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  • 1.
    Abdelmaksoud, Ahmed
    et al.
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth Sci, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.;Assiut Univ, Dept Geol, Assiut, Egypt..
    Ali, Mohammed Y.
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth Sci, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Al Suwaidi, Aisha
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth Sci, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth Sci, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Petroleum system of the fold-and-thrust belt of the United Arab Emirates: New insights based on 1D and 2D basin modeling2023In: Marine and Petroleum Geology, ISSN 0264-8172, E-ISSN 1873-4073, Vol. 158, article id 106567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrocarbon potential of the fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)-Oman mountains has received limited attention to date, leading to a poor understanding of the petroleum systems in this region. Despite the existence of hydrocarbon fields within the FTB, the source rock potential has not been adequately studied. This study aims to address this knowledge gap using 1D and 2D basin modeling approaches to evaluate the petroleum system of the FTB. In addition, gas chromatographs are also used to correlate hydrocarbon occurrences with their source rock. This study's findings identify the Silurian, Upper Cretaceous, Paleocene-Eocene, and Oligocene formations as the primary source rocks in the study area. Silurian shales, encountered in a well in the northern UAE, are currently considered overmature. The Cenozoic source rocks exhibit a spectrum of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content, ranging from less than 1 to as high as 2 wt%, leading to variable degrees of expulsion efficiency. The maturity of these rocks varies based on their position in relation to the FTB and foredeep, with increasing maturity towards the north. The Upper Cretaceous sequences display low TOC and Hydrogen Index, indicating very low expulsion efficiency. The present-day distribution of maturity is largely influenced by Late Cretaceous and Oligocene-Miocene compressional events that affected the northern and northeastern Arabian Plate. This analysis shows that hydrocarbon expulsion from the Silurian source rocks was initiated during the Middle-Late Jurassic. These hydrocarbons are presumed to have migrated through Upper Permian, Jurassic, and Lower and middle Cretaceous reservoirs. Westward hydrocarbon migration, towards a regional bulge, may have also occurred following compressional events that resulted in lithospheric flexure and formation of the foreland basin. Notably, certain exceptions to migration towards the bulge include structural entrapment of hydrocarbons beneath the main frontal thrust zone of FTB and some structural traps beneath the Lower Fiqa Formation.

  • 2.
    Abdurahmanov, Fagan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE WITH WIND ENERGY: AZERBAIJAN’S AMBITIOUS PLANS FOR KARABAKH2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transitioning to renewable energy is critical for reaching global sustainable development goals. As an oil-rich country, Azerbaijan has recognized the need to develop its renewable energy sector. It has set ambitious goals for increasing the share of renewables in its energy mix and establishing a green energy zone in the Karabakh region. The purpose of this master's thesis is to assess the potential of wind energy in Azerbaijan's Karabakh region and surrounding areas and identify the best scenario for its development. Four scenarios were evaluated via the PROMETHEE II Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method based on their economic, environmental, technological, and social factors. Interviews with real stakeholders were undertaken to elicit weights for the criteria, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results. The findings were shared with the stakeholders, and their input was integrated into the final analysis. According to the findings, Scenario 4, which includes more installed capacity and increased investment, is best suited for the growth of wind energy in the Karabakh and surrounding areas from the perspective of developer and governmental body. In contrast, renewable energy expert and the public prefer Scenario 1, with less land use and less capacity. The findings indicate that for the effective development of wind energy in the area, a balanced approach taking into account the opinions of all stakeholders, is essential. This study contributes to Azerbaijan's long-term development by offering valuable insights into the potential of wind energy in the Karabakh region and surrounding areas and supporting informed decision-making for its expansion.

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  • 3.
    Acikkol, Naz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Testing the Cretaceous Diversity of Ichthyosaurs and Their Extinction Hypotheses Using a Quantitative Approach2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As portrayed in Before the Dinosaur: the Historical Significance of the Fossil Marine Reptiles, ichthyosaurs, as other Mesozoic marine amniotes, have been unfairly overshadowed by dinosaurs in both popular culture and the field of vertebrate palaeontology. Yet by the effort of dedicated researchers, work on these fish-like marine reptiles had never died out, and in fact a second wave of interest emerged in the late 20th century. Since then, research on ichthyosaurs has focused on discovery of new taxa, assessments of their palaeobiology, and quantitative analyses of their diversity. Despite ever-growing interests, patterns and mechanisms leading up to their extinction in the Cenomanian were insufficiently evaluated. In other words, hypotheses focusing on abrupt extinction linked to a crash in prey diversity, notably belemnites, over a catastrophic event at the end-Cenomanian remain poorly tested. The current project thus aims to test: 1) whether the Cretaceous diversity of ichthyosaurs reflects biological signals, and 2) correlation of their diversity with the diversity of Mesozoic cephalopods, such as belemnites and ammonites. In this regard, a species-level dataset of Cretaceous belemnites including belemnite-bearing formations was built to be employed together with the occurrence-based ichthyosaur and ammonite datasets in the same taxic level. Raw taxic counts, as observed diversities of the clades, were quantified in two different temporal scales, and compared with two sampling proxies. The model-based method was then applied to correct all taxic counts based on the two proxies in both time bins to acquire expected diversities of all the clades. Comparisons resulted in strong correlations between the clades’ observed diversities and proxies exposing biased patterns under the influence of sampling intensity. Whereas both observed and expected diversities show no evidence of a causal relationship between the predator and prey groups, suggesting that the latter’s diversity seems not being a parameter for the former’s, and thus being unsupportive for a prey-driven demise of the predator. Furthermore, the expected trend of ichthyosaurs indicates lower Albian diversity gradually declining towards their extinction in the Cenomanian, which appears to be contrasting with recent studies.

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    DegreeProject_313
  • 4.
    Adamsson, Karolin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kollektivtrafikknutpunkter i Göteborg ur ett genusperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine two public transportation hubs, as examples of public space, in Gothenburg, Sweden, from a gender perspective by investigate how gender equality is discussed in planning processes of hubs and to explore how hubs are used and perceived by men and women. The thesis has a qualitative and hermeneutic approach, with semi-structured interviews with key persons from the planning processes, and site observations and interviews with men and women using the hubs as the main data gathering methods. In the planning processes for the two cases the ambition was to create hubs that were welcoming for everyone, from a theoretical point of view this ambition could be dangerous from a gender perspective since a planning for everyone often leads to a planning for the man. In order to create hubs for everyone there was a focus for creating safety and increase accessibility for the disabled during the planning processes. The observations and the interviews on site shows that the hubs could be viewed as gender equal since the hubs were open to both men and women to use, but the hubs could also be viewed as not gender equal since women felt unsafe. The analysis shows that the social interaction on site is a crucial factor when defining a place as gender equal or not. The social interaction can be understood by gender contract. One conclusion is that there is a need for discussions about gender and its effect on experiences of public space, where gender contract is problematized. It will otherwise be hard to understand and change the interaction and the gender inequality will risk to consolidate.

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  • 5.
    Agic, Heda
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Earth Sci, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Hogstrom, Anette E. S.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Jensen, Soren
    Univ Extremadura, Area Paleontol, Badajoz, Spain..
    Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Vickers-Rich, Patricia
    Monash Univ, Sch Earth Atmosphere & Environm, Clayton, Vic, Australia.;Swinburne Univ Technol, Sch Sci, Dept Chem & Biotechnol, Hawthorn, Vic, Australia..
    Hall, Michael
    Monash Univ, Sch Earth Atmosphere & Environm, Clayton, Vic, Australia..
    Matthews, Jack J.
    Oxford Univ Museum Nat Hist, Oxford, England..
    Meinhold, Guido
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Inst Geol, Freiberg, Germany.;Univ Gottingen, Dept Sedimentol & Environm Geol, Gottingen, Germany..
    Hoyberget, Magne
    Rennesveien 14, Mandal, Norway..
    Taylor, Wendy L.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Geol Sci, Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Late Ediacaran occurrences of the organic-walled microfossils Granomarginata and flask-shaped Lagoenaforma collaris gen. et sp. nov.2022In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 159, no 7, p. 1071-1092, article id PII S0016756821001096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New occurrences of flask-shaped and envelope-bearing microfossils, including the predominantly Cambrian taxon Granomarginata, are reported from new localities, as well as from earlier in time (Ediacaran) than previously known. The stratigraphic range of Granomarginata extends into the Cambrian System, where it had a cosmopolitan distribution. This newly reported Ediacaran record includes areas from Norway (Baltica), Newfoundland (Avalonia) and Namibia (adjacent to the Kalahari Craton), and puts the oldest global occurrence of Granomarginata in the Indreelva Member (< 563 Ma) of the Stahpogieddi Formation on the Digermulen Peninsula, Arctic Norway. Although Granomarginata is rare within the assemblage, these new occurrences together with previously reported occurrences from India and Poland, suggest a potentially widespread palaeogeographic distribution of Granomarginata through the middle-late Ediacaran interval. A new flask-shaped microfossil Lagoenaforma collaris gen. et sp. nov. is also reported in horizons containing Granomarginata from the Stahpogieddi Formation in Norway and the Dabis Formation in Namibia, and flask-shaped fossils are also found in the Gibbett Hill Formation in Newfoundland. The Granomarginata-Lagoenaforma association, in addition to a low-diversity organic-walled microfossil assemblage, occurs in the strata postdating the Shuram carbon isotope excursion, and may eventually be of use in terminal Ediacaran biostratigraphy. These older occurrences of Granomarginata add to a growing record of body fossil taxa spanning the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary.

