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  • 1.
    Ahnesjo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Kvarnemo, C
    Merilaita, S
    Using potential reproductive rates to predict mating competition among individuals qualified to mate2001In: BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY, ISSN 1045-2249, Vol. 12, no 4, 397-401 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential reproductive rate (PRR), which is the offspring production per unit time each sex would achieve if unconstrained by mate availability, often differs between the sexes. An increasing sexual difference in PRR predicts an intensified mating com

  • 2.
    Alatalo, Rauno V
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Can Female Preference Explain Sexual Dichromatism In The Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula-Hypoleuca1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 39, 244-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How important female choice is for the evolution of male secondary sexual characteristics is controversial. Two field and one laboratory experiment, using the pied flycatcher, were performed to test the female choice aspect of sexual selection. In addition, non-manipulative data from 5 years are presented. The observational data suggest a slight preference for dark males by females but in field experiments in which males had territories at random sites (i.e. they did not choose a territory) or the colour of concurrently arriving males was altered, there was no preference for darker ones. Similarly, oestradiol-treated females did not prefer black or brown males in the laboratory. Thus, there is little support for the idea that female choice has been an important mechanism in the evolution of sexual dichromatism in the pied flycatcher.

  • 3.
    Allander, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Temporal variation and reliability of blood parasite levels in captive Yellowhammer males Emberiza citrinella1997In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 28, no 4, 325-330 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal variation of blood parasites in captive Yellowhammer males was studied in order to investigate possible costs of parasites. Birds were caught in the wild in early April and kept in aviaries during the study period. Blood samples were taken, body mass measured, and moult was scored twelve times for the same individuals from April to October. Blood parasites were detectable in smears during the whole study period with an intensity peak coinciding with breeding in the wild. Young birds had more parasites and a consistently higher body mass than older birds. There was no relationship between parasite intensity and mass in older birds but possibly one in young birds. Parasites did not seem to affect moult in either age class. Repeatability of parasite counts of smears from the same individual was very high and smears are therefore a reliable method for estimating parasite intensity. We conclude that blood parasites are probably most severe during, but occur in their hosts long after, the breeding season. Possible costs of parasites outside the breeding season require further study.

  • 4.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fishing for Females: Sensory Exploitation in the Swordtail Characin2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice plays an important role in sexual selection and speciation. The evolution of mate choice is intriguing in cases where choosy individuals gain little except for genetic material from the mate and where the trait used as a criterion for the choice is costly to its bearer. The sensory exploitation hypothesis is an interesting idea that applies to such cases because it suggests that sexual preferences may arise as side-effects of preferences that are under selection in other contexts. The role of mate choice in speciation is strong but is debated because the reasons for population divergence in mate preferences and sexual traits are sometimes hard to explain. Also in this context sensory exploitation offers a potential explanation in that a link between natural and sexual selection may result in divergence in sexual selection whenever populations differ in natural selection.

    In this thesis, I test several aspects of this hypothesis in a species of fish, the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei). In this species males display a flag-like ornament that grows from the operculum. Because females respond to this ornament by biting at it, it has been proposed to act as a food-mimic. By manipulating female food type and quantity, and testing the resulting female preference for the male ornament, I find support for the theory that the preference has evolved through sensory exploitation and that females indeed appear to relate the ornament to a food item. Furthermore, I show that sensory exploitation can lead to morphological divergence among natural populations in this species. Apart from the flag-ornament, other courtship signals are also investigated. The results show that the relative importance of different signals may vary depending on receiver motivation. This suggests that various aspects of both male courtship signals and the conditions during which they are being signalled should be considered to gain a full understanding of mate choice and its role in sexual selection and speciation.

    List of papers
    1. Does female feeding motivation affect the response to a food-mimicking male ornament in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does female feeding motivation affect the response to a food-mimicking male ornament in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei?
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 83, no 2, 343-354 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Female response to various aspects of male trait morphology and the effect of female feeding motivation were investigated in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei, a species where males are equipped with a flag-like food-mimicking ornament that grows from the operculum. Unfed females responded more strongly to the male ornament and showed a stronger preference for larger ornaments than did fed females. Females were shown not to discriminate between artificial male ornaments of either undamaged or damaged shape.

    Keyword
    diet, mate preference, plasticity, sensory exploitation, signalling
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206572 (URN)10.1111/jfb.12175 (DOI)000322547900007 ()
    Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Sensory exploitation and plasticity in female mate choice in the swordtail characin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensory exploitation and plasticity in female mate choice in the swordtail characin
    2013 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 85, no 5, 891-898 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive research in the field of sexual selection, the evolutionary origin and maintenance of preferences for sexual ornaments are still debated. Recent studies have pointed out that plasticity in mate choice might be more common than previously thought, but little is still known about the factors that affect such plasticity. The swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei, is a tropical fish species in which males use a food-mimicking ornament to attract females. We tested whether ecological factors, more specifically prior foraging experience, can affect female preference for male ornaments. For this, we habituated females on a diet consisting of either red-coloured food or standard-coloured green food items and then we tested whether female preferences for artificially red-coloured male ornaments matched their previous foraging experience. We found a strong effect of food treatment: females trained on red food showed a stronger response to males with red-coloured ornaments than females trained on green food. Our results show that ecological variation can generate divergence of female preferences for male ornaments and that the response in preference to environmental change can be rapid if the bias is partly learnt.

    Keyword
    Corynopoma riisei, diet, mate choice, sensory exploitation, sexual selection, swordtail characin
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-203305 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.02.001 (DOI)000319332000004 ()
    Available from: 2013-07-08 Created: 2013-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Diversification of a Food-Mimicking Male Ornament via Sensory Drive
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversification of a Food-Mimicking Male Ornament via Sensory Drive
    2012 (English)In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 22, no 15, 1440-1443 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary divergence of sexual signals is often important during the formation of new animal species, but our understanding of the origin of signal diversity is limited [1, 2]. Sensory drive, the optimization of communication signal efficiency through matching to the local environment, has been highlighted as a potential promoter of diversification and speciation [3]. The swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei) is a tropical fish in which males display a flag-like ornament that elicits female foraging behavior during courtship. We show that the shape of the male ornament covaries with female diet across natural populations. More specifically, natural populations in which the female diet is more dominated by ants exhibit male ornaments more similar to the shape of an ant. Feeding experiments confirm that females habituated to a diet of ants prefer to bite at male ornaments from populations with a diet more dominated by ants. Our results show that the male ornament functions as a "fishing lure" that is diversifying in shape to match local variation in female search images employed during foraging. This direct link between variation in female feeding ecology and the evolutionary diversification of male sexual ornaments suggests that sensory drive may be a common engine of signal divergence.

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181121 (URN)10.1016/j.cub.2012.05.050 (DOI)000307415000026 ()
    Available from: 2012-09-19 Created: 2012-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. Courtship signalling with a labile bilateral signal: males show their best side
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Courtship signalling with a labile bilateral signal: males show their best side
    2009 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, no 12, 1717-1725 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Asymmetries in courtship signals can result from both developmental instability during ontogeny and from temporary or permanent damage following mating, fighting, or interactions with predators. These two types of asymmetries, which can be divided into fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and damage asymmetry (DA), have both been suggested to play an important role in mate choice as potential honest indicators of phenotypic and/or genetic quality, while at the same time, DA may affect ornament asymmetry in a random manner. Interestingly, despite the massive research effort that has been devoted to the study of asymmetry during the past decades, very little is known about how an individual's behaviour relates to asymmetry. Here, we measure and characterise asymmetry in morphological courtship signals in Corynopoma riisei, a fish where males carry elaborate paddle-like appendices on each side of the body that they display in front of females during courtship. Moreover, we investigate whether male courtship display, employing this bilateral morphological trait, reflects trait asymmetry. Finally, we assess whether males respond to phenotypic manipulations of DA with corresponding changes in courtship behaviour. We show that male display behaviour is asymmetric in a manner that reflects asymmetry of their morphological courtship trait and that male display behaviour responds to manipulations of asymmetry of these paddles. Our results thus suggest that males preferentially use their best side and, hence, that males respond adaptively to temporary changes in signal trait asymmetry.

