uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 215
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Agić, Heda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Moczydłowska, Małgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Canfield, Donald
    University of Southern Denmark .
    Reproductive cyst and operculum formation in the Cambrian-Ordovician galeate-plexus microfossils2016In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 138, no 2, 278-294 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unicellular organic-walled microfossils from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition in Estonia (ca. 490-480 million years ago) exhibit rare characters reflecting their function as reproductive algal cysts. The studied assemblages record the evolutionary history of phytoplankton in the early Paleozoic Era: novel morphologies appearing through the Cambrian and subsequently diversifying in the Ordovician. Well preserved specimens were extracted following a standard palynological method and studied by light transmitted microscopy. The galeate plexus acritarchs Caldariola, Priscogalea and Stelliferidium have revealed exceptionally preserved morphological elements and a rare structure among both fossil and extant protists – an opening with operculum (lid) in reproductive cysts, in addition to lavish vesicle ornamentation and sculpture. Analogous morphology is observed in the living dasycladalean alga Acetabularia (Chlorophyta), which possesses an intrinsic lid-forming apparatus used during organism’s reproductive stage. Based on the observations on the fossil material and studies on the Acetabularia lid-formation, we propose a model of operculum formation in the galeate plexus microorganisms. Due to strong morphological and ecological similarities between galeate fossils and dasycladalean cysts, and the antiquity of this algal order, galeates may be positioned within green algae, more specifically Dasycladales. Unique morphology of the operculum-bearing microbiota would have required a high degree of intracellular complexity for its development, suggesting that advanced intracellular machinery was present already in the early Paleozoic phytoplankton. Additionally, minute prasinophyte microfossils Reticella corrugata  are reported for the first time in the Upper Cambrian strata. 

  • 2.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Life History and Tolerance and Resistance against Herbivores in Natural Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I combined observational studies with field and greenhouse experiments to examine selection on life history traits and variation in tolerance and resistance against herbivores in natural populations of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range. I investigated (1) phenotypic selection on flowering time and plant size, (2) the effects of timing of germination on plant fitness, (3) the effect of leaf damage on seed production, and (4) correlations between resistance against a specialist and a generalist insect herbivore.

    In all three study populations, flowering time was negatively related to plant fitness, but in only one of the populations, significant selection on flowering time was detected when controlling for size prior to the flowering season. The results show that correlations between flowering time and plant fecundity may be confounded by variation in plant size prior to the reproductive season.

    A field experiment detected conflicting selection on germination time: Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with large leaf rosette before winter and high survival and fecundity among established plants. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination, and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the relative strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

    Experimental leaf damage demonstrated that tolerance to damage was lowest among vegetative plants early in the season, and highest among flowering plants later in the season. Given similar damage levels, leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should thus exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering.

    Resistance against larval feeding by the specialist Plutella xylostella was negatively correlated with resistance against larval feeding by the generalist Mamestra brassicae and with resistance against oviposition by P. xylostella when variation in resistance was examined within and among two Swedish and two Italian A. thaliana populations. The results suggest that negative correlations between resistance against different herbivores and different life-history stages of herbivores may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in resistance.

    List of papers
    1. Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159506 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-03 Last updated: 2011-11-10
    2. Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 1, 193-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing of germination on survival, fecundity and overall fitness in a natural population of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in north-central Sweden. Seedlings were transplanted at three different times in late summer and in autumn covering the period of seed germination in the study population. Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with high survival and fecundity among established plants. The advantages of germinating early more than balanced the disadvantage and selection favoured early germination. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the direction and strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159664 (URN)10.1111/jeb.12293 (DOI)000329254500018 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)
    2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 1, e30015- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected.

    Conclusions/Significance: The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels.

    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159665 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0030015 (DOI)000301457200028 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159685 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2011-11-10
  • 3.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Noack, Sibylle
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thalianaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana2014In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 1, 193-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing of germination on survival, fecundity and overall fitness in a natural population of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in north-central Sweden. Seedlings were transplanted at three different times in late summer and in autumn covering the period of seed germination in the study population. Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with high survival and fecundity among established plants. The advantages of germinating early more than balanced the disadvantage and selection favoured early germination. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the direction and strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

  • 5.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 1, e30015- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected.

    Conclusions/Significance: The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels.

  • 6.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thalianaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7. Andriamihajarivo, Tefy H.
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Kårehed, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, The Linnean Gardens of Uppsala.
    Phyllopentas flava (Rubiaceae), a New Morphologically Heterodistylous and Functionally Dioecious Species from Madagascar2011In: Systematic Botany, ISSN 0363-6445, E-ISSN 1548-2324, Vol. 36, no 4, 1024-1027 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new species of the Afro-Malagasy genus Phyllopentas Karehed & B. Bremer, Phyllopentas flava Razafim., T. Andriam. et Karehed, is described and illustrated. This plant is restricted to the Itremo region in southeastern Madagascar and is distinct morphologically from the other species of the genus by its pubescent, narrowly ovate to narrowly elliptic leaves, grey-whitish and thickly hairy midribs and secondary veins on the lower surfaces of leaves, and functionally dioecious and heterodistylous flowers. Summaries of distribution, phenology, habitat, and ecology are given and a conservation assessment is also provided.