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  • 6.
    Agic, Heda
    et al.
    Department of Earth Science, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, USA.
    Högström, Anette
    Tromsø Universitetsmuseum.
    Jensen, Sören
    Área de Paleontología, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, Badajoz, Spain.
    Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Meinhold, Guido
    Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universität Göttingen, Germany.
    Taylor, Wendy L.
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.
    Palacios, Teodor
    Área de Paleontología, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, Badajoz, Spain.
    Høyberget, Magne
    Rennesveien 14, N-4513 Mandal, Norway.
    Life through the 'Varanger ice ages': microfossil record of late Neoproterozoic glacial-interglacial units from arctic Norway2018In: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, 2018, Vol. 50Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The late Neoproterozoic strata in Finnmark (Arctic Norway) provide a good sedimentary record of Neoproterozoic glaciations on the Baltica paleocontinent. The lower Vestertana Group exposed on the Digermulen Peninsula contains two glaciogenic units, the Smalfjord and Mortensnes formations. Chemostratigraphic correlation dated the Smalfjord diamictite to the Marinoan glaciation (650-635 Ma), yet its age was also proposed to be older, per correlation to glacial units in central and southern Scandinavia. The diamictites are bracketing shales and siltstones of the interglacial Nyborg Formation. Stratigraphic, paleontological, and sedimentological data are presented from the interglacial-glacial succession, investigated by the Digermulen Early Life Research Group. Palynological analysis yielded well-preserved organic-walled microfossils (OWM) from the Nyborg Fm., and from fine-grained diamictite matrix in the Mortensnes Fm. via a modified extraction method.

    The interglacial Nyborg Fm. hosts a moderate diversity assemblage of prokaryotic and eukaryotic OWM, as well as acanthomorphic acritarchs such as Ceratosphaeridium, ?Cavaspina, and a novel process-bearing form. Organically preserved, enigmatic multicellular eukaryotic fossils occur in the upper Nyborg Fm. The Mortensens glacial assemblage is less diverse and contains bacterial filaments, leiosphaerids, toroidal forms, and Micrhystridium-type minute acanthomorphs.

    The presence of Doushantuo-Pertatataka type acritarchs in the Nyborg Fm., and small acanthomorphs in the Mortensnes diamictite corroborate an early Ediacaran age for the interglacial-glacial succession on Digermulen. In addition to the trace fossil and body-fossil record of Ediacara-biota in the overlying Stáhpogieddi Formation, the microfossil biostratigraphy suggests Marinoan and Gaskiers glaciation equivalent ages of the Varanger glaciations in Finnmark. Protistan diversity in the succession declined through and following the glaciation, until late Ediacaran.

  • 7.
    Agic, Heda
    et al.
    Univ Durham, Dept Earth Sci, Durham, England..
    Jensen, Soren
    Univ Extremadura, Fac Ciencias, Area Paleontol, Badajoz, Spain..
    Meinhold, Guido
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Inst Geol, Freiberg, Germany.;Univ Gottingen, Dept Sedimentol & Environm Geol, Gottingen, Germany..
    Hogstrom, Anette E. S.
    Arctic Univ Museum Norway, UiT The Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Hoyberget, Magne
    Palacios, Teodoro
    Univ Extremadura, Fac Ciencias, Area Paleontol, Badajoz, Spain..
    Taylor, Wendy L.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Geol Sci, Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Life through an Ediacaran glaciation: Shale- and diamictite-hosted organic-walled microfossil assemblages from the late Neoproterozoic of the Tanafjorden area, northern Norway2024In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 635, article id 111956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New organic-walled microfossil (OWM) assemblages are reported from upper Neoproterozoic glacial and interglacial siliciclastic deposits in Finnmark, northern Norway. A nearly continuous sedimentary succession of the Vestertana Group contains two glaciogenic units, the Smalfjorden and Mortensnes formations, interpreted as end-Cryogenian Marinoan and Ediacaran glaciations, respectively. We investigated the OWM record in the Nyborg, Mortensnes, and St ' ahpogieddi formations to assess the impact of a glacial interval on the diversity of microscopic eukaryotes. A modified acid-extraction technique was applied to recover OWM from the diamictite matrix. The upper Nyborg Formation contains morphologically complex Doushantuo-Pertatataka acritarchs (DPA), restricting the age of the Nyborg Formation to early-mid Ediacaran. DPA occur below the dolostones that record a negative carbon isotope excursion correlated with the Shuram anomaly and below a glacial diamictite. A decline in species richness and compositional change is observed in the Mortensnes glacial assemblage. DPA are replaced by bacterial filaments and cell aggregates. The overlying Indreelva Member, St ' ahpogieddi Formation contains Ediacara-type biota and palaeopascichnids, but only a depauperate OWM assemblage of leiosphaerids and flask-shaped microfossils characteristic of the late Ediacaran.The succession of assemblages in the Vestertana Group demonstrates a turnover from large eukaryotic OWM to a microbial community in the glacial interval, to a low diversity post-glacial assemblage during the rise of macroscopic life. We compared the Vestertana record to global DPA occurrences. Although one DPA assemblage zone postdates the Shuram excursion, no DPA occur above Ediacaran glacial diamictites in successions where those deposits are present. Considering this, and the community changes in the Vestertana succession, we suggest that DPA were affected by the onset of an Ediacaran glaciation. Lastly, we combined the biostratigraphic markers in the Vestertana Group to constrain the age of the Mortensnes diamictite.

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  • 8.
    Agic, Heda
    et al.
    Department of Earth Science, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, USA.
    Moczydłowska, Małgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Högström, Anette
    Tromsø Universitetsmuseum.
    Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Jensen, Sören
    Área de Paleontología, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, Badajoz, Spain.
    Meinhold, Guido
    Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universität Göttingen, Germany.
    Palacios, Teodor
    Área de Paleontología, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, Badajoz, Spain.
    Taylor, Wendy L.
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.
    Novis, Linn K.
    Tromsø Universitetsmuseum.
    Unusual organic-walled microfossil from the late Neoproterozoic Nyborg Formation, Digermulen Peninsula, Arctic Norway2017In: ISECT 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The late Neoproterozoic Nyborg Formation is exposed in the Tanafjord area, Finnmark, Arctic Norway, on Digermulen and Varanger Peninsulas. The succession is composed of ~400 m of interbedded shales, siltstone and purple to grey sandstone, deposited between Neoproterozoic low latitude glacial deposits. The Nyborg Fm. lies on top of the Smalfjord diamictite, and is overlain by the Mortensnes diamictite (the latter was attributed to both Marinoan (650-635 Ma) and Gaskiers (579 Ma) glaciations) and the Ediacaran-Cambrian Stáhpogieddi Formation. Thus, the Nyborg Fm. represents late Neoproterozoic, probably the last Cryogenian interglacial interval. Presented material was collected in 2014 by members of Digermulen Early Life Research Group, from organic-rich, grey-green shales and siltstones of the Nyborg Mbr. D, uppermost Nyborg Fm. between Árasulluokta and Guvssájohka valleys. Organic-walled microfossils were extracted from shale via standard palynological acetolysis in hydrofluoric acid, and studied via light and scanning electron microscopy. Microfossils from the Nyborg Fm. include Synsphaeridium-type aggregated cells, unbranched bacterial filaments (Polythrichoides and Siphonophycus), sphaeromorph and envelope-bearing acritarchs (leiosphaerids, Stictosphaeridium, Simia), and previously unrecognized aggregated tubular microfossils. These taxa are long-ranging, but common in glacial-interglacial units worldwide, and thus broadly corroborate the Cryogenian age of the Nyborg sediments. The novel fossil, up to 300 μm in size, is a parenchymatous meshwork of interconnected organic-walled tubes that terminate in cup-shaped apices 4-11 µm in diameter. Irregular tube clusters are truncated both in macerates and in thin sections, suggesting post mortem transport. Elemental EDXS analysis indicates that extracted meshwork microfossils are predominantly composed of carbonaceous material and also associated with small amounts of titanium and vanadium. Considering the branching and adjoined body plan of carbonaceous fossil, it was likely multicellular and of eukaryotic affinity. As such, it may represent an important step in the evolution of complex multicellularity and morphological complexity several million years before the appearance of Ediacaran organisms.

  • 9.
    Agić, Heda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology. Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Earth Sci, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Högström, Anette E. S.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, N-9037 Tromso, Norway.
    Moczydlowska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Jensen, Sören
    Univ Extremadura, Area Paleontol, E-06006 Badajoz, Spain.
    Palacios, Teodoro
    Univ Extremadura, Area Paleontol, E-06006 Badajoz, Spain.
    Meinhold, Guido
    Keele Univ, Sch Geog Geol & Environm, Keele ST5 5BG, Staffs, England;Univ Gottingen, Dept Sedimentol & Environm Geol, Goldschmidtstr 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.
    Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Taylor, Wendy L.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Geol Sci, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Höyberget, Magne
    Rennesveien 14, N-4513 Mandal, Norway.
    Organically-preserved multicellular eukaryote from the early Ediacaran Nyborg Formation, Arctic Norway2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 14659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eukaryotic multicellularity originated in the Mesoproterozoic Era and evolved multiple times since, yet early multicellular fossils are scarce until the terminal Neoproterozoic and often restricted to cases of exceptional preservation. Here we describe unusual organically-preserved fossils from mudrocks, that provide support for the presence of organisms with differentiated cells (potentially an epithelial layer) in the late Neoproterozoic. Cyathinema digermulense gen. et sp. nov. from the Nyborg Formation, Vestertana Group, Digermulen Peninsula in Arctic Norway, is a new carbonaceous organ-taxon which consists of stacked tubes with cup-shaped ends. It represents parts of a larger organism (multicellular eukaryote or a colony), likely with greater preservation potential than its other elements. Arrangement of open-ended tubes invites comparison with cells of an epithelial layer present in a variety of eukaryotic clades. This tissue may have benefitted the organism in: avoiding overgrowth, limiting fouling, reproduction, or water filtration. C. digermulense shares characteristics with extant and fossil groups including red algae and their fossils, demosponge larvae and putative sponge fossils, colonial protists, and nematophytes. Regardless of its precise affinity, C. digermulense was a complex and likely benthic marine eukaryote exhibiting cellular differentiation, and a rare occurrence of early multicellularity outside of Konservat-Lagerstatten.