    Keyword
    Sexual signalling, Sexual selection, Lateralization, Mate choice, Sensory bias, Indicator, Self-awareness
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-127482 (URN)10.1007/s00265-009-0785-7 (DOI)000270684200003 ()
    Available from: 2010-07-15 Created: 2010-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Multiple male sexual signals and female responsiveness in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple male sexual signals and female responsiveness in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei
    2015 (English)In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 98, no 7, 1731-1740 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the courtship process, multiple signals are often used between the signaller and the receiver. Here we describe female response to multiple male visual morphological and behavioural signals in the swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei. The swordtail characin is a species in which males display several morphological ornaments as well as a rich courtship repertoire. Our results show that high courtship intensity was associated with an increased female response towards the male ornament, increased number of mating attempts and a reduction in female aggression. The morphological aspects investigated here did not seem to correlate with female response. This may indicate that, when both behaviour and morphology are considered simultaneously, courtship behaviour may have priority over morphological cues in this species.

    Keyword
    courtship, multiple signalling, visual cues, morphology, mate choice
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207333 (URN)10.1007/s10641-015-0388-2 (DOI)000355620700001 ()
    Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands.;Behbahan Khatam Alanbia Univ Technol, Dept Environm Sci, Behbahan, Iran..
    Xu, Charles C. Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Kingma, Sjouke A.
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Komdeur, Jan
    Univ Groningen, Behav & Physiol Ecol, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands..
    Effect of tree logging on reproductive performance in Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus)2017In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 158, no 1, 339-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For birds, habitat quality is largely determined by local vegetation, and reproductive performance can therefore be negatively influenced by anthropogenic activities. A tree logging event enabled us to examine the effect of removing trees of different maturities and types on the reproductive performance of Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Against expectations, only the logging of small coniferous trees, but not larger and deciduous trees, was associated with a reduction in the number of eggs laid, whereas logging had no significant effect on lay date. Therefore, we conclude that modest logging activity has no or limited negative influence on Blue Tit reproductive performance.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Differentiation and Pathogenicity within the Saprolegniaceae: Studies on Physiology and Gene Expression Patterns in Saprolegnia parasitica and Aphanomyces astaci2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Saprolegnia parasitica and Aphanomyces astaci are parasitic water moulds belonging to the Oomycetes. Despite their importance as parasites they are very little studied at the molecular level and the work described in this thesis was aimed at increasing the molecular knowledge of these organisms by cloning and characterising genes of potential importance for reproduction and pathogenicity.

    Stage-specific transcripts from Saprolegnia parasitica were isolated by differential display RT-PCR. One of the markers, puf1 encodes a putative mRNA binding protein which may be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. S. parasitica puf1 is expressed exclusively in spore cysts that have not been determined for germination or repeated zoospore emergence indicating that the cyst stage has two phases, of about equal duration, which are physiologically and transcriptionally distinct. A similar expression pattern is observed in Aphanomyces spp. with different regulation of spore development and in the transcript is detected in both primary and secondary cysts.

    A putative chitinase AaChi1, was cloned from the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci. Analysis of chitinase activity and AaChi1 expression showed that chitinase in A. astaci is constitutively expressed in growing and sporulating mycelia, but absent in zoospores, a pattern which reflects the infectious life cycle of A. astaci. This expression pattern is conserved between the four known genotypes of A. astaci, in contrast to saprophytic and fish-pathogenic Aphanomyces spp.

    Genetic and physiological analysis were conducted on five strains of Aphanomyces, isolated from suspected outbreaks of crayfish plague in Spain and Italy. The strains are not virulent against freshwater crayfish, and RAPD PCR and ITS sequence analysis show that they are unrelated to the crayfish plague fungus, A. astaci.

    List of papers
    1. Pumilio homologue from Saprolegnia parasitica specifically expressed in undifferentiated spore cysts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pumilio homologue from Saprolegnia parasitica specifically expressed in undifferentiated spore cysts
    2002 In: Eukaryotic Cell, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89574 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Comparison of pufI expression in Aphanomyces spp. with different regulation of germination
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of pufI expression in Aphanomyces spp. with different regulation of germination
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89575 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of chitinase expression in the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of chitinase expression in the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci
    Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89576 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Physiological and Genetic Characterisation of some Aphanomyces Strains Isolated from Freshwater Crayfish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological and Genetic Characterisation of some Aphanomyces Strains Isolated from Freshwater Crayfish
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89577 (URN)
    Available from: 2001-12-20 Created: 2001-12-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Andersson, Måns Sverker
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. zooekologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Glycosylated haemoglobin: a new measure of condition in birds1995In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, no 260, 299-303 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The influence of condition on time of breeding and reproductive success has been discussed since Darwin first suggested a relation in 1871. We used a novel method to investigate the influence of condition on the timing of breeding and reproductive success by measuring a relatively inert physiological parameter - the amount of glycosylated haemoglobin - in blood samples taken from the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. The percentage of glycosylated haemoglobin (%HbG) was assumed to be proportional to the average blood glucose level, during the 3-5 weeks before the blood sampling. The %HbG was influenced neither by sex nor age. Date of arrival at the breeding ground was negatively correlated with %HbG so that early-arriving birds had significantly higher %HbG than those arriving later. Clutch size, corrected for the effect of laying date, correlated positively with %HbG in females, as did the number of fledged young, corrected for the effect of laying date, for both sexes. We found no correlation between body mass and the %HbG. We suggest that prebreeding condition influences the timing of breeding and subsequent reproductive performance and that %HbG can be used as an indicator of prebreeding-condition in migrating birds.

  • 8.
    Angthong, Pacharaporn
    et al.
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Program Biotechnol, Fac Sci..
    Roytrakul, Sittiruk
    Natl Sci & Technol Dev Agcy, Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC..
    Jarayabhand, Padermsak
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Grad Sch, Interdisciplinary Grad Program Maritime Adm..
    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Characterization and function of a tachylectin 5-like immune molecule in Penaeus monodon2017In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 76, 120-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tachylectin5A and its homolog, tachylectin5B both contain a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and have been studied in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and shown to be involved in host defense. Here, we demonstrate the presence of tachylectin5-like genes in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1) and Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2), which both contain a signal peptide and a single FReD with an acetyl group and a calcium binding sites and they are both structurally similar to horseshoe crab tachylectin/carcinolectin5. The PL5-land PL5-2 transcript were expressed in various shrimp tissues in normal shrimp, and their expression was upregulated in tissues such as hemocytes and hindgut following challenge with pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. The PL5-2 protein was detected in various tissues as well as in cell-free hemolymph. The biological function of the PL5-2 protein is to recognize some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria regardless whether they are non-pathogenic or pathogenic. They have hemagglutination activity on human erythrocyte and bacterial agglutination activity to both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Possible binding sites of PL5-2 to bacteria could be at the N-acetyl moiety of the G1cNAc-MurNAc cell wall of the peptidoglycan since the binding could be inhibited by G1cNAc or GaINAC. The presence of PL5-2 protein in both circulating hemolymph and intestine, where host and microbes are usually interacting, may suggest that the physiological function of shrimp tachylectin-like proteins is to recognize and bind to invading bacteria to immobilize and entrap these microbes and subsequently clear them from circulation and the host body, and probably to control and maintain the normal flora in the intestine.