  • 8.
    Anfält, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Nilsson, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology.
    Lilla blomboken: en bukett ur Rudbeckarnas botaniska projekt1999Book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Anfält, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Nilsson, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology.
    Little book of flowers: a bouquet from Rudbeck’s botanical project2000Book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Backlund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Uppsala University.
    Phylogeny of the Asteridae s. str. based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to the Dipsacales1997In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, ISSN 0378-2697, E-ISSN 1615-6110, Vol. 207, no 3-4, 225-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rbcL gene of 15 taxa was sequenced and analyzed cladistically together with a large sample of genera representing all main clades of the subclass Asteridae in order to determine more precisely the delimitation of the order Dipsacales and to elucidate

  • 11.
    Backlund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bremer, Kåre
    Uppsala University.
    To be or not to be - principles of classification and monotypic plant families1998In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 47, no 2, 391-400 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Backlund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Moritz, Thomas
    Uppsala University.
    Phylogenetic implications of an expanded valepotriate distribution in the Valerianaceae1998In: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, ISSN 0305-1978, E-ISSN 1873-2925, Vol. 26, no 3, 309-335 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 taxa from the families Adoxaceae s.lat. (including Viburnaceae and Sambucaceae), Araliaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae (including Triplostegia) have been analysed using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and combined high pe

  • 13.
    Backlund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Nilsson, Siwert
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuséet.
    Pollen morphology and the systematic position of Triplostegia (Dipsacales)1997In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 46, no 1, 21-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triplostegia comprises two species of perennial herbs from southeast Asia, T. glandulifera and T. grandiflora. The systematic position of the genus has been debated ever since it was described, and it has been placed in either Dipsacaceae or Valerianaceae, or in a family of its own Triplo-stegiaceae. Pollen of Triplostegia, investigated by light microscopy and scanning electron micro-scopy, is similar to that of both Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae. Presence of numerous branched and bent columellae as well as an aperturem argins tructurer esemblingt he halo found in Valeria-naceae indicates a closer relationship to the Valerianaceae. A sister-group relationship between Triplostegia and the Valerianaceae is furthermore supported by other studies of molecular and morphological data. In order to maximize information content in the framework of mandatory classificational ranks, Triplostegia is best included in the family Valerianaceae, as the sole mem-ber of a subfamily Triplostegioideae.

  • 14.
    Backlund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Pyck, Nancy
    Catholic University, Leuven.
    Diervillaceae and Linnaeaceae, two new families of caprifolioids1998In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 47, no 3, 657-661 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new families of caprifolioids, Diervillaceae and Linnaeaceae, are proposed. They correspond to the former subfamilies Diervilloideae and Linnaeoideae. A key to their genera and those remaining in Caprifoliaceae is provided.

  • 15.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecological Botany.
    Bog vegetation re-Mapped after sixty years: Studies on Skagershultamossen, central Sweden1972In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 23, no 3, 384-393 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author has re-mapped two areas on Skagershultamossen. The new maps have been compared with maps of the same areas from 1910, made by L. von Post. The vegetation changes are small. The open water surfaces have diminished in number and extent. The theory of cyclic succession on peat bogs finds no support from the maps. Plant communities have been delimited as to correspond to those on the old maps and defined through analysis of a number of sample plots

  • 16.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Dynamik och evolution på de östafrikanska bergen2017In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 111, no 5, 228-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief overview of the conspicuous alpine flora and vegetation of the East African mountains is presented. 

  • 17.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ett etnobotaniskt livsverk2015In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 109, no 6, 346-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vagn J. Brøndegaard skrev mer än 1600 artiklar om allt som hade med relationen mellan växter och människor att göra. Många av dessa har nu ställts samman i två vackra volymer.

  • 18.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gunnar Björkman och hans expedition till Lule lappmark 1924: Gunnar Björkman’s expedition to Swedish Lapland in 19242013In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 107, no 6, 354-358 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawings by Torsten Höjer from Gunnar Björkman's botanical expedition to Swedish Lapland in 1924 are presented with some biographical notes on Björkman. The paleontologist  Birger Bohlin also participated.

  • 19.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecological Botany.
    Hedlav, Cornicularia aculeata på mossar1983In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 77, 27-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecological Botany.
    Milstolpe i västmanländsk botanik1982In: BergslagspostenArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Mossflora över Sankta Helena2013In: Myrinia, ISSN 1102-4194, Vol. 23, 84-87 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new bryophyte flora of St. Helena in the South Atlantic is presented. Of the known 110 species, 26 are (as presently known) endemic.

  • 22.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Swedish Biodiversity Centre. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sankta Helena: en hotad endemisk flora. 1. Den ursprungliga floran och vegetationen och den historiska utvecklingen2014In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 108, no 3-4, 206-218 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of the endemic flora and the original vegetation of Saint Helena is given.

  • 23.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Swedish Biodiversity Centre. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sankta Helena: en hotad endemisk flora. 2. situationen i dag2014In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 108, no 5, 232-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day situation for the endemic flora of Saint Helena is described.

  • 24.
    Beekman, Madeleine
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Nieuwenhuis, Bart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel
    Univ Queensland, Sch Biol Sci, St Lucia, Qld, Australia..
    Evans, Jonathan P.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Anim Biol, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia..
    Sexual selection in hermaphrodites, sperm and broadcast spawners, plants and fungi2016In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 371, no 1706, 20150541Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwin was the first to recognize that sexual selection is a strong evolutionary force. Exaggerated traits allow same-sex individuals to compete over access to mates and provide a mechanism by which mates are selected. It is relatively easy to appreciate how inter-and intrasexual selection work in organisms with the sensory capabilities to perceive physical or behavioural traits that signal mate quality or mate compatibility, and to assess the relative quality of competitors. It is therefore not surprising that most studies of sexual selection have focused on animals with separate sexes and obvious adaptations that function in the context of reproductive competition. Yet, many sexual organisms are both male and female at the same time, often lack sexual dimorphism and never come into direct contact at mating. How does sexual selection act in such species, and what can we learn from them? Here, we address these questions by exploring the potential for sexual selection in simultaneous hermaphrodites, sperm-and broadcast spawners, plants and fungi. Our reviewreveals a range of mechanisms of sexual selection, operating primarily after gametes have been released, which are common in many of these groups and also quite possibly in more familiar (internally fertilizing and sexually dimorphic) organisms. This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'.