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  • 10.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Danielsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Biogenic phosphorus in oligotropic mountain lake sediments: Differences in composition measured with NMR spectroscopy2006In: Water Research, no 40, p. 3705-3712Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ahlgren Mattsson, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jämförelse av portrycksmätning i Uppsalalera mellan portrycksmätare och dissipationstest2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pore pressure is an important parameter for determining the properties of thesoil, such as drainage, permeability and stability (since the pore pressure has aneffect on the effective stress in the soil). The pore pressure can be measured withpore pressure gauges but it can also be measured during a Cone penetration test(CPT) with a dissipation test. Advantages of a dissipation test compared tomeasurement with traditional pore pressure gauges would be that it would save timeand money, since you don’t have to press down pore pressure gauges and then waitto get the pore pressure from them, instead the pore pressure can be measuredduring probing with CPT.The purpose of this project is to compare pore pressure measurements betweenpore pressure measurements with BAT-tips and dissipation test during CPT probing,to see how good measured values the dissipation tests will provide and if theyeventually can supersede pore pressure gauges for pore pressure measurements.The field tests of the methods were done in Uppsala clay, on a site in Kungsängen inUppsala.Two stations with BAT-tips at 5 meters, 7.5 meters and 10 meters depth wereinstalled in the clay. Probing with CPT was then carried out, by stopping the CPT atthe same depth as the BAT-tips. Measurements with the CPT were done at thesedepths for just over 24 hours, to allow the generated excess pore pressure createdwhen the cone is pushed into the clay to disperse to the sides. The equilibrium porepressure is the pore pressure that remains after the generated pore pressure hasdissipated. The pore pressure from the two different methods was then compared tosee how close the dissipation test results were to the values from the pore pressuremeasurements with the BAT tips.The result of the dissipation tests was that none of them reached the referencevalues from the BAT-tips after 24 hours. Depending on the chosen application class,the dissipation tests are within the permitted minimum accuracy. Dissipation tests areprobably not practically applicable to soils with low permeability.

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  • 12.
    Aldén, Liselotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Da Silva Soares, José Pedro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Klein, Jason
    Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Samexistens örnar och vindkraft på Gotland2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 13.
    Aldén, Liselotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Da Silva Soares, José Pedro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Klein, Jason
    Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Samexistens örnar och vindkraft på Gotland2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Aldén, Liselotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Noden för utbildning- och kompetensfrågor inom Nätverket för vindbruk.
    Ridbäck, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Engberg Ekman, Marita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    En analys av Vindkraftsteknikerutbildningar i Sverige åren 2016–20242020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 15.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Jakobsson, Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Lardelli, Michael
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Snowden, Simon
    Management School, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Söderbergh, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    The Peak of the Oil Age: Analyzing the world oil production Reference Scenario in World Energy Outlook 20082010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1398-1414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of future global oil production presented in the IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2008 (WEO 2008) is divided in to 6 fractions; four relate to crude oil, one to non-conventional oil, and the final fraction is natural-gas-liquids (NGL). Using the production parameter, depletion-rate-of-recoverable- resources, we have analyzed the four crude oil fractions and found that the 75 Mb/d of crude oil production forecast for year 2030 appears significantly overstated, and is more likely to be in the region of 55 Mb/d. Moreover, an alysis of the other fractions strongly suggests lower than expected production levels. In total, our analysis points to a world oil supply in 2030 of 75Mb/d, some 26 Mb/d lower than the IEA predicts. The connection between economic growth and energy use is fundamental in the IEA’s present modeling approach. Since our forecast sees little chance of a significant increase in global oil production, our findings suggest that the ‘‘policy makers, investors and end users’’ to whom WEO 2008 is addressed should rethink their future plans for economic growth. The fact that global oil production has very probably passed its maximum implies that we have reached the Peak of the Oil Age.

  • 16.
    Alexander, Mannelqvist
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Paleontology and Sedimentology of the Alum Shale Formation at Björnberget, Västerbotten County, Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new locality of the Alum Shale Formation at Björnberget, Västerbotten County, of the lower allochthon of the Caledonian front is described herein. Two new species of acrotretid brachiopods were found. Tingitanella vilhelminia n. sp. adds another species to the monospecific genus. T. vilhelminia also extend the genus distribution to Sweden. Anabolotreta furcatus n. sp. is the first member of the genus found in Sweden and extend the stratigraphic range to Stage 5 of Cambrian Series 3. It also exhibits an unusual bifurcating shell structure described for the first time herein. One trilobite was found at the locality, Acadoparadoxides torelli, indicating that the exposures at Björnberget belong to the upper Acadoparadoxides (Baltoparadoxides) oelandicus superzone. The fauna found is impoverished in comparison to the fauna that has been described from Jämtland and reflects the depositional environment on the deep outer shelf with low sediment input.

    The known exposure at Granberget, close to Björnberget, is described with respect to the paleontology and sedimentology of the section. The fauna at Granberget could be extended with two new species of agnostids, Hypagnostus lingula and Hypagnostus mammillatus, to a total of six taxa of trilobites. The depositional environment was periodically affected by storms, depositing limestone layers composed of skeletal material. The Alum shale does not exhibit these sedimentary structures and have probably lost the majority of the them during diagenesis.

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  • 17.
    Alhalabi, Wafa A.
    et al.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Biol, FFCLRP, Ave Bandeirantes 3900, BR-14040901 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil..
    Bardet, Nathalie
    CR2P Ctr Rech Paleontol Paris, Museum Natl Hist Nat, CP38,57 Rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Sachs, Sven
    Nat Kundemuseum Bielefeld, Abt Geowissensch, Adenauerpl 2, D-33602 Bielefeld, Germany..
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Joude, Issam B.
    Morrison Hershfield, 2932 Baseline Rd, Ottawa, ON K2H 1B1, Canada..
    Yazbek, Muhammed K.
    Al Baath Univ, Fac Sci, Geol Dept, Damascus Aleppo Highway, Homs, Syria..
    Godoy, Pedro L.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.;SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Anat Sci, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Langer, Max C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Biol, FFCLRP, Ave Bandeirantes 3900, BR-14040901 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil..
    Recovering lost time in Syria: New Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Santonian) elasmosaurid remains from the Palmyrides mountain chain2024In: Cretaceous research (Print), ISSN 0195-6671, E-ISSN 1095-998X, Vol. 159, article id 105871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its relatively limited vertebrate fossil record, Syria currently records the largest number of documented Mesozoic marine reptile occurrences among the Middle Eastern countries. In particular, the phosphatic deposits of the Palmyrides mountain chain have yielded fossils of aquatic squamates, bothremydid and chelonioid marine turtles, as well as elasmosaurid plesiosaurs. Nevertheless, new discoveries have not been reported for the last two decades. Here, we describe the partial skeleton of an elasmosaurid plesiosaur from Syria, which comprises the middle and posterior cervical series, together with articulated pectoral, dorsal and anterior caudal parts of the vertebral column, with associated rib fragments. The fossil was excavated from Coniacian-Santonian phosphatic deposits of the Al Sawaneh el Charquieh mines, in the central part of the southwestern Palmyrides, about 200 km northeast of Damascus. The specimen can be assigned to Elasmosauridae based on the cervical centra morphology and, although incomplete, is significant because it not only represents likely the oldest, but also the currently most complete plesiosaur skeleton recovered from the Middle East. (c) 2024 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Amirian, Parissa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Volunteering at an eco-community: The impact on the three basic psychological needs - a case study of Hästekasen Farm2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Andermann, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg Global Biodivers Ctr, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Stromberg, Caroline A. E.
    Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Burke Museum Nat Hist & Culture, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg Global Biodivers Ctr, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Oxford, Dept Plant Sci, Oxford, England.;Royal Bot Gardens, Richmond, Surrey, England..
    Silvestro, Daniele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg Global Biodivers Ctr, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Fribourg, Dept Biol, Fribourg, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Fribourg, Switzerland..
    The origin and evolution of open habitats in North America inferred by Bayesian deep learning models2022In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 4833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the most extensive terrestrial biomes today consist of open vegetation, including temperate grasslands and tropical savannas. These biomes originated relatively recently in Earth's history, likely replacing forested habitats in the second half of the Cenozoic. However, the timing of their origination and expansion remains disputed. Here, we present a Bayesian deep learning model that utilizes information from fossil evidence, geologic models, and paleoclimatic proxies to reconstruct paleovegetation, placing the emergence of open habitats in North America at around 23 million years ago. By the time of the onset of theQuaternary glacial cycles, open habitatswere coveringmore than 30% of North America and were expanding at peak rates, to eventually become the most prominent natural vegetation type today. Our entirely datadriven approach demonstrates how deep learning can harness unexplored signals fromcomplex data sets to provide insights into the evolution of Earth's biomes in time and space.

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  • 20.
    Anderson, Lakin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Measuring Sustainable Cities: An approach for assessing municipal-level sustainability indicator systems in Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is now common for managers, strategists, planners and citizens at municipality level to use sustainable development indicators (SDI) to help them work towards sustainable development. SDI constitute an information system for monitoring, reporting and decision-making which in theory should help us decide how to intervene in natural, economic, social and political systems for a better, more sustainable future. But not all indicator systems are created equal. Some are better tools than others when it comes to helping cities and municipalities in their work, and thousands of municipalities use SDI worldwide. How then should we assess the effectiveness of existing indicators for municipalities?

