variations on the daily to multidecadal times scales although it tends to systematically underestimate the winter SAT. Analysis suggests that REMOiso performs better at simulating isotope compositions of precipitation in the winter than summer. The simulated and measured Holtedahlfonna d18O series agree reasonably well, whereas no significant correlation has been observed between the modelled and measured Lomonosovfonna ice core isotopic series. It is shown that sporadic nature as well as variability in the amount inherent in precipitation process potentially limits the accuracy of the past SAT reconstruction from the ice core data. This effect in the study area is, however, diminished by the role of other factors controlling d18O in precipitation, most likely sea ice extent, which is directly related with the SAT anomalies.

  • 44. Doyle, Sam H
    et al.
    Hubbard, Alun H
    Dow, Christine F
    Jones, Glenn A
    Fitzpatrick, Andrew
    Gusmeroli, Alessio
    Kulessa, Bernd
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Box, Jason E
    Ice tectonic deformation during the rapid in situ drainage of a supraglacial lake on the Greenland Ice Sheet2013In: The Cryosphere, ISSN 1994-0416, E-ISSN 1994-0424, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present detailed records of lake discharge, ice motion and passive seismicity capturing the behaviour and processes preceding, during and following the rapid drainage of a 4 km2 supraglacial lake through 1.1-km-thick ice on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Peak discharge of 3300 m3 s−1 coincident with maximal rates of vertical uplift indicates that surface water accessed the ice–bed interface causing widespread hydraulic separation and enhanced basal motion. The differential motion of four global positioning system (GPS) receivers located around the lake record the opening and closure of the fractures through which the lake drained. We hypothesise that the majority of discharge occurred through a 3-km-long fracture with a peak width averaged across its wetted length of 0.4 m. We argue that the fracture's kilometre-scale length allowed rapid discharge to be achieved by combining reasonable water velocities with sub-metre fracture widths. These observations add to the currently limited knowledge of in situ supraglacial lake drainage events, which rapidly deliver large volumes of water to the ice–bed interface.

  • 45.
    Drake, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mapping of Massive Ground Ice Using Ground Penetrating Radar Data in Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of massive ground ice in the ground in Taylor Valley of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, is quite unknown, and could provide answers to questions such as where the ice comes from, if it has been affected and removed by proglacial lakes and how landscapes underlain by massive ground ice responds to climate change. It could also be a source for atmospheric information in the past and hence a key in climate research. The main goal with this project was therefore to map the distribution of massive ground ice mainly in Taylor Valley, but also in the adjacent Salmon Valley and Wright Valley, using ground penetrating radar to see how the distribution varied and if there was any spatial patterns.

    The technical computing programme MATLAB was used for editing of the raw radar data, merging of GPR profiles and digitalization of reflectors for possible massive ground ice and several compilations of different files. The data obtained from MATLAB was imported and interpreted using the geographic information system ArcGIS. A series of histograms showing the distribution of massive ground ice depending on the parameters elevation, slope and aspect were made by using the spreadsheet application Microsoft Excel.

    The results showed that the distribution of massive ground ice was more common at elevations up to 200 m, at the mouth of the valleys and also more frequent in Taylor Valley than in Wright Valley. There was a slightly higher amount of massive ground ice at northeast-east aspects, probably due to different incoming solar radiation. The lack of, or not that prominent, differences for slope and aspect can be due to lack of data, a not enough detailed digital elevation model or that it have existed for a too short period of time to display big differences caused by effects from these parameters. The higher frequency of massive ground ice in Taylor Valley can be due to a thicker sediment cover when compared with the situation in Wright Valley. The distribution of massive ground ice at different slopes seems to follow the distribution of radar measurements, whereas the origin of the massive ground ice and sediment cover can be responsible for the distribution across different elevations. The reason why massive ground ice still occurs despite the existence of Glacial Lake Washburn that previously occupied Taylor Valley could be that the glacial lake did not remain for a sufficiently long time to melt all the massive ice.