  • 25. Bergman, Birgitta
    et al.
    Sandh, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Lin, Senjie
    Larsson, John
    Carpenter, Edward J
    Trichodesmium: a widespread marine cyanobacterium with unusual nitrogen fixation properties2013In: FEMS Microbiology Reviews, ISSN 0168-6445, E-ISSN 1574-6976, Vol. 37, no 3, 286-302 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last several decades have witnessed dramatic advances in unfolding the diversity and commonality of oceanic diazotrophs and their N(2) -fixing potential. More recently substantial progress in diazotrophic cell biology has provided a wealth of information on processes and mechanisms involved. The substantial contribution by the diazotrophic cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium to the nitrogen influx of the global marine ecosystem is by now undisputable and of paramount ecological importance, while the underlying cellular and molecular regulatory physiology has only recently started to unfold. Here we explore and summarize current knowledge, related to optimization of its diazotrophic capacity, from genomics to ecophysiological processes, via eg. cellular differentiation (diazocytes) and temporal regulations, and suggest cellular research avenues that now ought to be explored. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Bergqvist, Claes
    et al.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Greger, Maria
    Plants influence on arsenic availability and speciation in therhizosphere, roots and shoots of three different vegetables2014In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 184, 540-546 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of arsenic (As) in the environment is controlled by its concentration, availability andspeciation. The aims of the study were to evaluate the accumulation and speciation of As in carrot,lettuce and spinach cultivated in soils with various As concentrations and to estimate the concomitanthealth risks associated with the consumption of the vegetables. Arsenic concentration and speciation inplant tissues and soils was analysed by HPLC, AAS and XANES spectroscopy. To estimate the plants influencein the rhizosphere, organic acids in lettuce root exudates were analysed by ion chromatography.The results showed that the As accumulation was higher in plants cultivated in soil with higher Asextractability. Arsenate predominated in the soils, rhizosphere and root exudates of lettuce. Succinic acidwas the major organic acid in lettuce root exudates. Ingestion of the tested vegetables may result in anintake of elevated levels of inorganic As.

  • 27. Berlin, S.
    et al.
    Trybush, S. O.
    Fogelqvist, J.
    Gyllenstrand, N.
    Hallingbaeck, H. R.
    Ahman, I.
    Nordh, N-E
    Shield, I.
    Powers, S. J.
    Weih, M.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Roennberg-Waestljung, A-C
    Karp, A.
    Hanley, S. J.
    Genetic diversity, population structure and phenotypic variation in European Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae)2014In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 10, no 6, 1595-1610 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the potential of association genetics for willow breeding, Salix viminalis germplasm was assembled from UK and Swedish collections (comprising accessions from several European countries) and new samples collected from nature. A subset of the germplasm was planted at two sites (UK and Sweden), genotyped using 38 SSR markers and assessed for phenological and biomass traits. Population structure, genetic differentiation (F-ST) and quantitative trait differentiation (Q(ST)) were investigated. The extent and patterns of trait adaptation were assessed by comparing F-ST and Q(ST) parameters. Of the 505 genotyped diploid accessions, 27 % were not unique. Genetic diversity was high: 471 alleles was amplified; the mean number of alleles per locus was 13.46, mean observed heterozygosity was 0.55 and mean expected heterozygosity was 0.62. Bayesian clustering identified four subpopulations which generally corresponded to Western Russia, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Sweden. All pairwise F-ST values were highly significant (p<0.001) with the greatest genetic differentiation detected between the Western Russian and the Western European subpopulations (F-ST = 0.12), and the smallest between the Swedish and Eastern European populations (F-ST = 0.04). The Swedish population also had the highest number of identical accessions, supporting the view that S. viminalis was introduced into this country and has been heavily influenced by humans. Q(ST) values were high for growth cessation and leaf senescence, and to some extent stem diameter, but low for bud burst time and shoot number. Overall negative clines between longitudinal coordinates and leaf senescence, bud burst and stem diameter were also found.

  • 28.
    Breed, Martin F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stead, Michael G.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB) and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Ottewell, Kym M.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB) and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Gardner, Michael G.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB) and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Lowe, Andrew J.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB) and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Which provenance and where?: Seed sourcing strategies for revegetation in a changing environment2013In: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 14, no 1, 1-10 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Revegetation is one practical application of science that should ideally aim to combine ecology with evolution to maximise biodiversity and ecosystem outcomes. The strict use of locally sourced seed in revegetation programs is widespread and is based on the expectation that populations are locally adapted. This practice does not fully integrate two global drivers of ecosystem change and biodiversity loss: habitat fragmentation and climate change. Here, we suggest amendments to existing strategies combined with a review of alternative seed-sourcing strategies that propose to mitigate against these drivers. We present a provenancing selection guide based on confidence surrounding climate change distribution modelling and data on population genetic and/or environmental differences between populations. Revegetation practices will benefit from greater integration of current scientific developments and establishment of more long-term experiments is key to improving the long-term success. The rapid growth in carbon and biodiversity markets creates a favourable economic climate to achieve these outcomes.

  • 29.
    Breed, Martin
    et al.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB) and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Gardner, Michael G.
    Ottewell, Kym M.
    Navarro, Carlos M.
    Lowe, Andrew J.
    Shifts in reproductive assurance strategies and inbreeding costs associated with habitat fragmentation in Central American mahogany2012In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 15, no 5, 444-452 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of habitat fragmentation on mating patterns and progeny fitness in trees is critical for understanding the long-term impact of contemporary landscape change on the sustainability of biodiversity. We examined the relationship between mating patterns, using microsatellites, and fitness of progeny, in a common garden trial, for the insect-pollinated big-leaf mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King, sourced from forests and isolated trees in 16 populations across Central America. As expected, isolated trees had disrupted mating patterns and reduced fitness. However, for dry provenances, fitness was negatively related to correlated paternity, while for mesic provenances, fitness was correlated positively with outcrossing rate and negatively with correlated paternity. Poorer performance of mesic provenances is likely because of reduced effective pollen donor density due to poorer environmental suitability and greater disturbance history. Our results demonstrate a differential shift in reproductive assurance and inbreeding costs in mahogany, driven by exploitation history and contemporary landscape context.