  • 9.
    Angthong, Pacharaporn
    et al.
    Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University..
    Roytrakul, Sittiruk
    National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC); National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)..
    Jarayabhand, Padermsak
    Interdisciplinary Graduate Program on Maritime Administration, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University..
    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Involvement of a tachylectin-like gene and its protein in pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon2017In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 76, 229-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shrimp disease, the so-called acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) and it has resulted in significant losses to the global shrimp farming industry. In our previous study, three of tachylectin-like genes were cloned and characterized from the intestine of Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1), Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2) and Penlectin5-3 (PL5-3). These three genes all contain fibrinogen-related domain (FReD). The expression level of PL5-1, PL5-2 and PL5-3 was elevated in the stomach after oral administration with AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus 3HP (VP3HP). A polyclonal antibody to PL5-2 was successfully produced in a rabbit using the purified recombinant P15-2 as an immunogen, and this because only the predominant protein PL5-2 could be successfully purified from shrimp plasma by affinity chromatography using a N-Acetyl-oglucosamine column allowed us to perform functional studies of this lectin. The native purified PL5-2 protein had binding and agglutination activities towards VP3HR To further understand the functions and the involvements of this lectin in response to AHPND in shrimp, RNAi-mediated knockdown of PL5-1, PL5-2 or PL5-3 was performed prior to an oral administration of VP3HP. As a result, Penlectin5-silencing in shrimp challenged with VP3HP showed higher mortality and resulted in more severe histopathological changes in the hepatopancreas with typical signs of AHPND. These results therefore suggest a role for crustacean fibrinogen-related proteins (FRePs) in innate immune response during the development of AHPND, and maybe also during other infections.

  • 10.
    Aplin, L. M.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Firth, J. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Farine, D. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Ancon, Italy..
    Voelkl, B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Crates, R. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Culina, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Garroway, C. J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Hinde, C. A.
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Behav Ecol Grp, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kidd, L. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Psorakis, I.
    Univ Oxford, Math Inst, Oxford, England..
    Milligan, N. D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Radersma, R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Verhelst, B. L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 108, 117-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

  • 11. Arganda, S.
    et al.
    Nicolis, Stamatios C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Perochain, A.
    Pechabadens, C.
    Latil, G.
    Dussutour, A.
    Collective choice in ants: The role of protein and carbohydrates ratios2014In: Journal of insect physiology, ISSN 0022-1910, E-ISSN 1879-1611, Vol. 69, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a foraging context, social insects make collective decisions from individuals responding to local information. When faced with foods varying in quality, ants are known to be able to select the best food source using pheromone trails. Until now, studies investigating collective decisions have focused on single nutrients, mostly carbohydrates. In the environment, the foods available are a complex mixture and are composed of various nutrients, available in different forms. In this paper, we explore the effect of protein to carbohydrate ratio on ants' ability to detect and choose between foods with different protein characteristics (free amino acids or whole proteins). In a two-choice set up, Argentine ants Linepithema humile were presented with two artificial foods containing either whole protein or amino acids in two different dietary conditions: high protein food or high carbohydrate food. At the collective level, when ants were faced with high carbohydrate foods, they did not show a preference between free amino acids or whole proteins, while a preference for free amino acids emerged when choosing between high protein foods. At the individual level, the probability of feeding was higher for high carbohydrates food and for foods containing free amino acids. Two mathematical models were developed to evaluate the importance of feeding probability in collective food selection. A first model in which a forager deposits pheromone only after feeding, and a second model in which a forager always deposits pheromone, but with greater intensity after feeding. Both models were able to predict free amino acid selection, however the second one was better able to reproduce the experimental results suggesting that modulating trail strength according to feeding probability is likely the mechanism explaining amino acid preference at a collective level in Argentine ants.

  • 12.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rowe, Locke
    The shape of preference functions and what shapes them: a comment on Edward2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 2, 325-325 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ashitani, T.
    et al.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Bioenvirom, Fac Agr, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 9978555, Japan.;Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garboui, Samira Sadek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Schubert, F.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vongsombath, C.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Univ Laos NOUL, Viangchan, Laos..
    Liblikas, I.
    Inst Technol, Sect Organ Chem, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Palsson, K.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, A. -K
    Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari:Ixodidae)2015In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 67, no 4, 595-606 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and alpha-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, alpha-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  • 14.
    Ast, Jennifer C
    University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
    Mitochondrial DNA evidence and evolution in Varanoidea (Squamata)2001In: Cladistics, ISSN 0748-3007, E-ISSN 1096-0031, Vol. 17, no 3, 211-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Varanoidea is a monophyletic group of anguimorph lizards, comprising the New World helodermatids, the Bornean earless monitor Lanthanotus borneensis, and the Old World monitors (Varanus). I use mitochondrial DNA sequences and extensive taxonomic sampling to test alternative hypotheses of varanoid relationships. The most parsimonious hypothesis confirms the monophyly of Varanoidea (Heloderma, Lanthanotus, and Varanus) and Varanus, as well as the sister-taxon relationship of Varanus and Lanthanotus. The relationships among Varanus species differ in several respects from previous hypotheses. Three major lineages are recognized within Varanus: an African clade basal to the rest of the group, an Indo-Asian clade, and an Indo-Australian clade. Within the last lineage, the endemic Australian dwarf monitors (Odatria) form a clade sister to the large Australian monitors (the gouldii group). Tests of the effects of rate heterogeneity and homoplasy demonstrate that putative process partitions of data are largely congruent with one another and contribute positive support to the overall hypothesis.

  • 15.
    Bangyeekhun, Eakaphun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Parasite on Crayfish: Characterisation of Their Pathogenesis, Host Interactions and Diversity2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The crayfish plague refractory crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, which can harbour the fungal parasite within melanotic sheath, are found to constitutively express the gene encoding for prophenoloxidase (proPO) after mimicking parasite attack. In contrast, the susceptible crayfish, Astacus astacus, responds to the parasite by increased levels of proPO transcript, particularly in the semigranular haemocytes. The upregulation of proPO could confer a temporary resistance towards the fungal infection, suggesting that additional factors are involved in maintaining the balance between host and parasite. The resistant crayfish may have adapted to the parasite by increasing the transcript level of immune genes. The parasite can be considered as a symbiont since it does not harm the host rather than it activates the immune gene and possibly preventing other pathogens to become established.

    Two serine proteinase genes encoding a subtilisin-like (AaSP1) and a trypsin (AaSP2) enzyme were isolated from the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci. These proteinases are prepropeptides and generate mature proteins of 39 kDa and 29 kDa, respectively. Characterisation of AaSP1 suggests that the enzyme may be involved in intracellular control mechanisms rather than playing a role in pathogenesis. The AaSP2 transcript was not controlled by catabolic repression, but was induced by crayfish plasma, implying a role in pathogenesis toward the crayfish host.

    Physiology and genetics of five Aphanomyces strains, which were isolated from moribund crayfish, were characterised with regard to their pathogen diversity. These strains are not virulent against crayfish. Some physiological properties of these strains differed from A. astaci, such as growth rate, germination and production of chitinase. Genetic analysis clearly indicated that they are not related to A. astaci and their name are proposed to be Aphanomyces repetans.

    The crayfish P. leniusculus was found to be susceptible to white spot syndrome virus infection. The virus has a significant effect to the population of crayfish haemocyte. The number and proportion of granular cell from virus-infected crayfish were higher than in controls, indicating granular cells are more resistant to and may interact by some means with the virus.

    Two morphotypes of the crayfish parasite Psorospermium haeckeli obtained from different crayfish hosts of different geographical origin were analysed for ribosomal ITS DNA in order to compare their genetic diversity. The sequence difference between them was found largely in ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions, which was variable in length and showed 66% and 58% sequence similarity. Thus, different morphotypes of P. haeckeli are genetically diverse.

  • 16.
    Barnaby, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Cooperative Breeding in the Southern Anteater-Chat: Sexual Disparity, Survival and Dispersal2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Group-living sets the scene for complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding, and exploring the factors that shape group-living is crucial in understanding these behaviours. This thesis explores the ecology of a population of the facultative cooperative breeding southern anteater-chat (Myrmecocichla formicivora), a group-living bird species endemic to southern Africa. It reveals a breeding system based around a breeding pair and up to three auxiliary males. Despite equal numbers of males and females produced as fledglings there was a surplus of adult males, which remained philopatric. Dispersal was strongly female biased. Females dispersed within their first year, they dispersed further than males, and they lost the benefits of the natal site. The sex skew in the population suggested that these factors drive differential mortality, with juvenile females having much lower annual survival than juvenile males. Adult survival was higher, with female survival only slightly lower than male survival. Dispersal distances suggested that males selected the breeding location, nearer to their natal site. There was no evidence of surplus non-breeding females. On the loss of a breeding female there was no replacement until new females entered the population, yet if a breeding male disappeared the female promptly re-paired with a male from another group. There was no indication of birds floating in the population, and if males were orphaned or widowed they joined other groups as unrelated helpers in preference to floating. There was no sign of inter-group or individual aggression among chats, and unrelated helpers were peacefully accepted into groups, suggesting mutual benefits. In fact all birds in a group helped raise offspring of the breeding pair, and groups with more helpers fledged more offspring, which implies that both direct and indirect fitness benefits can be gained through joining a group and helping. There was surprisingly little inheritance of breeding position by auxiliaries, and strikingly low levels of extra-pair paternity. This study suggests that the Southern anteater-chat group structure arises through male philopatry due to a shortage of breeding females, the benefits of remaining on the natal site and helping, and the potentially high costs of living alone.