    To answer this question I develop an approach for assessing the edesign, creation and communication of existing, in-use SDI, and then apply it in a case study in Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden. The approach assesses five aspects of SDI: ‘Vision’, ‘Framework’, ‘Indicator Selection’, ‘Stakeholder Participation’ and ‘Communication’. The findings in Falun suggest that SDI have been essential to the implementation of sustainable development in policy and action in general municipal operations, but the municipality has not moved beyond a ‘conventional’ sustainable development vision and monitoring strategy. The benefits and constraints of the current indicator system are then discussed using the above approach, and the thesis finishes by offering suggestions for the municipality going forward. I also point to the need to develop a standardised assessment method for thousands of municipalities using indicator systems used today, to help in ongoing review and improvement of SDI in practice.

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    Measuring Sustainable Cities: An approach for assessing municipal-level sustainability indicator systems in Sweden
  • 21.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bradoriids from the middle Cambrian 'thin' Stephen Formation at Odaray Mountain, Canadian Rocky Mountains2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two new species of Cambrian bradoriid arthropods have been found in the ‘thin’ Stephen Formation, Odaray Mountain, Canada; the hipponicharionid Flumenoglacies michaeli n. sp. and the comptalutid Phasoia stephenensis n. sp. This paper includes the description and illustrations of these species as well as two undetermined species from the same locality. Phasoia stephenensis n. sp. is the first Phasoia reported from Laurentia and Flumenoglacies michaeli n. sp. belongs to the new genus Flumenoglacies recently described by Peel & Streng (in press) from Greenland.

    In the discussion previous reports of the genus Phasoia are ordered chronologically and a migration path from Gondwana to Laurentia is suggested. However, more information on the stratigraphic and regional distribution of this taxon is needed to support this theory since Phasoia is so far only known from Australia, South China and now North America.

    The ornamentation of Phasoia stephenensis n. sp. and Flumenoglacies michaeli n. sp. is discussed and compared with the ornamentation of the hipponicharion Pseudobeyrichona longquanxiensis (Cui 1987), the svealutid Tsunyiella Zhang (1974) and the cambriid Petrianna fulmenata Siveter (1995). It is suggested that it might be remnants of a respiratory system. 

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  • 22. Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Hasselid, Sara
    Widen, Per
    Bax, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Landscape Dynamics. ELD.
    Is the Snow Leopard (Unica unica) endangered?: A study of popular viability and distribution using vulnerability and GIS analysis methods2004In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on High Mountain Remote Sensing Cartography, 2004, p. 224-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Andersson, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Kartläggning av möjligheten att återanvända takdagvatten för att minska dricksvattenförbrukningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking water is vital for our daily life. With climate change comes increasing temperatures and more extreme weather which can jeopardize our access to drinking water. One way to reduce our drinking water consumption is to collect rainwater and use it for processes which have lower quality demands than drinking water. Swedavia is constantly working on making their airports more environmentally friendly and as a part of this reducing the drinking water consumption. This project examines how water can be collected at Swedavia’s airports. The project results should be of intent to all of Swedavia’s airports even if the project is performed at Stockholm Arlanda Airport.

    In this project the water quality from five different types roofs has been studied. The different kind of roofs were chosen based on previous studies where pollutants in roof-harvested rainwater were studied. Other aspects such as location on the airports were also considered. Samplings were collected at two different occasions where water was collected from the different roofs. One sample of clean rainwater was collected as a reference. Five nutrients, dissolved organic matter, suspended matter and six heavy metals were analyzed.

    Three of the roofs gave water with high values that exceeded the quality limits. The samples from the green roof showed high levels of phosphorus and dissolved organic matter. The steel roof gave high levels of zink which may origin from its zink coating. The roof with PVC plastic also gave high levels of zink, but not as high as the steel roof. The roof with FPO plastic, a more environmentally friendly plastic, and the roof with roof paper gave low values and did not exceed any quality limits. The reference sample of clean rainwater gave high values of suspended matter at the second occasion and high values of lead that exceeded the quality limits.

    The conclusions of this project are that roof-harvested rainwater from green roofs, steel roofs and roofs with PVC plastic may exceed quality limits which makes them less suitable for collecting and re-use. The results are based on the two sampling occasions which means that sampling at more occations needs to be done to make definitive conclusions. The roofs with FPO plastic and roof paper do not exceed any quality limits and can therefore, according to the analyzed parameters, be suitable for collecting rainwater. It is important to note that to be able to reuse the water and guarantee that the quality of the water does not exceed any quality limits more parameters should be analyzed.

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  • 24.
    Anna, Sporre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Utvärdering av grumlighet i miljökontrollprogram för ytvatten vid konstruktionsarbeten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been noticed that construction activities close to watercourses often result in turbidity values that exceed guideline values. A detailed analysis of annual reports from the Swedish infrastructure project “BanaVäg i Väst” has shown that recommended values of turbidity often are determined without consideration of natural variations in turbidity. The performance probably depends on the lack of appropriate legislation on acceptable turbidity values and on how turbidity should be monitored during construction activities. The objective of this thesis was therefore to develop a method to determine background values for turbidity as a basis for setting water system adapted reference values. In the thesis a model for turbidity was developed with agricultural area, clay content within the watershed and discharge as input variables. With the dynamic model variations in turbidity could best be explained in watercourses of watersheds less than 100 km2, but even for these watercourses the model performance remained poor. For watercourses draining larger watersheds the model performance became even poorer, most probably due to complex interactions of a variety of driving variables, of which some were not included as input variables. A recommendation is therefore a national initiative where more advanced models can be used, at least for large watercourses that are highly vulnerable, after adaption to Swedish conditions. This study clearly shows that there is an urgent need in Sweden to improve methods to monitor turbidity as well as to improve guideline values by adjusting them according to background turbidity levels.

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  • 25.
    Antans, Andis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Wind power Project Development: Case study in Latvia2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind Power Project Development is a complicated, capital and resource-inclusive process, where a wide variety of factors have to be considered and several stakeholders have a significant say in the process. Decision making in such an environment is complex and has to be approached comprehensively. In order to sustain a structured and clear decision-making process, the sustainable energy industry has recognized Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method as a suitable set of tools to aid in the decision-making process. One of the MCDA tools – PROMETHEE II, has been examined in this master thesis, to evaluate its eligibility as a decision making aid in wind power project development.

    To structurally and realistically evaluate the tool, it has been applied to a case study in Ventspils region, in Latvia. The author of this thesis has a preliminary agreement with the owners of the sites to develop the project, therefore, this thesis has a strong potential for a practical implementation in future. Four scenarios have been developed for an evaluation, contributing to four variations of the different amount of turbines erected, with two different hub heights, on two differently sized sites. The scenarios are assessed based on the interests of six key stakeholders. Their opinion on twelve criteria is examined.

    Input data for each criterion has been generated via WindPro and MS Excel software or by authors assessment based on the researched literature. PROMETHEE II is used to extrapolate a comprehensive and clear representation of the results.

    The evaluation of the MCDA method proved that MCDA tools, and PROMETHEE II, in particular, can provide excellent support in decision making in wind power development. A wide variety of input data, as well as the various and often contradicting interests by different stakeholders, can be taken into account, while, at the same time, a clear result that can assist in decision making, is generated. 

    Wind Power Project Development is a complicated, capital and resource-inclusiveprocess, where a wide variety of factors have to be considered and severalstakeholders have a significant say in the process. Decision making in such anenvironment is complex and has to be approached comprehensively. In order to sustaina structured and clear decision making process, sustainable energy industry hasrecognized Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method as a suitable set of tools toaid in the decision making process. One of the MCDA tools – PROMETHEE II, hasbeen examined in this master thesis, to evaluate its eligibility as a decision making aidin wind power project development.To structurally and realistically evaluate the tool, it has been applied on a case study inVentspils region, in Latvia. The author of this thesis has a preliminary agreement withthe owners of the sites to develop the project, therefore, this thesis has a strongpotential for a practical implementation in future. Four scenarios have been developedfor an evaluation, contributing to four variations of different amount of turbines erected, with two different hub heights, on two differently sized sites. The scenarios are assessed based on the interests of six key stakeholders. Their opinion on twelve criteria examined. Input data for each criterion has been generated via WindPro and MS Excel software orby authors assessment based on the researched literature. PROMETHEE II is used to extrapolate a comprehensive and clear representation of the results.The evaluation of the MCDA method proved that MCDA tools, and PROMETHEE II in particular, can provide excellent support in decision making in wind power development. Wide variety of input data, as well as the various and often contradicting interests by different stakeholders can be taken into account, while, at the same time, a clear result that can assist in decision making, is generated.