  • 30.
    Breed, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Marklund, Maria H. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Ottewell, Kym M.
    Gardner, Michael G.
    Harris, J. Berton C.
    Lowe, Andrew J.
    Pollen diversity matters: revealing the neglected effect of pollen diversity on fitness in fragmented landscapes2012In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 21, no 24, 5955-5968 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have documented the impacts of habitat fragmentation on plant mating patterns together with fitness. Yet, these processes require urgent attention to better understand the impact of contemporary landscape change on biodiversity and for guiding native plant genetic resource management. We examined these relationships using the predominantly insect-pollinated Eucalyptus socialis. Progeny were collected from trees located in three increasingly disturbed landscapes in southern Australia and were planted out in common garden experiments. We show that individual mating patterns were increasingly impacted by lower conspecific density caused by habitat fragmentation. We determined that reduced pollen diversity probably has effects over and above those of inbreeding on progeny fitness. This provides an alternative mechanistic explanation for the indirect density dependence often inferred between conspecific density and offspring fitness.

  • 31. Bremer, B.
    et al.
    Bremer, K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Systematic Botany.
    Chase, M. W
    Reveal, J. L.
    Soltis, D. E.
    Soltis, P. S.
    Stevens, P. F.
    Anderberg, A. A.
    Fay, M. F.
    Goldblatt, P.
    Judd, W. S.
    Källersjö, M.
    Kårehed, Jesper
    Lundberg, J.
    Nickrent, D. L.
    Olmstead, Bengt
    Oxelman, J.
    Pires, Chris
    Rodman, James E.
    Rudall, Paula J.
    Savolainen, Vincent
    Sytsma, Kenneth J.
    van der Bank, Michelle
    Wurdack, Kenneth
    Xiang, Jenny Q.-Y.
    Zmarzty, Sue
    An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II2003In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 141, 399-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Brooker, Rob W.
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt Å.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Carex bigelowii Torrey ex Schweinitz (C. rigida Good., non Schrank; C. hyperborea Drejer)2001In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 89, no 6, 1072-1095 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    et al.
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China..
    Sundberg, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, POB 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Feng, Lu
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Appl Ecol, Wenhua Rd, Shenyang 110016, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hong-Kai
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Hong-Yan
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hong-Chun
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Geosci, Taipei 106, Taiwan..
    The Methuselah of plant diaspores: Sphagnum spores can survive in nature for centuries2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 4, 1398-1402 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Carlsbecker, Annelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Physiological Botany.
    MADS-Box Gene Phylogeny and the Evolution of Plant Form: Characterisation of a Family of Regulators of Reproductive Development from the Conifer Norway Spruce, Picea abies2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary relationships between the angiosperm floral organs and the reproductive organs of other seed plants is not known. Flower organ development requires transcription factors encoded by the MADS-box genes. Since the evolution of novel morphology likely involve changes in developmental regulators, I have analysed MADS-box genes from the conifer Norway spruce, Picea abies, a representative of the gymnosperm group of seed plants.

    The results show that the MADS-box gene family has evolved via gene duplications and subsequent diversifications in correlation in time with the evolution of morphological novelties along the seed-plant lineage.

    Angiosperm MADS-box genes that determine petal and stamen development have homologues in the conifers, that are specifically active in pollen cones. It is, therefore, likely that the common ancestor of these genes controlled the development of the pollen-bearing organs in the early seed plants, and later were recruited for petal development in the angiosperms.

    Norway spruce set cones at an age of 15-20 years. One of the spruce MADS-box genes analysed may have a function in the control of the transition to reproductive phase, supported by expression data and the effect of the gene on development of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Two of the spruce genes identified are not closely related to any known angiosperm gene. These may have roles in gymnosperm-specific developmental processes, possibly in the patterning of the conifer cones, as suggested by their expression patterns.

    The molecular regulation of cone- and flower development in fundamental aspects is highly conserved between conifers and angiosperms, however, differences detected may be informative regarding the origin of morphological complexity.

    List of papers
    1. MADS-box genes active in developing pollen cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) are homologous to the B-class floral homeotic genes in angiosperms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>MADS-box genes active in developing pollen cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) are homologous to the B-class floral homeotic genes in angiosperms
    Show others...
    1999 (English)In: Developmental Genetics, ISSN 0192-253X, E-ISSN 1520-6408, Vol. 25, no 3, 253-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The reproductive organs of conifers, the pollen cones and seed cones, differ in morphology from the angiosperm flower in several fundamental respects. In this report we present evidence to suggest that the two plant groups, in spite of these morphological differences and the long evolutionary distance between them, share important features in regulating the development of the reproductive organs. We present the cloning of three genes, DAL11, DAL12, and DAL13, from Norway spruce, all of which are related to the angiosperm B-class of homeotic genes. The B-class genes determine the identities of petals and stamens. They are members of a family of MADS-box genes, which also includes C-class genes that act to determine the identity of carpels and, in concert with B genes specify stamens in the angiosperm flower. Phylogenetic analyses and the presence of B-class specific C-terminal motifs in the DAL protein sequences imply homology to the B-class genes. Specific expression of all three genes in developing pollen cones suggests that the genes are involved in one aspect of B function, the regulation of development of the pollen-bearing organs. The different temporal and spatial expression patterns of the three DAL genes in the developing pollen cones indicate that the genes have attained at least in part distinct functions. The DAL11, DAL12, and 13 expression patterns in the pollen cone partly overlap with that of the previously identified DAL2 gene, which is structurally and functionally related to the angiosperm C-class genes. This result supports the hypothesis that an interaction between B- and C-type genes is required for male organ development in conifers like in the angiosperms. Taken together, our data suggests that central components in the regulatory mechanisms for reproductive organ development are conserved between conifers and angiosperms and, thus, among all seed plants.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89833 (URN)10.1002/(SICI)1520-6408(1999)25:3<253::AID-DVG8>3.0.CO;2-P (DOI)10528266 (PubMedID)
    Note