    List of papers
    1. Group-living in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group-living in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Group-living sets the scene for complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding, and exploring the factors that shape group-living is crucial in understanding these behaviours. Here we describe some aspects of the ecology of a population of the facultative cooperative breeding southern anteater-chat (Myrmecocichla formicivora), a group living bird species endemic to southern Africa. We used data from a four year study of individually marked birds, with pedigrees completed using microsatellite genotyping. Southern anteater-chats live in groups of 2-5 individuals - a breeding pair and up to three additional none-breeders. These auxiliary birds were either retained offspring or unrelated individuals, and all birds in a group assisted by feeding at the nest. Our population had a skewed sex ratio of approximately 58% males to 42% females, yet the sex ratio of fledglings was equal, suggesting sex-biased mortality. Helpers were predominantly retained male offspring; however 21% of helpers were unrelated to either of the breeding pair. Southern anteater-chats appear to be non-territorial, with an apparent lack of aggression both within and between groups. Our study confirms that the southern anteater-chat is a facultative cooperative breeder, with both pair breeders and groups with helpers capable of fledging youngsters. We provide evidence suggesting that the breeding system of the southern anteater-chat is based on prompt female dispersal, and male philopatry due to an apparent shortage of mates, potential benefits of the natal site and possible high costs of floating. It appears that ecological constraints promoting delayed dispersal are reinforced by benefits gained from remaining philopatric.

    Keyword
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179071 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    2. Sex specific survival in the southern anteater-chat Mymecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex specific survival in the southern anteater-chat Mymecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Survival is a key factor behind life-history variation both between and within species. It is also a major influence on sociality in species which delay dispersal and live in family groups. Knowledge of differential survival rates between males and females and juveniles and adults give insights into the costs and benefits of different behavioural and life-history strategies. Here we investigate patterns of survival in a population of the southern anteater-chat (Myrmecocichla formicivora), a facultative cooperatively breeding passerine of southern Africa. Using data from a 9-year mark-capture-recapture study, we examined juvenile and adult sex related variation in survival, and the role of environmental variables (rainfall, temperature) for survival patterns in the population. Annual adult survival probability (mean ± SE) was 0.71 ± 0.03 for males and 0.60 ± 0.04 for females. Juvenile survival was lower for each sex, with juvenile female survival (0.36 ± 0.04) being 35% lower than juvenile male survival (0.55 ± 0.04). Using these estimates we calculated the mean life span (MLS) in years for male southern anteater-chat to be 4.0 ± 0.7, considerably higher than for females at 2.0 ± 0.4. These figures closely matched the population-age structure of the study area, and could explain the high male biased sex skew of adult birds in this population. Higher annual mean temperature was associated with higher survival, whereas higher annual rainfall was associated with lower survival for both sex and age classes. Female survival, particularly female juvenile survival, may be reduced due to prompt dispersal and longer dispersal distances, and the additional costs of breeding early in life. Differential survival can promote male philopatry and this in turn could well encourage the cooperative breeding we see in the southern anteater-chat.

    Keyword
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179072 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    3. The rarer sex - female natal dispersal and breeder replacement in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The rarer sex - female natal dispersal and breeder replacement in the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex biased dispersal is a crucial factor in understanding the mechanism of family dynamics in many cooperative breeders. Female biased dispersal occurs in many cooperatively breeding birds. It is often associated with females dispersing earlier and further, and a male biased sex skew in the population. Here we investigated female dispersal in the southern anteater-chat, a facultative cooperatively breeding passerine of southern Africa. Our study population had a male biased sex skew, and females had lower annual survival than males. Dispersal was strongly female biased, with females dispersing within their first year whereas many males remained philopatric beyond the next breeding season. Breeding females were on average younger than breeding males, and also dispersed further. Each breeding group contained only one female. No females were found floating in the population, and all females were associated with one or more males in a breeding group. It appears that all females disperse in their first year directly to a breeding position. If a female disappeared in the breeding season they were not replaced until new females matured and dispersed the following season, yet if a male breeder disappeared during the breeding season he was almost immediately replaced, indicating that there are no surplus females.

    Keyword
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179073 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    4. From helping to breeding – male choice in the southern anteater-chats Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From helping to breeding – male choice in the southern anteater-chats Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal choice is important in understanding population structure and dynamics. Here we examine male choice in the facultative cooperative breeding southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora based on a four year study in South Africa. The sex ratio in our study population was male biased, with many males remaining philopatric. All groups consisted of one or more adult males associated with one adult female. We found a significant positive effect of auxiliary number on group productivity (both number of young fledged, and first year survival), while controlling for potentially confounding variables (territory and breeder identity). The majority of auxiliaries, 54%, were related to both birds in the breeding pair, with another 25% related to one member of the pair, and 21% related to neither of the breeders. There was no evidence of males floating within our study population, and it appears that if males lose their family due to mortality they join other groups as unrelated non-breeding auxiliaries rather than float. No aggression was observed between individual southern anteater-chats, and unrelated group members helped rear offspring in the group they had joined. Despite the presence of, and helping by unrelated group members there was very little evidence of breeding position inheritance (1/24 auxiliaries unrelated to the breeding female) or extra-pair paternity (2.4% of fledglings). This study suggests that the southern anteater-chat group structure arises through male philopatry due to a lack of breeding females and potentially high costs of living alone.

    Keyword
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179074 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
    5. Development of a suit of microsatellite markers for the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a suit of microsatellite markers for the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the cross amplification of 37 microsatellite markers for their suitability in genotyping the southern anteater-chat Myrmecocichla formicivora, an opportunistic cooperatively breeding passerine bird endemic to southern Africa. Fourteen microsatellite markers were identified as having suitable characteristics, with minor deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and little evidence of null alleles. These 14 Primer pairs were combined in 4 multiplexes and run on 183 individual samples from our study population of southern anteater-chat on Benfontein Nature Reserve, near Kimberley in central South Africa. The loci ranged from 3-34 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.45 -0.93. We then tested these 14 microsatellites for their use in examining paternity in a population of southern anteater-chat being studied on Benfontein Nature Reserve, near Kimberley in South Africa. Of the population of 183 individuals (the 2011 population) 93% of the offspring could be allocated a mother, 97% a father, and 87% a parent pair with 95% confidence. The remainder could be allocated at the 80% confidence level. Where mothers could be assigned from observations this was in 100% agreement with the microsatellite results, giving us good support for the accurate assignment of parentage in our population.