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  • 26.
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Contaminated organic sediments of anthropogenic origin: impact on coastal environments2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is negatively affected by legacy pollutants such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that are known to have adverse effects on living organisms, including, humans and were banned decades ago. This thesis addresses the dispersal of these pollutants from heavily contaminated, cellulose-rich sediments of industrial origin in the Ångermanälven river estuary in northern Sweden. Relatively thick deposits, known as fiberbanks, in the studied area derive from historical wastewater emissions from the pulp and paper industry (P&PI) that began in the 19th century. These fiberbanks formed on shallow seabeds, where they currently remain. In addition, extensive areas of the deeper seabed are covered by fiber-rich sediments. The fiberbanks contain higher levels of pollutants than the fiber-rich sediments and the sediments less affected by P&PI emissions, and the fiberbank concentrations may be of ecotoxicological concern. Metals and POPs were found to be strongly partitioned to organic material and partitioning coefficients were higher in fiberbanks that contain elevated levels of organic matter. Metals and POPs were detectable in sampled pore water, even if low sediment-water fluxes of metals were expected. Metal contaminant concentrations in sampled bottom water were measured before and after resuspension of underlying sediments, which showed that concentrations of particle bound metals dominated over dissolved forms. One out of three studied fiberbank sites was covered with a natural capping layer that probably shields the water column from metals in the deposit underneath. Studies of geological archives in the form of sediment cores show the rise and fall of an anthropogenic industrial era and the recovery of an aquatic system, but the established chemostratigraphy fails to reveal the current hotspots (fiberbanks) that will stay for decades to come. The potential impacts of climate change and isostatic land uplift are factors that complicate the long-term risk assessment of fiberbanks. These knowledge gaps combined with the lack of a common risk assessment strategy for contaminated sediments hinder the achievement of national quality objectives (NQOs) and fulfillment of Agenda 2030 goals. Fiberbanks resulted from an accelerating global demand for paper products and hence, the issue of these artificial seabed forms is an example of how the geological epoch of humankind, the Anthropocene, can be viewed in a cross-scalar perspective and be important in the management of a sustainable future in the Baltic Sea region.

    List of papers
    1. Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    2019 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 215, p. 470-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial emissions can impact aquatic environments and unregulated discharges from pulp and paper factories have resulted in deposits of cellulose fiber along the Swedish coast. These deposits are contaminated by metals, but due to their unique fibrous character the extent of sorption and dispersal of the metals is unclear. Fibrous sediments were sampled at two sites in the Ångermanälven river estuary, Sweden. The partitioning of metals between the sediment, pore water and bottom water was investigated and the degree of bioavailability was evaluated. The levels of metals in the sediment were high in fibrous or offshore samples, depending on the metal, whereas the levels of dissolved metals in pore water were low or below the limit of quantification. Partition coefficients (KD) showed that sorption to the sediment was stronger at one of the fibrous sites, possibly related to the type and size of organic matter. Undisturbed bottom water samples contained low levels of both dissolved and particle bound metals, but when comparing measured metal concentrations to threshold values of ecological status and ecotoxicological assessment criteria, both sediments and bottom water may be detrimental to living organisms. In-situ re-suspension experiments showed that the concentrations of particle bound metals increased whereas the dissolved concentrations decreased. The analyzed metals are probably retained by the solid phases of the fibrous sediment or adsorbed to particles in the water, reducing their bioavailability.

    Keywords
    fiberbank, fiber-rich sediments, metals, bottom water, pore water, sorption
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363220 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.010 (DOI)000450383400052 ()30340155 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2014-63The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 362-1493/2013The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 411-1578/2013
    Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2020-12-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber–contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber–contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 2471-2483Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many coastal areas in the Baltic Sea are contaminated with wood fiber and pollutants from pulp and paper industries. These anthropogenic, organic-rich, sediments (fiberbanks) have not been characterized and knowledge about their role as secondary sources for dispersal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to elucidate the fate of POPs and the relationships between sorption (KD and KTOC), sediment type, and compound hydrophobicity (KOW) in fiber-contaminated sediments.

    Keywords
    Chlorinated pollutants, Fibrous sediment, Organic carbon, Pore water, Pulp and paper emissions
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-419473 (URN)10.1007/s11368-020-02610-6 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-09-11 Created: 2020-09-11 Last updated: 2020-12-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Dispersal of cellulose fibers and metals from contaminated sediments of industrial origin in an estuary
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dispersal of cellulose fibers and metals from contaminated sediments of industrial origin in an estuary
    2020 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 266, no 3, article id 115182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The boreal forest’s pulp and paper industry plays a major role in economic prosperity but, historically, caused an environmental burden. Remnants of discharges of contaminated suspended solids (fiberbanks) are continuously being discovered on the beds of shallow seas, rivers and lakes in the northern hemisphere. We investigated the dispersion of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from deeper to surficial layers in fiberbanks in a Swedish estuary and the larger-scale transport of the same metals to distal areas of sediment accumulation. We also tested the C:N ratio as a common denominator for these anthropogenic, cellulose-rich deposits. Sampling and analyses of three fiberbanks located in the inner part of the estuary and from sediment accumulation sites outside and along the estuary reveals that metal concentrations are regressing to background levels towards the surface at the accumulation sites. The fiberbanks show a higher degree of contamination and C:N ratios demonstrate inclusion of cellulose fibers. C:N ratios also indicate that there is currently no significant transport of fiberbank material into the distal areas. A ∼10 cm natural cap of recently settled fine-grained sediment covering one of the fiberbanks seems to prevent metals dispersing into overlying water whereas the other two fiberbanks show signs of metal enrichment and potential mercury methylation in surficial layers. Although the estuarine system seems to recover from the impact of industrial waste, there is no evidence that the fiberbanks will be remediated naturally but instead will continue to threaten the aquatic environment.

    Keywords
    Fiberbank, Fiber-impacted sediments, Metals, C:N ratios, Anthropogenic sediments
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-419474 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115182 (DOI)000571853900011 ()32673976 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 362-1493/2013
    Available from: 2020-10-06 Created: 2020-10-06 Last updated: 2020-12-10Bibliographically approved
    4. The Anthropocene in the northern Baltic Sea – the case of contaminated fiberbanks and implications for sustainable development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Anthropocene in the northern Baltic Sea – the case of contaminated fiberbanks and implications for sustainable development
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The epoch of humankind, the Anthropocene, is usually characterized by the global gaze, which places its focus on global environmental phenomena i.e. global warming and ocean acidification. In this article we argue that the Anthropocene could be better understood with a cross-scalar perspective and present the case of anthropogenic contaminated “fiberbanks” as an example. We present a geological example of the Anthropocene in a Swedish river estuary in the northern Baltic Sea, which hosted nine P&P mills along its’ shores and received large amounts of metal containing wastewater during the 20th century. As a result of the great acceleration and an increased national and global demand for pulp and paper products these fiberbanks formed in shallow waters. As artificial seabed features these thick deposits of contaminated organic-rich material negatively affect the adjacent aquatic environment. By constructing a chemostratigraphy based on sediment cores from accumulation areas and a metal pollution index we show how the aquatic system has recovered from metal pollution. We note, however, that the established stratigraphy fails to identify the fiberbanks, which remain in the shallow zones and are contaminant hotspots. In Sweden, there is an insufficient knowledge of contaminated sediments for a sustainable water and marine management. This knowledge gap in combination with human induced climate changes that may chemically and physically affect sediments and thus, alter dispersion of imbedded pollutants, results in poor understanding and long-term perception of the risks of contaminant dispersion from fiberbanks. We claim that these gaps of knowledge must be filled in order to reach an effective conservation at the same time as a sustainable blue growth in the northern Baltic Sea.

    Keywords
    Anthropocene, fiberbanks, pulp and paper industry, chemostratigraphy, water and marine management, sustainable development
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
    Research subject
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-427736 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-12-10 Created: 2020-12-10 Last updated: 2020-12-10
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  • 27.
    Arvestål, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Changes in Arsenic Levels in the Precambrian Oceans in Relation to the Upcome of Free Oxygen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Life on Earth could have existed already 3.8 Ga ago, and yet, more complex, multicellular life did not evolve until over three billion years later, about 700 Ma ago. Many have searched for the reason behind this apparent delay in evolution, and the dominating theories put the blame on the hostile Precambrian environment with low oxygen levels and sulphide-rich oceans. There are, however, doubts whether this would be the full explanation, and this thesis therefore focuses on a new hypothesis; the levels of the redox sensitive element arsenic increased in the oceans as a consequence of the change in weathering patterns that followed the upcome of free oxygen in the atmosphere at about 2.4 billion years ago. Given its toxicity, this could have had negative effects upon the life of the time. To test the hypothesis, 66 samples from drill cores coming from South Africa and Gabon with ages between 2.7 and 2.05 Ga were analysed for their elemental composition, and their arsenic content were compared with carbon isotope data from the same samples. These confirmed that a rise in arsenic concentration following the upcome of free oxygen in the atmosphere and the onset of oxidative weathering of continental sulphides. Arsenic, which is commonly found in sulphide minerals, was weathered together with the sulphide and delivered into the oceans, where it in the Palaeoproterozoic increased to over 600% compared to the older Archaean levels, at least locally. Iron had the strongest control over the arsenic levels in the anoxic (ferruginous and sulphidic) oceans, probably due to its ability to remove arsenic through adsorption. During oxygenated conditions, sulphur instead had the strongest influence upon arsenic, likely because of the lack of dissolved iron. The highest arsenic levels were found in samples recognised as coming from oxygenated conditions, although this might be due to the oxygenation state of arsenic affecting its solubility. Arsenic is toxic already at low doses, especially if the necessary arsenic detoxification systems had not yet evolved. However, the lack of correlation between arsenic and changes in δ13C indicated that the increase of arsenic did not affect the primary production between 2.7 and 2.05 Ga. Thus, whether arsenic could have affected the evolution of life during the Mesoproterozoic remains to be shown.