    De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2002-04-29 Created: 2002-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. The DAL10 gene from Norway spruce Picea abies belongs to a potentially gymnosperm-specific subgroup of MADS-box genes and is specifically active in seed- and pollen cones
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The DAL10 gene from Norway spruce Picea abies belongs to a potentially gymnosperm-specific subgroup of MADS-box genes and is specifically active in seed- and pollen cones
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89834 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-04-29 Created: 2002-04-29 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
    3. The MADS-box gene DAL1 is a potential mediator of the juvenile to adult transition in the conifer Norway spruce, Picea abies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The MADS-box gene DAL1 is a potential mediator of the juvenile to adult transition in the conifer Norway spruce, Picea abies
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89835 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-04-29 Created: 2002-04-29 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
    4. Evolutionary diversification of the MADS-box gene family; an analysis of nine novel genes from the conifer Norway spruce
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary diversification of the MADS-box gene family; an analysis of nine novel genes from the conifer Norway spruce
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89836 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-04-29 Created: 2002-04-29 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved
  • 35.
    Carlsbecker, Annelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany. Fysiologisk botanik.
    Tandre, Karolina
    Johansson, Urban
    Englund, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany. Fysiologisk botanik.
    Engström, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany. Fysiologisk botanik.
    The MADS-box gene DAL1 is a potential mediator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in Norway spruce (Picea abies)2004In: The Plant Journal, Vol. 40, 546-557 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Progression through the plant life cycle involves changes in many essential features, most notably in the capacity to reproduce. The transition from juvenile vegetative and non-reproductive to an adult reproductive phase is gradual and can take many years; in the conifer Norway spruce, Picea abiea, typically 20-25 years. We present a detailed analysis of the activities of three regulatory genes with potential roles in the transition in Norway spruce: DAL1, a MADS-box gene related to the AGL6 group of genes from angiosperms, and the two LEAFY-related genes PaLFY and PaNLY. DAL1 activity is initiated in the shoots of juvenile trees at an age of 3-5 years, and then increases with age, whereas both LFY genes are active throughout the juvenile phase. The activity of DAL1 further shows a spatial pattern along the stem of the tree that parallels a similar gradient in physiolpoical and morphological features associated with maturation to the adult phase. Constitutive expression of DAL1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants caused a dramatic attenuation of both juvenile and adult growth phases;flowers forming immediately after the embryogenic phase of development in severely affected plants. Taken together, our resulsts support the notion that DAL1 may have a regulatory role in the juvenile-to-adult transition in Norway spruce.

  • 36.
    Chen, Hongxin
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Quintana, Julia
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kovalchuk, Andriy
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Ubhayasekera, Wimal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Asiegbu, Fred O.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    A cerato-platanin-like protein HaCPL2 from Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto induces cell death in Nicotiana tabacum and Pinus sylvestris2015In: Fungal Genetics and Biology, ISSN 1087-1845, E-ISSN 1096-0937, Vol. 84, 41-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cerato-platanin family is a group of small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusive for filamentous fungi. They have been shown to be involved in the interactions between fungi and plants. Functional characterization of members from this family has been performed mainly in Ascomycota, except Moniliophthora perniciosa. Our previous phylogenetic analysis revealed that recent gene duplication of cerato-platanins has occurred in Basidiomycota but not in Ascomycota, suggesting higher functional diversification of this protein family in Basidiomycota than in Ascomycota. In this study, we identified three cerato-platanin homologues from the basidiomycete conifer pathogen Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto. Expression of the homologues under various conditions as well as their roles in the H. annosum s.s.-Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) pathosystem was investigated. Results showed that HaCPL2 (ceratoplatanin-like protein 2) had the highest sequence similarity to cerato-platanin from Ceratocystis platani and hacpl2 was significantly induced during nutrient starvation and necrotrophic growth. The treatment with recombinant HaCPL2 induced cell death, phytoalexin production and defense gene expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Eliciting and cell death-inducing ability accompanied by retardation of apical root growth was also demonstrated in Scots pine seedlings. Our results suggest that HaCPL2 might contribute to the virulence of H. annosum s.s. by promoting plant cell death.

  • 37.
    Chen, Jun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Tsuda, Yoshiaki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stocks, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Kallman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Xu, Nannan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Karkkainen, Katri
    Huotari, Tea
    Semerikov, Vladimir L.
    Vendramin, Giovanni G.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Clinal Variation at Phenology-Related Genes in Spruce: Parallel Evolution in FTL2 and Gigantea?2014In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 197, no 3, 1025-1038 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel clines in different species, or in different geographical regions of the same species, are an important source of information on the genetic basis of local adaptation. We recently detected latitudinal clines in SNPs frequencies and gene expression of candidate genes for growth cessation in Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Here we test whether the same clines are also present in Siberian spruce (P. obovata), a close relative of Norway spruce with a different Quaternary history. We sequenced nine candidate genes and 27 control loci and genotyped 14 SSR loci in six populations of P. obovata located along the Yenisei river from latitude 56 N to latitude 67 N. In contrast to Scandinavian Norway spruce that both departs from the standard neutral model (SNM) and shows a clear population structure, Siberian spruce populations along the Yenisei do not depart from the SNM and are genetically unstructured. Nonetheless, as in Norway spruce, growth cessation is significantly clinal. Polymorphisms in photoperiodic (FTL2) and circadian clock (Gigantea, GI, PRR3) genes also show significant clinal variation and/or evidence of local selection. In GI, one of the variants is the same as in Norway spruce. Finally, a strong cline in gene expression is observed for FTL2, but not for GI. These results, together with recent physiological studies, confirm the key role played by FTL2 and circadian clock genes in the control of growth cessation in spruce species and suggest the presence of parallel adaptation in these two species.

  • 38. Cooper, Wendy, E.
    et al.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A taxonomic revision of Trichosanthes L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia, including one new species from the Northern Territory2011In: Austrobaileya : a journal of plant systematics, ISSN 0155-4131, Vol. 8, no 3, 364-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trichosanthes is represented by six species in Australia: T cucumerina L. var. cucumerina,T morrisii W.E.Cooper sp. nov., T odontosperma W.E.Cooper & A.J.Ford, T pentaphylla F.Muell. ex Benth., T pilosa Lour. and T subvelutina F.Muell. ex Cogn. Trichosanthes ovigera Blume has recently been synonymised with T pilosa and we now include T holtzei F.Muell. within this synonymy. All taxa are illustrated (with the exception of T odontosperma previously illustrated in 2010), and distinguished from other Australian species. Notes on habitat and distribution are included together with distribution maps. Three identification keys are presented, two to the sections of Trichosanthes and one to the species of Trichosanthes in Australia.