    Keyword
    Southern anteater-chat, cooperative breeding, social evolution, microsatellites, genotyping, cross-amplification, behavioural ecology, delayed dispersal, family living, Africa
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179075 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05
  • 17.
    Barrenas, Fredrik
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Dept Microbiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Raehetz, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Kristoff, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Agricola, Brian
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Apetrei, Cristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Agy, Michael B.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Carter, Victoria
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Flanary, Leon
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Green, Richard R.
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ma, DongZhu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    McLain, Randy
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Murnane, Robert
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Peng, Xinxia
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Richter, George H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Thomas, Matthew J.
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Trichel, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Weiss, Jeffrey M.
    Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Anderson, David M.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Pandrea, Ivona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Katze, Michael G.
    Univ Washington, Dept Microbiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Washington Natl Primate Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rhesus Macaques and African Green Monkeys Exhibit Striking Differences in Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Gene Expression During the Eclipse Phase of Siv Infection2015In: Journal of medical primatology, ISSN 0047-2565, E-ISSN 1600-0684, Vol. 44, no 5, 343-343 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Benton, Jeanne
    et al.
    Kery, Rachel
    Li, Jingjing
    Noonin, Chadanat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Beltz, Barbara
    Cells from the Immune System Generate Adult-Born Neurons in Crayfish2014In: Developmental Cell, ISSN 1534-5807, E-ISSN 1878-1551, Vol. 30, no 3, 322-333 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurogenesis is an ongoing process in the brains of adult decapod crustaceans. However, the first-generation precursors that produce adult-born neurons, which reside in a neurogenic niche, are not self-renewing in crayfish and must be replenished. The source of these neuronal precursors is unknown. Here, we report that adult-born neurons in crayfish can be derived from hemocytes. Following adoptive transfer of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU)-labeled hemocytes, labeled cells populate the neurogenic niche containing the first-generation neuronal precursors. Seven weeks after adoptive transfer, EdU-labeled cells are located in brain clusters 9 and 10 (where adult-born neurons differentiate) and express appropriate neurotransmitters. Moreover, the number of cells composing the neurogenic niche in crayfish is tightly correlated with total hemocyte counts (THCs) and can be manipulated by raising or lowering THC. These studies identify hemocytes as a source of adult-born neurons in crayfish and demonstrate that the immune system is a key contributor to adult neurogenesis.

  • 19.
    Berger, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berg, Elena C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Widegren, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Multivariate intralocus sexual conflict in seed beetles2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 12, 3457-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) is pervasive because males and females experience differences in selection but share much of the same genome. Traits with integrated genetic architecture should be reservoirs of sexually antagonistic genetic variation for fitness, but explorations of multivariate IaSC are scarce. Previously, we showed that upward artificial selection on male life span decreased male fitness but increased female fitness compared with downward selection in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Here, we use these selection lines to investigate sex-specific evolution of four functionally integrated traits (metabolic rate, locomotor activity, body mass, and life span) that collectively define a sexually dimorphic life-history syndrome in many species. Male-limited selection for short life span led to correlated evolution in females toward a more male-like multivariate phenotype. Conversely, males selected for long life span became more female-like, implying that IaSC results from genetic integration of this suite of traits. However, while life span, metabolism, and body mass showed correlated evolution in the sexes, activity did not evolve in males but, surprisingly, did so in females. This led to sexual monomorphism in locomotor activity in short-life lines associated with detrimental effects in females. Our results thus support the general tenet that widespread pleiotropy generates IaSC despite sex-specific genetic architecture.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Multiple matings and paternal brood care in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle1988In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 51, no 2, 184-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bize, Pierre
    et al.
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Biol & Environm Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland.;Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Daniel, Gregory
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France.
    Viblanc, Vincent A.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7178, IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Martin, Julien G. A.
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Biol & Environm Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, CNRS, Villeurbanne, France..
    Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird2017In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 13, no 7, 20170236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift (Alms melba), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits. We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence (i.e. risk taking) behaviour at both the phenotypic and genetic level. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony. In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution.

  • 22.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Alonso, Daniel
    Edelaar, Pim
    The genetic structure of crossbills suggests rapid diversification with little niche conservatism2013In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 109, no 4, 908-922 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservatism of ecological niches can cause geographical ranges or the formation of new species to be constrained, and might be expected in situations where strong trade-offs result in ecological specialization. Here we address the flexibility of resource use in European crossbills by comparing the ecological and genetic similarities between four Mediterranean and three northern European crossbill populations, all specialized in feeding on a different resource. We used sequence data of one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from between 211 and 256 individuals. The northern crossbills were genetically too similar to infer which population was more related to the southern ones. Crossbills from the island of Mallorca showed genetic signatures of a stable and isolated population, supporting their past treatment as a locally (co)evolving taxon, and seem to have evolved from an ecologically distinct ancestor. Previous studies in other populations also suggest that genetic similarity does not predict morphological and resource similarity. We estimate that the divergence of all western European crossbills has occurred within the last 11000 years. Overall, it appears that crossbills can diversify rapidly and with little niche conservatism, but that such potentially reproductively isolated specialists are evolutionarily short-lived.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Mate Guarding In The Great Tit - A Reply1994In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 47, no 5, 1230-1231 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Female Great Tits, Parus-Major, Avoid Extra-Pair Copulation Attempts1992In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 43, no 4, 691-693 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Div Evolut Ecol & Genet, Daley Rd, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.;Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Mautz, Brian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Div Evolut Ecol & Genet, Daley Rd, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Davis, Jacqueline
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Div Evolut Ecol & Genet, Daley Rd, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Nakagawa, Shinichi
    Univ Otago, Dept Zool, POB 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Jennions, Michael D.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Div Evolut Ecol & Genet, Daley Rd, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Facultative adjustment of the offspring sex ratio and male attractiveness: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 92, no 1, 108-134 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Females can benefit from mate choice for male traits (e.g. sexual ornaments or body condition) that reliably signal the effect that mating will have on mean offspring fitness. These male-derived benefits can be due to material and/or genetic effects. The latter include an increase in the attractiveness, hence likely mating success, of sons. Females can potentially enhance any sex-biased benefits of mating with certain males by adjusting the offspring sex ratio depending on theirmate's phenotype. One hypothesis is that females should produce mainly sons whenmating with more attractive or higher quality males. Here we perform a meta-analysis of the empirical literature that has accumulated to test this hypothesis. The mean effect size was small (r = 0.064-0.095; i.e. explaining <1% of variation in offspring sex ratios) but statistically significant in the predicted direction. It was, however, not robust to correction for an apparent publication bias towards significantly positive results. We also examined the strength of the relationship using different indices of male attractiveness/quality that have been invoked by researchers (ornaments, behavioural displays, female preference scores, body condition, male age, body size, and whether a male is a within-pair or extra-pair mate). Only ornamentation and body size significantly predicted the proportion of sons produced. We obtained similar results regardless of whether we ran a standard random-effects meta-analysis, or a multi-level, Bayesian model that included a correction for phylogenetic non-independence. A moderate proportion of the variance in effect sizes (51.6-56.2%) was due to variation that was not attributable to sampling error (i.e. sample size). Much of this non-sampling error variance was not attributable to phylogenetic effects or high repeatability of effect sizes among species. It was approximately equally attributable to differences (occurring for unknown reasons) in effect sizes among and within studies (25.3, 22.9% of the total variance). There were no significant effects of year of publication or two aspects of study design (experimental/observational or field/laboratory) on reported effect sizes. We discuss various practical reasons and theoretical arguments as to why small effect sizes should be expected, and why there might be relatively high variation among studies. Currently, there are no species where replicated, experimental studies show that mothers adjust the offspring sex ratio in response to a generally preferred male phenotype. Ultimately, we need more experimental studies that test directly whether females produce more sons when mated to relatively more attractive males, and that provide the requisite evidence that their sons have higher mean fitness than their daughters.

  • 26.
    Boström, Jannika E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Dimitrova, Marina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Canton, Cindy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hastad, Olle
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Qvarnstrom, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, e0151099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  • 27.
    Boström, Jannika E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Haller, Nicola K.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Solvegatan 35, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Dimitrova, Marina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kelber, Almut
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Solvegatan 35, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    The flicker fusion frequency of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) revisited2017In: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 203, no 1, 15-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While color vision and spatial resolution have been studied in many bird species, less is known about the temporal aspects of bird vision. High temporal resolution has been described in three species of passerines but it is unknown whether this is specific to passerines, to small actively flying birds, to insectivores or to birds living in bright habitats. Temporal resolution of vision is commonly tested by determining the flicker fusion frequency (FFF), at which the eye can no longer distinguish a flickering light from a constant light of equal intensity at different luminances. Using a food reward, we trained the birds to discriminate a constant light from a flickering light, at four different luminances between 750 and 7500 cd/m(2). The highest FFF found in one bird at 3500 cd/m(2) was 93 Hz. Three birds had higher FFF (82 Hz) at 7500 cd/m(2) than at 3500 cd/m(2). Six human subjects had lower FFF than the birds at 1500 but similar FFF at 750 cd/m(2). These results indicate that high temporal resolution is not a common trait for all small and active birds living in bright light habitats. Whether it is typical for passerines or for insectivorous birds remains to be tested.