    Massive ground ice is very common in a zone that is believed to be very susceptible for future warming, which means that changes that already have been observed in areas rich in massive ground ice can continue to happen and changes in other areas with massive ice can be enabled. The ice can thus play a major role in the development of the landscape in the McMurdo Dry Valleys depending on the amount of warming.

  • 46.
    Edberg, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Environmental Development around Falun Copper Mineduring Late Holocene2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The area at and around the Falun copper mine has always been of great interest. To begin with it was the valuable ore that drew people to the area. Now it is the historical, archaeological and environmental aspects that draw researchers from different fields of study to Falun. Peat cores were taken in several peatlands throughout an area extending toward about 2 kilometres to the west, southwest and south of the Falun mine. One core was selected for more extensive studies including plant macrofossil analysis, loss on ignition (LOI) and 14C – analysis. These methods are combined to give a picture of the environmental conditions at different periods in time, using plants and their preferred growth environment as an aid. The untouched environment changing into the well-known mining landscape that prevailed in the hey-day of the mine, with the change being the focal point, is the reason for this study.The cores presented in this thesis generally show lake areas drying up and transforming into peatlands, some peatlands may however have been formed in other ways. The location chosen for further studies is now almost transformed to a forest floor. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies as well as adds more information to existing knowledge. However, more research is needed to fully understand how the environment changed due to the opening of the mine.

  • 47.
    Edström, Carl
    Uppsala University, Department of Naturegeography.
    Skred i Flian och Lidan, jämförande studier mellan områdena Kristinedal och Sköttorp1997Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syfte har varit att

    • studera jordarter och morfologi
    • försöka bestämma om skreden i dagsläget kan betecknas som recenta eller stabiliserade. Detta bla. genom att studera vegetation; ålder och utbredning av denna.
    • beskriva vad människorna i området gjort efteråt.
  • 48.
    Eklund, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Massbalansmodellering av fosfor I ett åländskt kustområde - en utredning om lokaliserinegen av Lotsbroverkets utloppsledning.: Masteruppsats2004Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 49.
    Elfström, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Physical Geography.
    Geomorfologiska studier av talus, svämkäglor och mudflows inom valda lokaler, Isfjorden, Spetsbergen1978Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning:

    Uppgiften, som den presenterades för mig i juni 1976, var att göra en allmän morfologisk beskrivning av några olika typer av sluttningsdepositioner samt deras partikelorientering.

    Huvudlokal har varit Skansbukta på Spetsbergen, där välutbildade talusbranter och svämkäglor finnes. Speciellt intresse har ägnats åt studiet av dessa depositionsformer. Vidare har även depositioner i anslutning till de talrika mudflows studerats. Jämförande studier beträffande ovanstående former har gjorts vid två andra lokaler, nämligen Longyeardalen och en lokal, som av handledaren tilldelats arbetsnamnet Timglaset.

    Arbetet har främst omfattat en beskrivning av sluttningsdepositionerna som gjorts på basis av profildragningar, grävda skärningar, partikelorientering samt okulär besiktning. Först i andra hand har processernas förlopp diskuterats.

  • 50.
    Engqvist, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Volymändringar i Sareks och Kebnekaises glaciärer sedan lilla istiden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volume Changes of the Glaciers in Sarek and Kebnekaise since the End of the Little Ice Age Linus Engqvist  Since the end of the little ice age in the middle of the 19th century  the glaciers in the north of Sweden has experienced extensive melting and net loss of volume, but are all glaciers experiencing equal loss of volume or are there differences between them?  The purpose of this study is to examine 53 different glaciers in the Sarek and Kebnekaise regions in the North of Sweden and by using remote sensing techniques calculate the relative volume changes of the glaciers and then examine if there any differences between them with regards to massifs, historical area and ablation zone. The conclusion is that even though there are differences in loss between massif and ablation zone location the most significant factor to relative volume loss is the glaciers original area, but because of the limitations in the study further research is needed to better estimate the volume of the individual glaciers.

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