  • 39.
    Cornille, Amandine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Salcedo, A.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 25 Willcocks St, Toronto, ON M6R 1M3, Canada..
    Kryvokhyzha, Dmytro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Wright, S. I.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 25 Willcocks St, Toronto, ON M6R 1M3, Canada..
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 2, 616-629 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the interpopulation diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the ancestors of the diploid species Capsella grandiflora and Capsella orientalis. Here, we investigated the genomic diversity of C.bursa-pastoris, its population structure and demographic history, following allopolyploidization in Eurasia. To that end, we genotyped 261 C.bursa-pastoris accessions spread across Europe, the Middle East and Asia, using genotyping-by-sequencing, leading to a total of 4274 SNPs after quality control. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed three distinct genetic clusters in Eurasia: one cluster grouping samples from Western Europe and Southeastern Siberia, the second one centred on Eastern Asia and the third one in the Middle East. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) supported the hypothesis that C.bursa-pastoris underwent a typical colonization history involving low gene flow among colonizing populations, likely starting from the Middle East towards Europe and followed by successive human-mediated expansions into Eastern Asia. Altogether, these findings bring new insights into the recent multistage colonization history of the allotetraploid C.bursa-pastoris and highlight ABC and genotyping-by-sequencing data as promising but still challenging tools to infer demographic histories of selfing allopolyploids.

  • 40.
    Cortés, Andrés
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genome-wide patterns of microhabitat-driven divergence in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea L.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Cortés, Andrés
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Maintenance of female-bias in a polygenic sex determination system is consistent with genomic conflictManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Cortés, Andrés J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    On The Big Challenges of a Small Shrub: Ecological Genetics of Salix herbacea L2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of plants to climate change is among the main questions in ecology and evolution. Faced with changing conditions, populations may respond by adapting, going extinct or migrating. Fine-scale environmental variation offers a unique mosaic to explore these alternatives. In this thesis, I used ecological surveys, field experiments and molecular methods to study the range of possible responses at a very local scale in the alpine dwarf willow Salix herbacea L. Since gene flow may impact the potential for adaptation and migration, I first explored whether phenological divergence driven by snowmelt patterns impacts gene flow. I found that sites with late snowmelt work as sinks of the genetic diversity, as compared to sites with early snowmelt. I also used a combined approach that looked at the selection, heritability and genomic architecture of ecologically-relevant traits, as well as genomic divergence across the snowmelt mosaic. In this way, I was able to understand which genomic regions may relate to phenological, growth and fitness traits, and which regions in the genome harbor genetic variation associated with late- and early- snowmelt sites. I found that most of the genomic divergence driven by snowmelt is novel and is localized in few regions. Also, Salix herbacea has a strong female bias. Sex bias may matter for adaptation to climate change because different sexes of many dioecious species differ in several functions that may fluctuate with changing conditions. I found that the bias is uniform across environments and is already present at seeds and seedlings. A polygenic sex determination system together with transmission distortion may be maintaining the bias. Overall, fast-evolving microhabitat-driven genomic divergence and, at the same time, genetically-based trait variation at a larger scale may play a role for the ability of S. herbacea to persist in diverse and variable conditions.

    List of papers
    1. Small-scale patterns in snowmelt timing affect gene flow and the distribution of genetic diversity in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small-scale patterns in snowmelt timing affect gene flow and the distribution of genetic diversity in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 113, no 3, 233-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Current threats to biodiversity, such as climate change, are thought to alter the within-species genetic diversity among microhabitats in highly heterogeneous alpine environments. Assessing the spatial organization and dynamics of genetic diversity within species can help to predict the responses of organisms to environmental change. In this study, we evaluated whether small-scale heterogeneity in snowmelt timing restricts gene flow between microhabitats in the common long-lived dwarf shrub Salix herbacea L. We surveyed 273 genets across 12 early-and late-snowmelt sites (that is, ridges and snowbeds) in the Swiss Alps for phenological variation over 2 years and for genetic variation using seven SSR markers. Phenological differentiation triggered by differences in snowmelt timing did not correlate with genetic differentiation between microhabitats. On the contrary, extensive gene flow appeared to occur between microhabitats and slightly less extensively among adjacent mountains. However, ridges exhibited significantly lower levels of genetic diversity than snowbeds, and patterns of effective population size (Ne) and migration (Nem) between microhabitats were strongly asymmetric, with ridges acting as sources and snowbeds as sinks. As no recent genetic bottlenecks were detected in the studied sites, this asymmetry is likely to reflect current metapopulation dynamics of the species dominated by gene flow via seeds rather than ancient re-colonization after the last glacial period. Overall, our results suggest that seed dispersal prevents snowmelt-driven genetic isolation, and snowbeds act as sinks of genetic diversity. We discuss the consequences of such small-scale variation in gene flow and diversity levels for population responses to climate change.

    National Category
    Genetics Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232992 (URN)10.1038/hdy.2014.19 (DOI)000341087900006 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-13 Created: 2014-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 12, 3940-3952 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Salix herbacea occurs in early-and late-snowmelt microhabitats (ridges and snowbeds), and we assessed how performance consequences of phenological traits and leaf size differ between these microhabitats in order to infer potential for evolutionary responses. Salix herbacea showed low, but significant, heritabilities of leaf size, clonal and sexual reproduction, and moderate heritabilities of phenological traits. In both microhabitats, we found that larger leaves, longer intervals between snowmelt and leaf expansion, and longer GDD (growing-degree days) until leaf expansion resulted in a stronger increase in the number of stems (clonal reproduction). In snowbeds, clonal reproduction increased with a shorter GDD until flowering, while the opposite was found on ridges. Furthermore, the proportion of flowering stems increased with GDD until flowering in both microhabitats. Our results suggest that the presence of significant heritable variation in morphology and phenology might help S. herbacea to adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, it remains to be seen if the rate of such an evolutionary response can keep pace with the rapid rate of climate change.