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  • 28.
    Arvestål, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Organic microfossils from the Ediacaran of Estonia—behind the scenes2017In: Abstract Volume, International Symposium on the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, St. John’s / [ed] D. McIlroy, 2017, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When seeing a play, one easily gets caught by everything therein; the music, the dancing, and of course, the story. Still, most of the work took place before it even had its premiere. When the evolutionary curtain was lifted for most of the animals back in the beginning of the Cambrian, it had been preceded by many hundreds of millions of years of preparation. Still, as for any play, it was in the very last few moments that everything was coming together, that the scene became set. Hence, if we truly want to understand the events that was about to happen, we should peek behind the curtain before act one, into the Ediacaran Period and on its very busy little stage workers: the acritarchs. In order to better understand the dynamics of acritarch evolution at the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition two drill cores of allegedly Ediacaran age were studied. The drill cores had been taken in northern Estonia, and a total of 48 samples were prepared with the purpose of identifying the acritarchs and other organic microfossils using light microscopy. However, despite a relatively high taxonomic diversity, the recovered associations were strikingly different from other well-described Ediacaran acritarch faunas, most prominently by the absence of the large acanthomorphic acritarchs known from Australia, China and Siberia. Equally absent were the much smaller acanthomorphic acritarchs, characteristic of Cambrian sediments. Instead, a number of smooth-walled leiospheres was found to dominate the associations together with a variety of different types of filaments as well as unusually shaped fragments from yet unidentified organisms. It seems that the acritarchs were more than just stage workers: they had their own play going on, and this play appears to have been full of surprises.

  • 29.
    Arvestål, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    A new species of Cyrtograptus (Graptoloidea) from the Llandovery of Västergötland (Sweden)2011In: The 2nd Wiman Meeting: Carl Wiman's Legacy: 100 years of Swedish Palaeontology, Uppsala, 2011, p. 2-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new species of the genus Cyrtograptus from the late Llandovery of southern Sweden (Västergötland) is presented. The new species has been found near the top of Kinnekulle (Högkullen) in the Retiolites Shales, which are part of the lapworthi zone (late Telychian). Although it resembles the coeval C. lapworthi in appearance, a detailed comparison of the type material of C. lapworthi revealed distinct differences: the new species is more openly coiled in the proximal part, has a larger Two Thecae Repeat Distance (2TRD), and, most significantly, bears a second order cladium. Second order cladia are unknown from C. lapworthi. The new species is also compared with other species of Cyrtograptus that are characterized by second order cladia, such as the cotemporaneous C. laqueus and the slightly younger C. insectus (insectus zone; latest Telychian). However, C. laqueus differs from the new species in having a lower number of thecae separating the cladia, and also by the appearance of its proximal part, which forms a loop by crossing its own main stipe. C. insectus differs by having wider spaced cladia and a stronger coiled proximal part. Furthermore, the need of a redefinition of C. lapworthi is highlighted, due to the large morphological variations within this species.

  • 30.
    Arvestål, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Cyrtograptids from the Telychian (upper Llandovery) of Kinnekulle Mountain, southern Sweden2013In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 135, no 1, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The late Llandovery graptolite fauna of the Retiolites Shales on Kinnekulle Mountain in the province of Västergötland has long been known but never illustrated or studied in detail. New collections of graptolites from an interval at the very top of the exposed succession confirm previous reports of cyrtograptids, which make the shales on Kinnekulle the youngest preserved Palaeozoic rocks in the area. The co-occurrence of Oktavites spiralis and Cyrtograptus lapworthi constrains the strata to the lower lapworthi Biozone of the upper Telychian. The associated graptolite fauna comprises numerous monograptids and Retiolites angustidens as well as Cyrtograptus kinnekullensis n. sp., characterised by its open coiling and the presence of a second-order cladium on the second thecal cladium. This early occurrence of a cyrtograptid species with a second-order cladium on Baltica matches evolutionary patterns observed in Laurentia, suggesting that the ability to grow cladia of both first and higher order evolved approximately, synchronously and at the very beginning of cyrtograptid evolution.

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  • 31.
    Arvestål, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Cyrtograptids from the Telychian (upper Llandovery) of Kinnekulle Mountain, southern Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Arvestål, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Willman, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Organic-walled microfossils in the Ediacaran of Estonia: Biodiversity on the East European Platform2020In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 341, article id 105626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precambrian organic-walled microfossils are not only a source for studying evolution but also increasingly associated with stratigraphic correlation, based on key fossils and assemblage composition. For this reason, two drill cores from north-eastern Estonia have been studied for their content and stratigraphic distribution of organic-walled microfossils (OWM), analysing samples from the Precambrian Gdov, Kotlin, and Voronka formations. The recovered assemblages are generally well-preserved and diverse consisting of abundant sphaeromorphs, such as Leiosphaeridiaspp. and Pterospermopsimorpha spp., filamentous cyanobacteria, e.g. Cephalonyx geminatus and Palaeolyngbya catenata, and different types of cellular/colonial aggregates. In contrast, acanthomorphic acritarchs are rare with only a few unidentified examples present. The presence of taxa such as Pomoria rhomboidalisand Primoflagella speciosa in combination with the absence of large acanthomorphs suggests a late Ediacaran age of the studied samples. All in all, 38 species within 22 different genera are described herein, as are 9 taxa of unknown taxonomic affiliation. Another 11 taxa are briefly mentioned and depicted in order to provide for a better overview of the diversity of the assemblage. The stratigraphic distribution of the recognized taxa and assemblages can provide a powerful tool for correlation on the East European Platform as well as between Baltica and other palaeogeographic regions during the Ediacaran.

  • 33. Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. University of Gävle.
    A fast instance selection method for support vector machines in building extraction2020In: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 97, article id 106716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training support vector machines (SVMs) for pixel-based feature extraction purposes from aerial images requires selecting representative pixels (instances) as a training dataset. In this research, locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) is adopted for developing a new instance selection method which is referred to as DR.LSH. The intuition of DR.LSH rests on rapidly finding similar and redundant training samples and excluding them from the original dataset. The simple idea of this method alongside its linear computational complexity make it expeditious in coping with massive training data (millions of pixels). DR.LSH is benchmarked against two recently proposed methods on a dataset for building extraction with 23,750,000 samples obtained from the fusion of aerial images and point clouds. The results reveal that DR.LSH outperforms them in terms of both preservation rate and maintaining the generalization ability (classification loss). The source code of DR.LSH can be found in https://github.com/mohaslani/DR.LSH.

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  • 34.
    Bajdek, Piotr
    et al.
    Aleja Najswieztszej Maryi Panny 20-20A, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Qvarnström, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Owocki, Krzysztof
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Golubev, Valeriy K.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Microbiota and food residues including possible evidence of pre-mammalian hair in Upper Permian coprolites from Russia2016In: Lethaia: an international journal of palaeontology and stratigraphy, ISSN 0024-1164, E-ISSN 1502-3931, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 455-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coprolites (fossil faeces) provide direct evidence on the diet of its producer and unique insights on ancient food webs and ecosystems. We describe the contents of seven coprolites, collected from the Late Permian Vyazniki site of the European part of Russia. Two coprolite morphotypes (A, B) contain remains of putative bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, protists, invertebrate eggs, arthropod elements, undigested bone and tooth fragments, fish scales and elongated hair-like structures with hollow interiors. Content, size and shape of the coprolites together with the associated body fossil record suggest that the most probable scat-producers were carnivorous tetrapods; the bone-rich morphotype A reveals short food retention time and a fast metabolism and is therefore assigned to therapsid carnivores whereas morphotype B with rarer and degraded bones are assigned to archosauromorphs or other non-therapsid carnivores. The general coprolite matrix contains abundant micron-sized spheres and thin-walled vesicles which are interpreted as oxide and phosphatic pseudomorphs after microbial cells. From analyses of the undigested bones, we infer that they represent remains of actinopterygian fish, a therapsid and unrecognizable parts of amphibians and/or reptiles. Additionally, hair-like structures found in one coprolite specimen occur as diagenetically altered (oxide-replaced) structures and moulds (or partly as pseudomorphs) in a microcrystalline carbonate-fluoride-bearing calcium phosphate. This suggests that the latest Permian therapsids probably were equipped with hair-like integument or hairsuit. If true, this is by far the oldest evidence of this mammalian character in the stem group of mammals.

  • 35.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    et al.
    University of Glasgow.
    Brazeau, Martin
    Brock, Glenn
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Harper, David
    Durham University.
    Holmer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    McGowan, Alistair
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    Northwest University, Xi'an.
    Early evolution of biomineralization in brachiopods2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    et al.
    University of Glasgow.
    Brazeau, Martin
    Brock, Glenn
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    McGowan, Alistair
    Harper, David
    Holmer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    Brachiopod phylogeny revisited: Using stem groups to flesh out molecular tree topology2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Barney, Andrew
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Polatidis, Heracles
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Vakalis, Stergios
    Grondin, Dominique
    Benne, Michel
    Sainz Salces, Fausto
    Haralampopoulos, Dias
    Energy transition awareness: Can it guide local transition planning on islands?2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e19960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of climate change and reduced energy security are becoming increasingly apparent, especially on islands. At the same time, the energy transition is quickly spreading and its value to society becoming clearer. Two main obstacles to this transition, rigid policy and lack of local understanding, are particularly troubling on islands, where national policies often aren't flexible enough to consider local particularities and residents are exposed to different energy realities from those on the mainland. Using exploratory interviews and a survey on four islands, this article considers island residents' awareness of energy transition concepts and presents how it interacts with, and is potentially influenced by, relevant energy policies at the national level. The paper presents the comparative results for the geographically, demographically and climatologically diverse islands of Gotland (Sweden), Lesvos (Greece), La Réunion (France) and Mallorca (Spain) to focus on European island energy transitions. Differences were noted between the islands' residents with regards to awareness of and willingness to use specific energy transition tools or to join activities like energy communities. Additionally, differences were noted between the islands for what was the most important reason to consider when using demand response, though ‘Ease of use’ was important across all. The potential reasons for differences among the islands are discussed and suggestions to increase consumer engagement with energy transition activities on islands are given. Overall, the results show that while awareness of energy concepts isn't greater on these European islands, interest in prospective transition actions was high and provide an opportunity for planners to capitalize on. However, if there are potential policy obstacles, these higher levels of interest cannot ensure higher levels of willingness to engage. Taken together, these two findings indicate the potential for an acceleration of transition activity on these islands, and potentially beyond, should engagement with island residents be increased along with review, and amendment of policies impeding it.