  • 28.
    Boucaud, Ingrid C. A.
    et al.
    Univ Lyon, UJM St Etienne, CNRS, NeuroPSI,ENES,UMR 9197, St Etienne, France..
    Valere, Penelope A.
    Univ Lyon, UJM St Etienne, CNRS, NeuroPSI,ENES,UMR 9197, St Etienne, France..
    Smith, Melissa L. N. Aguirre
    Univ Lyon, UJM St Etienne, CNRS, NeuroPSI,ENES,UMR 9197, St Etienne, France..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, LBBE, UMR 5558, F-69365 Lyon, France..
    Cauchard, Laure
    Univ Montreal, Dept Sci Biol, CP 6128, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Rybak, Fanny
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS, UMR 9197, NeuroPSI, Paris, France..
    Vignal, Clementine
    Univ Lyon, UJM St Etienne, CNRS, NeuroPSI,ENES,UMR 9197, St Etienne, France..
    Interactive vocal communication at the nest by parent Great Tits Parus major2016In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 158, no 3, 630-644 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although most bird species show monogamous pair bonds and bi-parental care, little is known of how mated birds coordinate their activities. Whether or not partners communicate with each other to adjust their behaviour remains an open question. During incubation and the first days after hatching, one parent - generally the female - stays in the nest for extended periods, and might depend on acoustic communication to exchange information with its mate outside. The Great Tit Parus major is an interesting study system to investigate intra-pair communication at the nest because males address songs to their mate while she is in the nest cavity, and females answer the male from the cavity with calls. However, the function of this communication remains unknown. In this study, we recorded the vocalizations and observed the resulting behaviour of Great Tit pairs around the nest at different breeding stages (laying, incubation and chick-rearing). We observed vocal exchanges (vocalization bouts, alternated on the same tempo, between the female inside the nest and her male outside) in three contexts with different outcomes: (1) the female left the nest, (2) the male entered the box with food, and the female then used specific call types, (3) mates stopped calling but did not leave or enter the nest. The structure of vocal exchanges was globally stable between contexts, but females used calls with an up-shifted spectrum during exchanges, at the end of which they left the nest or the male entered the nest. Birds vocalized more and at higher tempo during exchanges that ended up in feeding inside the nest. Birds also vocalized more during exchanges taking place during laying - a period of active mate guarding - than during incubation. We conclude that vocal exchanges could signal the females' need for food and the males' mate guarding behaviour, and discuss other possible functions of this communication.

  • 29.
    Brelin, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande Fysiologi.
    Divergent Stress Coping Strategies in Brown trout (Salmo trutta)2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 30.
    Brelin, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. populationsbiologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Divergent stress coping styles in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2005In: ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TRENDS IN COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NEUROBIOLOGY, Vol. 1040, 239-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct stress coping styles, proactive and reactive, have been stated in various animal studies. This divergence in coping has also been indicated in salmonid fish. Here, we test the hypothesis that divergent stress coping styles are identifiable in a sea-ranched brown trout population. To that end, we used a series of tests on individual juvenile brown trout, with each test including a common key aspect of the two different coping styles. Using a clustering method (SAS: PROC FASTCLUS), two groups that clearly differed both in blood chemistry (noradrenalin and adrenalin levels) following confinement and in behavior during hypoxia were identified.

  • 31.
    Briedis, Martins
    et al.
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Hahn, Steffen
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Traff, Johan
    Kral, Miroslav
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Adamik, Peter
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Breeding latitude leads to different temporal but not spatial organization of the annual cycle in a long-distance migrant2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 6, 743-748 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal and spatial organization of the annual cycle according to local conditions is of crucial importance for individuals' fitness. Moreover, which sites and when particular sites are used can have profound consequences especially for migratory animals, because the two factors shape interactions within and between populations, as well as between animal and the environment. Here, we compare spatial and temporal patterns of two latitudinally separated breeding populations of a trans-Equatorial passerine migrant, the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, throughout the annual cycle. We found that migration routes and non-breeding residency areas of the two populations largely overlapped. Due to climatic constraints, however, the onset of breeding in the northern population was approximately two weeks later than that of the southern population. We demonstrate that this temporal offset between the populations carries-over from breeding to the entire annual cycle. The northern population was consistently later in timing of all subsequent annual events - autumn migration, non-breeding residence period, spring migration and the following breeding. Such year-round spatiotemporal patterns suggest that annual schedules are endogenously controlled with breeding latitude as the decisive element pre-determining the timing of annual events in our study populations.

  • 32.
    Brink, Kirstin S.
    et al.
    University of Toronto.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hawthorn, Jessica R.
    University of Toronto.
    Amniote faunal revision of the Pictou Group (Permo-Carboniferous), Prince Edward Island, Canada2013In: Comptes rendus. Palevol, ISSN 1631-0683, E-ISSN 1777-571X, Vol. 12, no 7–8, 473-485 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amniote faunal assemblages from the Pictou Group (Prince Edward Island, Canada) are re-evaluated for the first time in 50 years. Fossils recovered from formations within this group (Orby Head, Hillsborough River, and Kildare Capes) indicate the presence of a parareptile, representing the first occurrence of a non-synapsid amniote from the PEI redbeds. The amniote taxa from PEI are re-described within the context of current research, providing the basis for an updated faunal list for the vertebrate-bearing formations within the Pictou Group. The presence of a parareptile, diadectid, and possibly two synapsids (caseid and/or varanopid), together with the absence of edaphosaurids and definitive ophiacodontids, suggests similarities with the upland Bromacker and Richards Spur localities of Germany and Oklahoma, respectively. However, more research and new fossil discoveries are needed to confidently resolve the systematics and palaeoecology of amniotes from the Lower Permian of Atlantic Canada.

  • 33.
    Brown, Caleb M.
    et al.
    Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Giacomini, Henrique C.
    University of Toronto.
    O'Brien, Lorna J.
    University of Toronto.
    Vavrek, Matthew J.
    Philip J. Currie Dinosaur Museum.
    Evans, David C.
    Royal Ontario Museum.
    Ecological modelling, size distributions and taphonomic size bias in dinosaur faunas: a comment on Codron et al. (2012)2013In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 9, no 1, 20120582- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Brown, Caleb M.
    et al.
    Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology.
    Evans, David C.
    Royal Museum of Nature.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    O'Brien, Lorna J.
    University of Toronto.
    Eberth, David A.
    Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology.
    Evidence for taphonomic size bias in the Dinosaur Park Formation (Campanian, Alberta), a model Mesozoic terrestrial alluvial‐paralic system2013In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 372, no SI, 108-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the distribution of dinosaurian body masses in the Dinosaur Park Formation (DPF; Campanian; southern Alberta), reveals a prominent negative skew; a pattern distinct from those of modern terrestrial faunas. We find a direct and robust correlation between taxon size (estimated live body mass) and known completeness. There is a clear dichotomy between large and small-bodied taxa at around 60 kg, in which taxa less than 60 kg are significantly less complete (mean completeness = 7.6%) than those with an estimated mass of 60 kg or greater (mean = 78.2%). Along with completeness, there is also a strong association of body size and taphonomic mode, with small taxa known largely from isolated and occasionally associated remains, and large taxa known from articulated skeletons. In addition, there is a significant correlation between taxon body mass and both date of discovery and of description, with taxa < 60 kg taking an average of 65.9 and 75.6 years to discover and describe, respectively, compared to 33.6 and 34.1 years for taxa > 60 kg. The rates of both cumulative discovery and description for large taxa are best described by a logarithmic curve nearing an asymptote, whereas small taxa show either a linear or power increase through time. This suggests that our current knowledge of the large-bodied dinosaur assemblage is reasonably representative of the true biological fauna with few discoveries likely to be made in the future. However, small taxa are greatly underestimated in both their diversity and abundance, with many more potential discoveries to be made. Given that (1) the sedimentary deposits and fossil assemblages in the DPF together represent one of the best studied examples of a Mesozoic alluvial‐paralic (terrestrial) ‘palaeoecosystem,’ and (2) similar patterns have been suggested (but not documented) for other Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems in the Western Interior of North America, we suggest that this pattern of size bias may typify vertebrate fossil assemblages in terrestrial Mesozoic systems. If so, such biases must be considered before patterns of diversity in dinosaur communities through time can be considered accurate, or used to compare and interpret Mesozoic palaeoecosystems.