    Keyword
    Adaptive evolution; alpine ecosystem; animal model; long-lived plants; snowmelt microhabitats; SSR markers
    National Category
    Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-262237 (URN)10.1002/ece3.2171 (DOI)000379342900008 ()
    Available from: 2015-09-10 Created: 2015-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Genome-wide patterns of microhabitat-driven divergence in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea L.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide patterns of microhabitat-driven divergence in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea L.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-262229 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-09-10 Created: 2015-09-10 Last updated: 2015-11-23
    4. Maintenance of female-bias in a polygenic sex determination system is consistent with genomic conflict
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maintenance of female-bias in a polygenic sex determination system is consistent with genomic conflict
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-262230 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-09-10 Created: 2015-09-10 Last updated: 2015-11-23
  • 43.
    Costa, José-Luis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Fysiologisk botanik. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Physiological Botany.
    Martínez Romero, Esperanza
    Lindblad, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Fysiologisk botanik. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Physiological Botany.
    Sequence based data supports a single Nostoc strain in individual coralloid roots of cycads2004In: FEMS Microbiology: Ecology, Vol. 49, 481-487 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genertic diversity of cyanobacteria associated with cycads was examined using the tRNA Leu (UAA) intron as a genetic marker. Coralloid roots of both natural populations of the cycad Macrozamia riedlei (Fischer ex Gaudichaud-Beaupré) C.A. Gardner growing in Perth, Australia and cycads growing in greenhouses, also in Perth, were used and their respective cyanobionts analyzed. Several Nostoc strains were found to be involved in this symbiosis, both in natural populations and greenhouse-orginated cycads. However, only one strain was present in individual coralloid roots and in individual plants, even when analyzing different coralloid roots from the same plant. Moreover, when examining plants growing close to each other (female plants and their respective offspring) the same cyanobacterium was consistently present in the different coralloid roots. Whether this reflects a selective mechanism or merely the availability of Nostoc strains remains to be ascertained. The high cyanobacterial diversity in coralloid roots of cycads revealed by PCR fingerprinting is, therefore, contested. In this study, the potential probems of using different methods (e.g. PCR fingerprinting) to study the genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria, is also addressed.

  • 44.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, Wentworth Way, York, N Yorkshire, England.
    Gajewski, Konrad
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Geog Environm & Geomat, Lab Paleoclimatol & Climatol, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Marchant, Rob
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, Wentworth Way, York, N Yorkshire, England.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild
    Stockholm Univ, Inst Naturgeog, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A late Holocene pollen record from proglacial Oblong Tarn, Mount Kenya2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, e0184925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-elevation ecosystems, such as those on Mount Kenya are undergoing significant changes, with accelerated glacial ice losses over the twentieth century creating new space for alpine plants to establish. These ecosystems respond rapidly to climatic variability and within decades of glacial retreat, Afroalpine pioneering taxa stabilize barren land and facilitate soil development, promoting complex patches of alpine vegetation. Periglacial lake sediment records can be used to examine centennial and millennial scale variations in alpine and montane vegetation compositions. Here we present a 5300-year composite pollen record from an alpine tarn (4370 m asl) in the Hausberg Valley of Mount Kenya. Overall, the record shows little apparent variation in the pollen assemblage through time with abundant montane forest taxa derived and transported from mid elevations, notably high abundances of aerophilous Podocarpus pollen. Afroalpine taxa included Alchemilla, Helichrysum and Dendrosenecio-type, reflecting local vegetation cover. Pollen from the ericaceous zone was present throughout the record and Poaceae percentages were high, similar to other high elevation pollen records from eastern Africa. The Oblong Tarn record pollen assemblage composition and abundances of Podocarpus and Poaceae since the late Holocene (similar to 4000 cal yr BP-present) are similar to pollen records from mid-to-high elevation sites of nearby high mountains such as Mount Elgon and Kilimanjaro. These results suggest a significant amount of uphill pollen transport with only minor apparent variation in local taxa. Slight decreasing trends in alpine and ericaceous taxonomic groups show a long-term response to global late Holocene cooling and a step decrease in rate of change estimated from the pollen assemblages at 3100 cal yr BP in response to regional hydroclimatic variability. Changes in the principal component axis scores of the pollen assemblage were coherent with an independent mid-elevation temperature reconstruction, which supported the strong influence of uphill pollen transport from montane forest vegetation and association between temperatures and montane vegetation dynamics. Pollen accumulation rates showed some variability related to minerogenic sediment input to the lake. The Oblong Tarn pollen record provides an indication of long term vegetation change atop Mount Kenya showing some decreases in local alpine and ericaceous taxa from 5300-3100 cal yr BP and minor centennial-scale variability of montane taxa from mid elevation forests. The record highlights potentials, challenges and opportunities for the use of proglacial lacustrine sediment to examine vegetation change on prominent mountain massifs.

  • 45.
    Daniels, Pablo P.
    et al.
    Univ Cordoba, Dept Bot Ecol & Plant Physiol, Ed Celestino Mutis,Campus Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba, Spain..
    Baroni, Timothy J.
    SUNY Coll Cortland, Dept Biol Sci, POB 2000, Cortland, NY 13045 USA..
    Hama, Oumarou
    Univ Tahoua, Fac Agron, Dept Plant Prod & Irrigat, BP 255, Tahoua, Niger..
    Kluting, Kerri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bergemann, Sarah
    Middle Tennessee State Univ, Biol Dept, POB 60, Murfreesboro, TN 37132 USA..
    Infante Garcia-Pantaleon, Felix
    Univ Cordoba, Dept Bot Ecol & Plant Physiol, Ed Celestino Mutis,Campus Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba, Spain..
    Barage, Moussa
    Univ Abdou Moumouni, Fac Agron, Dept Plant Prod, BP 10960, Niamey, Niger..
    Ibrahim, Dahiratou
    Univ Abdou Moumouni, High Sch Educ, Life Sci & Earth Dept, BP 10963, Niamey 10963, Niger..
    A new species and a new combination of Rhodophana (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) from Africa2017In: Phytotaxa, ISSN 1179-3155, E-ISSN 1179-3163, Vol. 306, no 3, 223-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple collections of a new member of the Entolomataceae were found in W National Park of Niger during a survey of macrofungi. This new species with a dark reddish brown scaly pileus surface and a yellow stipe belongs in the genus Rhodophana of the Rhodocybe-Clitopilus clade in the Entolomataceae. Using a three-gene analysis of the phylogenetic position of Rhodophana flavipes it is most closely related to the recently described Rhodophana squamulosa from India and is a sister taxon to Rhodophana nitellina and R. melleopallens. Micromorphological examination of the type of Rhodocybe fibulata, another African species with a scaly cap, confirms that it belongs in Rhodophana, thus a new combination Rhodophana fibulata is proposed.