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    Energy transition awareness: Can it guide local transition planning on islands?
  • 38.
    Bate, Stephen
    et al.
    Royal Holloway Univ London, Quaternary Res Ctr, Dept Geog, Egham TW20 0EX, Surrey, England..
    Stevens, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Royal Holloway Univ London, Quaternary Res Ctr, Dept Geog, Egham TW20 0EX, Surrey, England.; Univ Novi Sad, Fac Sci, Lab Paleoenvironmental Reconstruct, Trg D Obradov 2, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia..
    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter
    Univ Aarhus, Dept Earth Sci, Nord Lab Luminescence Dating, Riso DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.; Ctr Nucl Technol, Riso DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark..
    Markovic, Slobodan
    Univ Novi Sad, Fac Sci, Lab Paleoenvironmental Reconstruct, Trg D Obradov 2, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia..
    Roos, Per
    Ctr Nucl Technol, Riso DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark..
    Tasic, Nenad
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Philosophy, Dept Archaeol, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Pottery versus sediment: Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the Neolithic Vinca culture, Serbia2017In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 429, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating was applied to the Neolithic Vinca culture's type-site, Vinca Belo-Brdo, to establish best protocols for routine luminescence dating of similar Holocene sites, critical in understanding Neolithic to Chalcolithic cultural development. Equivalent dose (De) values were investigated for sediment samples using 63-90 mm grains on large and small aliquots, and single-grain laser luminescence (SGLL), and for pottery samples using large aliquots of 4-11 mm grains. The effects of changing water content and the different techniques available to establish radionuclide concentration were explored for their impacts on dose rate (Dr) estimates. Ages for two pottery samples of 6.74 +/- 0.37 ka and 7.04 +/- 0.47 ka are in line with the existing AMS radiocarbon chronology for the site and are regarded as the best dates available. Sediment samples at Vinca show poor signal strength, and the uncertainty over past water content, in addition to the possibility of mixing and/or partial bleaching of the quartz, means that we do not recommend the use of sediment-derived ages at complex archaeological sites such as Vinca. OSL dating of fired pottery however, presents a powerful tool for generating independent chronologies at archaeological sites as well as providing additional constraints for Bayesian age models.

  • 39.
    Bax, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Landscape Dynamics. ELD.
    Remote sensing and 3D visualization of geological structures in mountain ranges:: examples from the Northern Scandinavian Caledonides and the south Tibetan Himalayas2004In: The 26th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting: Abstract volume, 2004, p. 105-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bax, Gerhard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Landscape Dynamics. ELD.
    Buchroithner, ManfredDepartment of Cartography.
    Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium of the use of Remote Sensing in Maountain Cartography: High-Mountain Remote Sensing Cartography 19982002Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Bazzi, Mohamad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Extinction Dynamics in Selachimorpha: Tracking Dental Morphology Across the K–Pg Boundary2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the effects of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction (K–Pg) on Selachimorpha (shark) evolution is limited to assessments of taxonomic richness. Prior work on the fossil record of neoselachians both on a global- and regional scale has shown that sharks achieved great taxonomic diversity in the Late Cretaceous but were subsequently punctuated by the K–Pg extinction. The ecological significance of this bioevent on global shark communities is particularly poorly understood with contrasting views on patterns of extinction selectivity. Similar to actinopterygian fishes, the extinction of sharks was focused on large-bodied pelagic piscivorous. However, patterns of trophic selectivity in sharks were recently contested and posited as random with respect to environment and ecology. Following the extinction at the K–Pg boundary, the ecological role of sharks in the earliest Palaeocene is said to have diminished and contrary to actinopterygian fishes did not experience an adaptive radiation.Current analyses are based on assessments of taxonomic diversity and absolute faunal abundance, and lack the necessary morphological framework with which to adequately test ecological dynamics in sharks across the K–Pg. To test both previous and newly formulated macroevolutionary hypotheses, shark tooth morphology was quantified via landmark- and semilandmark-based geometric morphometrics and used to reconstruct patterns of disparity and morphospace occupation across the K–Pg boundary. The newly assembled morphometric dataset comprises 1457 shark teeth spanning the Maastrichtian–Palaeocene compiled from published images.The results reveal (1) near-stasis in dental-shape disparity in Selachimorpha (globally) across the K–Pg boundary, and (2) a decrease in morphospace occupation associated with cutting-type dentitions. Considered jointly, observed disparity and morphospace patterns in Selachimorpha do not conform to the predictions of a non-random extinction model. However, dissecting patterns of disparity and morphospace occupation along phylogenetic lines reveal differential responses to the extinction, affirming phylogenetic selectivity with trophic implications.Testing for ecological release in sharks, using disparity dynamics in lamniforms and carcharhiniforms as a model, is shown to be complex. Pattern across the extinction event reveal an increase in tooth morphologies of carcharhiniforms in previously underexplored area of morphospace that were previously occupied by lamniforms, an area corresponding to macropredaceous forms (e.g. anacoracids and pseudocoracids). However, the observed increases in cutting-type dentitions in carcharhiniforms are largely driven by the proliferation of triakids, that are not ecologically equivalent to macropredatory lamniforms. I suggest that the combined effect of a selective decline in lamniform ecodiversity and the diversification of mid-trophic small-sized pelagic bony fish triggered the post-Cretaceous diversification of triakids. The K–Pg boundary was therefore crucial in setting the stage for the carcharhiniform-dominated selachimorph community that can be seen today.

  • 42.
    Bazzi, Mohamad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Lund University.
    Kear, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Late Cretaceous (Campanian) actinopterygian fishes from the Kristianstad Basin of southern Sweden2016In: Mesozoic Biotas Of Scandinavia And Its Arctic Territories, Geological Society, 2016, p. 277-292Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a diverse range of aquatic vertebrates are documented from the Upper Cretaceous (mid-Campanian) marine strata of the Kristianstad Basin in southern Sweden, only chondrichthyans and marine amniotes have been described in detail to date. In contrast, coeval actinopterygians are virtually unreported, yet their remains are extremely abundant at most sampled localities. A comprehensive assessment of these fossils has identified the first Late Cretaceous actinopterygian fauna from the Fennoscandian Shield, incorporating indeterminate lepisosteids, the durophagous pycnodontid Anomoeodus subclavatus, the predatory pachycormid Protosphyraena sp., a large ichthyodectid, pachyrhizodontids resembling Pachyrhizodus, the enchodontid Enchodus cf. gladiolus and indeterminate small teleosts. These taxa are diagnosed mainly from isolated teeth and scales, implying substantial taphonomic loss prior to burial. Moreover, the prolific recovery of actinopterygian skeletal remnants in recent excavations suggests that historical collecting biases, rather than ecological paucity, have contributed to their under-representation in the Swedish Cretaceous record. Palaeobiogeographically, the Kristianstad Basin actinopterygians show compositional resemblance to assemblages from the Northern European Platform and the Western Interior Seaway of North America, advocating distributional communication across the Boreal proto-Atlantic Ocean.

  • 43.
    Bengtsson, Stefan L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, SWEDESD - The Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    Engaging with the Beyond: Diffracting Conceptions of T-LearningStefan2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 1-20, article id 3430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a theory of transgressive learning (t-learning) as it was experimented with in the International Science Council t-learning network. The method applied is a diffractive reading of conceptions of transgression in academic publications emerging from different cases. The results show that there can be no definite conduct to or understanding of transgression, as transgression itself entails a subversion of rules, contexts, and borders. Instead, the results document several overarching categorical positions and axiomatic understandings of transgression that emerge from the background of context-specific wicked sustainability issues. Transgressive learning can be understood as a set of contextually diverse techniques and practices that attempt to bring about change through and in learning. Transgressive learning can result in experiential learning excesses where the excess is the very source of difference and makes change possible. The diversity of conceptions of transgressive learning open up new entry points for engaging with sustainability-oriented learning and education that is open to change rather than to reproducing unsustainable social structures and dynamics.

  • 44.
    Bennich, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    A Numerical Analysis on the Effects of Using CO2 as a Driving Fluid for a Geothermal Plant2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To limit the effect of global warming society needs clean energy sources and to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. By combining carbon capture and storage technologies together with geothermal power production it is possible to gain fossil free energy while potentially storing CO2 at the same time. Furthermore, it would be possible to reduce the emissions from geothermal sites with high greenhouse gas content in the groundwater by recirculating the retrieved fluid. Many uncertainties remain however about this type of adaptation.

    To study this, this master thesis investigated how a geothermal system would be effected by comparing a water injection with 10 % CO2 to a pure water injection. A 2D model over a 1000 m times 1000 m horizontal fracture zone with two boreholes spaced 500 m apart and a injection rate of 1 kg/s was simulated using the iTOUGH2 software with the ECO2N module, designed for numerical simulations regarding geohydrological systems.

    In addition to comparing the two injection scenarios stated above, the effects of changing the injection rate, CO2 concentration in the injection fluid, permeability and surrounding pressure as well as introducing salinity and having an initial CO2 saturated liquid phase were investigated as well.

    It was concluded that using CO2 in the injection fluid does allow for a large greenhouse gas sequestration while slightly increasing the heat production, but the system experienced a significant pressure increase while doing so. It was suggested that further investigations regarding adjustments of injection rate and concentration of CO2 was to be performed to find an optimal injection strategy, and to study the impact of different salinity concentrations in both the fracture zone and the injection fluid.

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  • 45.
    Berglund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Biological Soil Invertebrate Activity in a Tropical Rainforest: A comparison of soil invertebrate activity in two tropical rain forests in Borneo2020Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logging of tropical forests is increasing worldwide. Logging alters the forest conditions such as temperature, soil water content and litter input into the soil. This study explored how soil invertebrate activity in Borneo differs between pristine forests and two secondary forests, with 10 and 40 years of recovery time since the last logging. To measure the soil fauna feeding activity, the bait lamina stick method was applied. The study was conducted in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, during April and May 2019. 33 forest plots were examined with ten lamina sticks placed in each of the three replicas per forest plot. The sticks were kept in the soil for four weeks before being removed. Upon removal, the soil invertebrate activity was determined by assessing how many holes of the bait lamina sticks were eaten and at what depth. The activity was related to the above-ground carbon density (ACD, a density measure for amount of above-ground carbon), as well as depth-specific activity in the different plots. Moreover, further relationships with the invertebrate activity and environmental conditions such as cumulative throughfall during the study time as well as the soil water content were studied. The results showed that the soil activity slightly decreased with increased ACD, but no statistical significance was found. This study also suggests that the activity was higher in the upper 0-5cm of the soil than in the lower 5-10 cm. Lastly, the results showed that the activity was highest in the forest with the shortest recovery time (10 years). This implies that it might be possible to regain the original soil activity since the activity of the 40-year-old forest was closer to the pristine forest than that of the 10- year-old forest.

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  • 46.
    Berg-Madsen, Vivianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Lars Roberg och trilobiterna2015In: Geologiskt forum, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 18 juni 1715 försvarades uppsatsen De Fluviatili Astaco ejusque usu medico vid Uppsalauniversitet. Författaren var Lars Roberg ochämnet var kräftdjur av olika slag. Arbetet innehöllen figur och på denna avbildades tre fossil;en krabba och två svanssköldar från trilobiter. Fossil hade aldrig tidigare avbildats i trycktaarbeten i Sverige, och därmed blev Lars Robergför trehundra år sedan den första i Sverige attillustrera fossil, därtill även svenska sådana.

  • 47.
    Berne, Astrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Conditions for Cooperative Water Resource Management in a conflict affected society: A case study of the Ibër River Basin2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kosovo is a disputed territory, in conflict with Serbia, the country it declared independence from in 1999. The two states share water resource, in the form of the Ibër river. Kosovo is facing issues of water scarcity and the water it has access to is heavily polluted with untreated wastewater metallurgy waste.Kosovo does not only have poor relations with Serbia, there are also conflict within Kosovo with communities of both Kosovo Albanian majority and Serb majority. These communities have shown different willingness to cooperate over the water management of the Ibër river basin. Cooperating over shared water resources have in other cases been used as a way to improve on relations in conflict affected societies, through environmental peacemaking. In this case study, the environmental and socio-political conditions for environmental peacemaking is investigated through interviews of municipal and regional stakeholders, involved in the management of the Ibër river basin.

    Interviews were conducted with two municipal employees and one representative from the regional river basin authority in Kosovo. These interviews were complemented with a comprehensive literature review. The findings were analysed, using a conceptual framework developed to analyse and compare different cases of environmental peacemaking. The conceptual framework consists of six elements: resource scarcity, interdependence, lack of environmental sustainability, mutual interests, shared values, and power (a)symmetries. External actions and interests was also included as an element to reveal in what way external actors can intervene and assist in improving relations through environmental peacemaking initiatives.

    The analysis concluded that the Ibër river basin is in a need of transboundary management to improve on the water quality in a more effective and efficient way. The resource scarcity that is currently facing the stakeholders could be used as a cooperative trigger between the different actors. And while there is a lot of complexity to within the socio-political conditions, the interviewees express the need and interest for increased cooperation. This indicates that increased collaboration could be possible, but most likely there would be a need for external interventions to create an ongoing dialogue, that in turn can build trust between the conflicting parties.

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  • 48. Betts, Marissa J
    et al.
    Claybourn, Thomas M
    Holmer, Lars E
    Skovsted, Christian B
    Myrow, Paul M
    Stemmerik, Lars
    Topper, Timothy P
    Park, Tae-Yoon
    Hughes, Nigel C
    Brock, Glenn A
    Integrated chronostratigraphy of the lower Cambrian Byrd Group, Transantarctic MountainsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antarctica and Australia were sutured together straddling the equator during the major pulse of animal biodiversification associated with the Cambrian radiation. However, lack of detailed systematic sampling of lower Cambrian sedimentary packages from Antarctica has significantly impeded precise age determination and correlation with other Cambrian paleocontinents, especially with other parts of East Gondwana. Here were present new, integrated biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic (δ13C isotopes) data from three stratigraphic sections measured through autochthonous shallow water carbonates (including archaeocyath-microbial bioherms) from the lower Cambrian Byrd Group in the Transantarctic Mountains. Recovered shelly fossil assemblages (brachiopods, tommotiids, molluscs, trilobites) from the Holyoake and Churchill Ranges include conspecific taxa previously described from Hawker Group rocks in the Arrowie Basin of South Australia facilitating direct correlation with the upper Dailyatia odyssei biozone. Synchronous chemostratigraphic data capture a distinctive positive 𝛿13C excursion in the Churchill Range interpreted as the global Mingxinsi Carbon Isotope Excursion (MICE) peak. A succeeding gradual negative 𝛿13C excursion captured in the Churchill and Holyoake sections is interpreted as the global Archaeocyathid Extinction Carbon Isotope Excursion (AECE) event. There is no chemostratigraphic evidence for the large Redlichiid-Olenellid Extinction Carbon Isotope Excursion (ROECE) negative event that straddles and defines the Cambrian Stage 4 – Miaolingian boundary. Hence, the integrated faunal and new chemostratigraphic data presented herein strongly support a Cambrian Stage 4 age for the upper Shackleton Limestone – Holyoake Formation – Starshot Formation succession of the Byrd Group.

  • 49.
    Bicknell, Russell D. C.
    et al.
    Univ New England, Palaeoscience Res Ctr, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.;Univ New England, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Funct Evolut & Anat Res Lab, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia..
    Holmes, James D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Pates, Stephen
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, Cambridgeshire, England..
    Garcia-Bellido, Diego C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Biol Sci, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.;South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia..
    Paterson, John R.
    Univ New England, Palaeoscience Res Ctr, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia..
    Cambrian carnage: Trilobite predator-prey interactions in the Emu Bay Shale of South Australia2022In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 591, article id 110877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cambrian explosion represents the rapid emergence of complex marine ecosystems on Earth. The propagation of predator-prey interactions within these systems was almost certainly one of the major drivers of this evolutionary event, sparking an arms race that promoted the proliferation of biomineralised exoskeletons and shells, and the evolution of the first durophagous (shell-crushing) predators. The most commonly documented evidence of Cambrian durophagous predation comes from injured trilobites. However, quantitative analysis based on multiple specimens from single localities is lacking. Such studies are required to reveal the dynamics of ancient predator-prey systems at fine ecological scales (e.g. at the population or community level). This study documents injured specimens of two trilobite species, Redlichia takooensis and Redlichia rex, from the Emu Bay Shale Konservat-Lagersta center dot tte (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. A total of 38 injured specimens exhibiting various healed cephalic and thoracic injuries are documented, in addition to the mangled remains of two individuals that probably resulted from the activities of a durophagous predator or scavenger. Specimens of both species show that most injuries are located on the posterior portion of the thorax, indicating that predators preferentially attacked from behind and/or prey individuals presented the posterior of the trunk towards the predator when threatened or fleeing. The larger sample of injured R. takooensis shows that while unilateral injuries are more common than bilateral ones, there is no evidence for a left-or right-side bias, contrasting with previous suggestions that Cambrian trilobites exhibit right-sided injury stereotypy. Comparing the position of injured and non-injured R. takooensis and R. rex in bivariate space, we illustrate that injured specimens of both species typically represent some of the largest individuals of these taxa. This suggests that smaller individuals were completely consumed during an attack and/or larger individuals were more likely to survive an attack and thus record a healed injury. We argue that R. rex, rather than radiodonts, was likely the chief producer of exoskeletal injuries and large shelly coprolites in the Emu Bay Shale biota, and represents one of the earliest cannibalistic trilobites.

  • 50.
    Bijl, Xanthe Sifra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    An Analysis of Growth and Aging in a Tyrannosaurus rex through Histology and Synchrotron Micro-Tomography2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Size comparisons, skeletochronological, and palaeohistological studies have been major contributors in the past decades to expand our knowledge on how dinosaurs, including Tyrannosaurus rex, lived and grew. Historically, size comparisons have been used to establish a relative order of age, and thin sections have been used to study the palaeohistology and skeletochronology, as well as establish growth curves, to construct more quantifiable age determinants. Whenever a new specimen is found or described, it should be placed in context by comparing it to the other known specimens. This study aims to do that for the Naturalis T. rex specimen, RGM 792.000. Comparing the femoral length and circumference data places RGM 792.000 3rd to 6th in size, depending on the literature cited, and so it can be concluded that this T. rex is a, younger, adult. The palaeohistological side of this study aims to reconstruct a more exact age at the time of death as well as a growth curve, using not only thin sections, but also synchrotron radiation computed microtomography. By counting the lines of arrested growth through both methods it can be established that RGM 792.000 was at least 17 years old at the time of death. Additionally, this study demonstrates that the use of synchrotron scans is beneficial to use as a complementary method when studying the skeletochronology and palaeohistology in dinosaurs. 

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