  • 35.
    Bystedt, David
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Havsöringens (Salmo trutta) lekvandring i Själsöån, Gotland.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the sea trout (Salmo trutta) spawning migration was studied in the river Själsöån, Gotland, to assess the main external factors determining upstream migration and seasonal changes in fish parameters. Additionally population trends were studied by examination of old data. The most important external factors for upstream migration were the air pressure, air temperature and wind direction. No significant difference was found between when males and females migrated upstream. Larger females in better condition started migration earlier than the smaller females in poorer condition. Later arriving females stayed in the stream for a shorter period. Regarding changes over time, the results showed that the variation between years in number of spawners, female size and condition, and sex ratio was high but with no trends. The population appears to be stable.

  • 36.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Postcranial Anatomy of Edmontosaurus regalis (Hadrosauridae) from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada2014In: Hadrosaurs: Proceedings of the International Hadrosaur Symposium / [ed] David A. Ebert, David C. Evans, Indiana University Press, 2014, 208-244 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Brink, Kirstin S.
    University of Toronto.
    Freedman, Elizabeth A.
    Montana State University.
    McGarrity, Christopher T.
    University of Toronto.
    Evans, David C,
    Royal Ontario Museum.
    Glishades ericksoni’, an indeterminate juvenile hadrosaurid from the Two Medicine Formation of Montana: implications for hadrosauroid diversity in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) of western North America2013In: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, ISSN 1867-1594, Vol. 93, no 1, 65-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glishades ericksoni was named on the basis of partial paired premaxillae collected from the Late Campanian Two Medicine Formation of Montana, and was described as a non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid. This interpretation of G. ericksoni has significant implications for hadrosauroid diversity and distribution because it represents the first occurrence of a non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid in the Late Campanian of North America, and therefore implies either a prolonged period of sympatry between these forms and hadrosaurids or a biotic interchange with Asia. Given its small size, and therefore potential juvenile status, the taxonomic identity of G. ericksoni is re-evaluated here. Comparison with similarly-sized, taxonomically determinate, and coeval hadrosaurid specimens from the Two Medicine Formation (ProsaurolophusGryposaurus, andMaiasaura) suggest that the combination of characters used to distinguish G. ericksoni as a non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid are more widely distributed or individually variable in hadrosaurids, or can be explained as the result of ontogenetic variation. In particular, the unique combination of characters used to diagnose G. ericksoni is also found in juvenile individuals of Prosaurolophus,Gryposaurus, and Maiasaura. Inclusion of juveniles of these taxa, scored on the basis of comparable anatomy, in the original phylogenetic analysis recovers the juvenile hadrosaurid specimens outside Hadrosauridae. Consequently, G. ericksoni cannot be confidently differentiated from a juvenile saurolophine, which are common in the upper and middle sections of the Two Medicine Formation, and is thus considered a nomen dubium. Given their absence in well-sampled Late Campanian and Maastrichtian deposits, non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroids appear to have been completely replaced by hadrosaurids in western North America by the Late Campanian.

  • 38. Campione, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    Evans, David C.
    Royal Ontario Museum.
    A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods2012In: BMC Biology, ISSN 1741-7007, E-ISSN 1741-7007, Vol. 10, 60- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights.

    Results

    Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa.

    Conclusions

    The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial quadrupeds, which is important for a wide range of paleobiological studies (including growth rates, metabolism, and energetics) and meta-analyses of body size evolution.

  • 39.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Evans, David C.
    Royal Ontario Museum.
    Cranial Growth and Variation in Edmontosaurs (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae): Implications for Latest Cretaceous Megaherbivore Diversity in North America2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 9, e25186- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-sampled Late Cretaceous fossil record of North America remains the only high-resolution dataset for evaluating patterns of dinosaur diversity leading up to the terminal Cretaceous extinction event. Hadrosaurine hadrosaurids (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) closely related to Edmontosaurus are among the most common megaherbivores in latest Campanian and Maastrichtian deposits of western North America. However, interpretations of edmontosaur species richness and biostratigraphy have been in constant flux for almost three decades, although the clade is generally thought to have undergone a radiation in the late Maastrichtian. We address the issue of edmontosaur diversity for the first time using rigorous morphometric analyses of virtually all known complete edmontosaur skulls. Results suggest only two valid species, Edmontosaurus regalis from the late Campanian, and E. annectens from the late Maastrichtian, with previously named taxa, including the controversial Anatotitan copei, erected on hypothesized transitional morphologies associated with ontogenetic size increase and allometric growth. A revision of North American hadrosaurid taxa suggests a decrease in both hadrosaurid diversity and disparity from the early to late Maastrichtian, a pattern likely also present in ceratopsid dinosaurs. A decline in the disparity of dominant megaherbivores in the latest Maastrichtian interval supports the hypothesis that dinosaur diversity decreased immediately preceding the end Cretaceous extinction event.

  • 40.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    Carleton University , Ottawa , Canada.
    Holmes, Robert
    University of Alberta.
    The anatomy and homologies of the ceratopsid syncervical2006In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 26, no 4, 1014-1017 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Toronto, Canada.
    Reisz, Robert R.
    University of Toronto Mississauga.
    Morphology and evolutionary significance of the atlas-axis complex in varanopid synapsids2011In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 56, no 4, 739-748 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atlas−axis complex has been described in few Palaeozoic taxa, with little effort being placed on examining variation of this structure within a small clade. Most varanopids, members of a clade of gracile synapsid predators, have well preserved atlas−axes permitting detailed descriptions and examination of morphological variation. This study indicates that the size of the transverse processes on the axis and the shape of the axial neural spine vary among members of this clade. In particular, the small mycterosaurine varanopids possess small transverse processes that point posteroventrally, and the axial spine is dorsoventrally short, with a flattened dorsal margin in lateral view. The larger varanodontine varanopids have large transverse processes with a broad base, and a much taller axial spine with a rounded dorsal margin in lateral view. Based on outgroup comparisons, the morphology exhibited by the transverse processes is interpreted as derived in varanodontines, whereas the morphology of the axial spine is derived in mycterosaurines. The axial spine anatomy of Middle Permian South African varanopids is reviewed and our interpretation is consistent with the hypothesis that at least two varanopid taxa are present in South Africa, a region overwhelmingly dominated by therapsid synapsids and parareptiles.

  • 42.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
    Reisz, Robert R.
    University of Toronto Mississauga.
    Varanops brevirostris (Eupelycosauria: Varanopidae) from the Lower Permian of Texas, with discussion of varanopid morphology and interrelationships2010In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 30, no 3, 724-746 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive revision of Varanops brevirostris on the basis of a large, well-preserved specimen from a new Lower Permian locality in Texas provides valuable new anatomical information and additional autapomorphies for this varanopid synapsid taxon. These include the loss of the postorbital boss, the presence of a smooth transition between the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the postorbital, hypertrophied basipterygoid processes, the presence of deep, elongate lateral neural spine excavations, posterior dorsal vertebrae with dorsally tapered neural spines, and a deep groove proximal to the femoral fourth trochanter. Furthermore, this specimen is the first fully developed adult specimen of Varanops, and it preserves the most complete lower jaw of the taxon. A revised phylogenetic analysis places V. brevirostris as the sister taxon to the Varanodon-Watongia clade. A stratocladistic analysis assessing varanopid relationships by incorporating a stratigraphic character into the analysis recovers the same topology among varanodontines, but an alternate topology between mycterosaurines and Elliotsmithia longiceps.

  • 43. Carlos Senar, Juan
    et al.
    Conroy, Michael J.
    Quesada, Javier
    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 13, 2625-2632 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it.

  • 44.
    Cauchard, Laure
    et al.
    Univ Montreal, Dept Sci Biol, Bur D221, Pavillon Marie Victorin,CP 6128,Succ Ctr Ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Angers, Bernard
    Univ Montreal, Dept Sci Biol, Bur D221, Pavillon Marie Victorin,CP 6128,Succ Ctr Ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Boogert, Neeltje J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst, Oxford, England..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France..
    Effect of an anti-malaria drug on behavioural performance on a problem-solving task: An experiment in wild great tits2016In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 133, 24-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria parasites have been shown to decrease host fitness in several species in the wild and their detrimental effects on host cognitive ability are well established in humans. However, experimental demonstrations of detrimental effects on non-human host behaviour are currently limited. In this study, we experimentally tested whether injections of an anti-malaria drug affected short-term behavioural responses to a problem-solving task during breeding in a wild population of great tits (Parus major) naturally infected with malaria. Adult females treated against malaria were more active than control females, even though they were not more likely to solve the task or learn how to do so, suggesting that energetic constraints could shape differences in some behaviours while changes in cognitive performances might require more time for the neural system to recover or may depend mainly on infection at the developmental stage. Alternatively, parasite load might be a consequence, rather than a cause, of inter individual variation in cognitive performance. These results also suggest that inter-individual as well as inter-population differences in some behavioural traits may be linked to blood parasite load.

  • 45.
    Constantinescu, Ovidiu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Museums etc., Museum of Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Thines, Marco
    Dimorphism of sporangia in Albuginaceae (Chromista, Peronosporomycetes)2006In: Sydowia, ISSN 0082-0598, Vol. 58, no 2, 178-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using light- and scanning electron microscopy, the dimorphism of sporangia in Albuginales is demonstrated in 220 specimens of Albugo, Pustula and Wilsoniana, parasitic on plants belonging to 13 families. The presence of two kinds of sporangia is due to the sporangiogenesis and considered to be present in all representatives of the Albuginales. Primary and secondary sporangia are the term recommended to be used for these dissemination organs.

  • 46.
    Cuthbertson, Robin S.
    et al.
    University of Calgary.
    Mallon, Jordan C.
    Canadian Museum of Nature.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    Carleton Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Ottawa, Canada.
    Holmes, Robert B.
    University of Alberta.
    A new species of mosasaur (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from the Pierre Shale (lower Campanian) of Manitoba2007In: Canadian journal of earth sciences (Print), ISSN 0008-4077, E-ISSN 1480-3313, Vol. 44, no 5, 593-606 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plioplatecarpus nichollsae, sp. nov., from the lower Campanian (Pembina Member, Pierre Shale Formation) is diagnosed by the following: a thickened ventral rim of the external naris, a short supratemporal fenestra, a frontal shield with well-developed posterolateral lappets that overlap the parietal dorsally, proximal rib shafts with an approximately circular (but not inflated) cross section, a scapula shaped as in other Plioplatecarpus species but approximately the same size (not larger) than the coracoid, and a moderately large parietal foramen that reaches the frontoparietal suture but does not invade the frontal. The last two characters require that the diagnosis of the genus Plioplatecarpus be emended. With other Plioplatecarpus species, P. nichollsae shares a robust humerus with a distal expansion at least as great as the total length of the bone, a rectangular preorbital frontal shield, a "peg and socket" postorbitofrontal-jugal articulation, a transversely directed ectopterygoid process of the pterygoid, a large, robust quadrate with a distinct eminence on the posterior surface of its shaft, an unossified gap in the ventral wall of the basioccipital, and at least 11 pygal vertebrae. P. nichollsae also shares primitive features with Platecarpus, as well as features apparently intermediate betweenPlatecarpus and Plioplatecarpus. Revision of the genus Platecarpus, currently hypothesized to be both paraphyletic and polyphyletic, as well as a better understanding of the early Campanian mosasaur fauna from the Morden area, are necessary before the phylogenetic significance of some of these characters, and therefore the relationships of Plioplatecarpus nichollsae, can be fully resolved.

  • 47.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Thollesson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A new Hymedesmia (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) with large sigmas off western Sweden2016In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, ISSN 0025-3154, E-ISSN 1469-7769, Vol. 96, no 6, 1305-1312 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) lindstroemae sp. nov. collected at 178–210 m depth off the western Swedish coast is described. This encrusting sponge is notably characterized by its unusually large sigmas. This new species brings the number of Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) species in Swedish waters to 30. A key for all the North Atlantic Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) species with sigmas (32 species) is included.

  • 48.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Backström, T.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Is growth hormone expression correlated with variation in growth rate along a latitudinal gradient in Rana temporaria?2011In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 285, no 2, 85-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ectotherms, decreasing season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often favour higher growth and developmental rates. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms and particularly the hormonal correlates of clinal variation remain unexplored. The growth hormone (GH) plays a crucial role in growth of all vertebrates and high expression of GH is associated with rapid growth in many species. We tested the hypothesis that GH expression is correlated with a latitudinal gradient in growth in Scandinavian Rana temporaria tadpoles. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we measured GH and growth hormone receptor (GHR) expression at two time points from laboratory-raised tadpoles originating from eight populations collected along the latitudinal gradient. To explore latitudinal differences in stress-induced changes in GH expression, we also compared GH expression in tadpoles raised with and without predators. In accordance with previous studies we found a clear latitudinal gradient in growth. There were no latitudinal effects, or predator-induced effects on GH or GHR expression. However, there was some indication for among-population variation in GH expression. The lack of a latitudinal pattern in GH and GHR expression may be due to that the growth promoting effects of GH is dependent on other factors including insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF), IGF-binding proteins or prolactin. Further studies on these factors may provide insight on the proximal mechanisms of differences in growth in R. temporaria tadpoles.

  • 49.
    Dimitrova, Marina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Hide and seek: properties of prey and background patterns affect prey detection by blue tits2014In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 25, no 2, 402-408 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In prey camouflage, is it more important to match some aspects of background patterning than others? We studied detection of artificial prey by blue tits. Shape mismatch between prey and background pattern elements facilitated prey detection. Increased density of pattern elements in the background generally impeded prey detection, and mismatch in density between background and prey pattern elements also facilitated detection. This suggests that there are no shortcuts to effective background matching.We studied the effects of visual appearance of background and similarity between background and prey patterning on prey detection and camouflage. Although increased similarity with background (background matching) is known to impede prey detection, the relative importance of different aspects of visual similarity has received little interest. We used blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) as predators and trained them to search for artificial prey items presented on printed background plates. We particularly investigated the effect of the density and the shape of the elements constituting the background and the prey patterning. Our experiment shows that increase in the density of elements in the background caused an increase in search times of all prey types. We also found that compared with fully background-matching prey, prey patterning that sported a mismatching element shape and, interestingly, also prey patterning that mismatched the element density of the background decrease prey search time and, hence, deteriorated camouflage. There was no difference in search time between the shape- and the density-mismatching prey categories. We conclude that element-dense backgrounds are more protective both for background-matching prey and background-mismatching prey than backgrounds with low element density. Further, our results suggest that even if prey patterning consists of elements that closely match the visual elements in the background, high-level crypsis through background matching only arises if the density of the elements is also similar between the prey patterning and the background. These findings are important when considering prey habitat choice and the evolution and limitations of background matching and signaling coloration.

  • 50.
    Donald, Paul F.
    et al.
    BirdLife Int, David Attenborough Bldg,Pembroke St, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Conservat Sci Grp, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, England..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Peoples R China.
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Univ Limpopo, Dept Biodivers, Private Bag 1106, ZA-0787 Sovenga, South Africa..
    Possible mechanisms of substrate colour-matching in larks (Alaudidae) and their taxonomic implications2017In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 159, no 3, 699-702 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 240
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