  • 46.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Cotingting, Crystle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Medicinal plants for women's healthcare in southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology2014In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 151, no 2, 747-767 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance

    This is an extensive review of plants used traditionally for women's healthcare in Southeast Asia and surrounding countries. Medicinal plants have a significant role in women's healthcare in many rural areas of the world. Plants with numerous efficacious observations have historically been used as a starting point in the development of new drugs, and a large percentage of modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from medicinal plants.

    Materials and methods

    A review was conducted for all plant use mentioned specifically for female healthcare, such as medicine to increase fertility, induce menstruation or abortion, ease pregnancy and parturition, reduce menstrual bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage, alleviate menstrual, parturition and postpartum pain, increase or inhibit lactation, and treat mastitis and uterine prolapse, in 200 studies focusing on medicinal plant use, either general studies or studies focusing specifically on women's healthcare.

    Results

    Nearly 2000 different plant species are reported to be used in over 5000 combinations. Most common areAchyranthes asperaArtemisia vulgarisBlumea balsamiferaCarica papayaCurcuma longaHibiscus rosa-sinensisLeonurus japonicusPsidium guajava and Ricinus communis, and each of these species had been reported in more than 10 different scientific articles.

    Conclusions

    This review provides a basis for traditional plant use in women's healthcare, and these species can be used as the starting point in the discovery of new drugs.

  • 47.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.;Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Manzanilla, Vincent
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway..
    Raclariu, Ancuta-Cristina
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.;NIRDBIS, Stejarul Res Ctr Biol Sci, Piatra Neamt, Romania..
    Kreziou, Anna
    Argonafton 30, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ounjai, Sarawut
    Chiang Mai Univ, Dept Biol, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Osathanunkul, Maslin
    Chiang Mai Univ, Dept Biol, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    DNA metabarcoding of orchid-derived products reveals widespread illegal orchid trade2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1863, 20171182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10 terrestrial species with tuberous roots. Another 70% contained the substitute ingredient Cyamopsis tetraganoloba (Guar). DNA metabarcoding using the barcoding markers nrITS1 and nrITS2 shows the potential of these markers and approach for identification of species used in salep products. The analysis of interspecific genetic distances between sequences of these markers for the most common salep orchid genera shows that species level identifications can be made with a high level of confidence. Understanding the species diversity and provenance of salep orchid tubers will enable the chain of commercialization of endangered species to be traced back to the harvesters and their natural habitats, and thus allow for targeted efforts to protect or sustainably use wild populations of these orchids.

  • 48.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Kool, Anneleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Broberg, Anders
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mziray, William R
    National Herbarium of Tanzania, Tropical Pesticide Research Institute.
    Hedberg, Inga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Levenfors, Jolanta J
    Agrivir AB, Uppsala.
    Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity of some herbal remedies from Tanzania2005In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 96, no 3, 461-469 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants are not only important to the millions of people to whom traditional medicine serves as the only opportunity for health care and to those who use plants for various purposes in their daily lives, but also as a source of new pharmaceuticals. During interviews with the Pare people from Northeastern Tanzania, 29 plants that are used for medicinal purposes as well as 41 plants used for non-medicinal purposes were reported. Six medicinally used plants were selected for bioactivity analysis. Extracts of Coccinia adoensis, Cineraria grandiflora, Pavonia urens, Marattia fraxinea, Clutia abyssinica var. usambarica, and Vangueria infausta were made using ethyl acetate, methanol, cold water and boiling water. The antimicrobial activity was tested on Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium culmorum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas syringae, and Erwinia amylovora. All plants showed activity against several test organisms.

  • 49.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lamxay, Vichith
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Comparing medicinal plant knowledge using similarity indices: A case of the Brou, Saek and Kry in Lao PDR2012In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 141, no 1, 481-500 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    known traditional ecosystem services, as it provides primary healthcare, contributes to subsistence livelihoods, and for its potential value as a source of novel pharmaceuticals. People living in close contact with their surroundings for many generations are hypothesized to have developed, through trial-and-error, in-depth knowledge of ecosystems, biodiversity, and their management and utility. In the case of medicinal plant knowledge it could lead to an asymptotic climax or a constantly evolving equilibrium of cures with proven efficacy and those under assessment.Methods: An in-depth study of 97 plant species used in traditional medicine by the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups in Lao PDR was made to test similarity in medicinal plant knowledge.Results: Medicinal plants were used in 99 different ways in 510 species-use combinations. Medicinal uses could be generalized into 12 use categories with 747 species-category combinations. Similarity indices show Brou and Saek plant use appears to be most similar (QS(BS): 60.0; JI(BS): 75.1) followed by Kry and Saek (QS(KS): 51.6; JI(KS): 53.4), and then Kry and Brou (QS(BK): 46.9; JI(BK): 44.1).Discussion: Intercultural similarities found are quite low, considering that all three groups share the same geographical and ecological area and have the same dependence on medicinal plants. Intercultural transmission is unimpeded but many treatments are likely to be ineffective. Comparison of the similarities found here with similarities computed from other data show that these results are homologous with other sympatric ethnic groups, and much higher than those for allopatrically living groups.Conclusion: Medicinal plant knowledge does not reach a stable climax, but appears to evolve continually by trial-and-error, as effective cures to many ailments are unavailable.

  • 50.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lamxay, Vichith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: Practices and Chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery2011In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 11, 128- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents.

    Methods: Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Results: A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene.

    Conclusions: Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath cleansing of the perineal area is possibly a pragmatic use of the reported medicinal plants, as terpene constituents have documented antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

12345 1 - 50 of 215
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf