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  • 1. Aarrestad, P. A.
    et al.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Masunga, G.
    Skarpe, C.
    Vegetation: Between Soils and Herbivores2014In: Elephants and Savanna Woodland Ecosystems: A Study from Chobe National Park, Botswana / [ed] Christina Skarpe, Johan T. du Toit and Stein R. Moe, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 61-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vegetation of the study area in Chobe National Park is influenced by a range of factors, including inundation by the Chobe River, soil moisture and fertility, and the impacts of different-size grazers and browsers. This chapter focuses on how the structure and species composition of the present vegetation in northern Chobe National Park is related to recent herbivory by elephants, as agents shaping the vegetation, and by mesoherbivores acting as controllers or responders, along with abiotic controllers such as soil type and distance to the river. In the study, a two-way indicator species analysis classified the vegetation data into four more or less distinct plant community groups (i) Baikiaea plurijuga-Combretum apiculatum woodland, (ii) Combretum mossambicense-Friesodielsia obovata wooded shrubland, (iii) Capparis tomentosa-Flueggea virosa shrubland and (iv) Cynodon dactylon-Heliotropium ovalifolium floodplain, named after the TWINSPAN indicator or preferential species with high cover, and the relative amount of shrubs and trees.

  • 2.
    Abeysinghe, Kasun S.
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiao-Dong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Goodale, Eben
    Guangxi Univ, Coll Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi, Peoples R China..
    Anderson, Christopher W. N.
    Massey Univ, Inst Agr & Environm, Soil & Earth Sci, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cao, Axiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China.;Guizhou Normal Univ, Sch Chem & Mat Sci, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Xinbin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Shengjie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Mammides, Christos
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Meng, Bo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Quan, Rui-Chang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Jing
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Coll Resources & Environm Sci, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Qiu, Guangle
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1202-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia.

  • 3.
    Abreu, Murilo S.
    et al.
    Fed Univ Santa Maria UFSM, Grad Program Pharmacol, BR-97105900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Messias, Joao P. M.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Soares, Marta C.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.
    Monoaminergic levels at the forebrain and diencephalon signal for the occurrence of mutualistic and conspecific engagement in client reef fish2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interactions are commonly found among fish as in mammals and birds. While most animals interact socially with conspecifics some however are also frequently and repeatedly observed to interact with other species (i.e. mutualistic interactions). This is the case of the (so-called) fish clients that seek to be cleaned by other fish (the cleaners). Clients face an interesting challenge: they raise enough motivation to suspend their daily activities as to selectively visit and engage in interactions with cleaners. Here we aimed, for the first time, to investigate the region-specific brain monoaminergic level differences arising from individual client fish when facing a cleaner (interspecific context) compared to those introduced to another conspecific (socio-conspecific context). We show that monoaminergic activity differences occurring at two main brain regions, the diencephalon and the forebrain, are associated with fish clients' social and mutualistic activities. Our results are the first demonstration that monoaminergic mechanisms underlie client fish mutualistic engagement with cleanerfish. These pathways should function as a pre-requisite for cleaning to occur, providing to clients the cognitive and physiological tools to seek to be cleaned.

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  • 4.
    Adams, Susan B.
    et al.
    US Forest Serv, USDA, Southern Res Stn, Ctr Bottomland Hardwoods Res, 1000 Front St, Oxford, MS 38655 USA..
    Hereford, Scott G.
    US Fish & Wildlife Serv, Mississippi Sandhill Crane Natl Wildlife Refuge, 7200 Crane Lane, Gautier, MS 39553 USA..
    Hyseni, Chaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Burrow Densities of Primary Burrowing Crayfishes in Relation to Prescribed Fire and Mechanical Vegetation Treatments2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 1854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire suppression and other factors have drastically reduced wet prairie and pine savanna ecosystems on the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Restoration of these open-canopy environments often targets one or several charismatic species, and semi-aquatic species such as burrowing crayfishes are often overlooked in these essentially terrestrial environments. We examined the relationship between primary burrowing crayfishes and three vegetation treatments implemented over at least the past two decades in the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge. Vegetation in the 12 study sites had been frequently burned, frequently mechanically treated, or infrequently managed. Creaserinus spp., primarily C. oryktes, dominated the crayfish assemblage in every site. We counted crayfish burrow openings and coarsely categorized vegetation characteristics in 90, 0.56-m(2) quadrats evenly distributed among six transects per site. The number of active burrow openings was negatively, exponentially related to both the percent cover of woody vegetation and the maximum height of woody vegetation in quadrats, and to the number of trees taller than 1.2 m per transect, indicating that woody plant encroachment was detrimental to the crayfishes. Results were consistent with several other studies from the eastern US, indicating that some primary burrowing crayfishes are habitat specialists adapted to open-canopy ecosystems.

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  • 5.
    Agić, Heda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    A new species of small acritarch with porous wall structure from the early Cambrian of Estonia, and implications for the fossil record of eukaryotic picoplankton2016In: Palynology, ISSN 0191-6122, E-ISSN 1558-9188, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 343-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition records a general trend of decrease in phytoplankton cell size, in contrast tothe earlier and much larger Ediacaran acritarchs. Particularly minute, unornamented but sculptured organic-walledmicrofossils have been recovered from the lower Cambrian Lükati Formation in northern Estonia. The lack of anysignificant thermal alteration in the formation allowed for excellent preservation of fine microstructures on thesemicrofossils. Among the rich palynomorph assemblage in Lükati, a new species of tiny, spheroidal eukaryoticmicrofossil is recorded: Reticella corrugata gen. et sp. nov. It is characterised by a corrugated and flexible vesicle wallthat is densely perforated by nano-scale pores. Despite its unique morphology, the new species shares diagnosticcharacters with fossil and extant prasinophyte algae. R. corrugata is among the smallest microfossils with typicaleukaryotic morphology (conspicuous wall sculpture) and contributes to the diversity of the size class of smallacritarchs. Size, abundance, inferred prasinophyte affinity and eukaryotic wall sculpture make this new taxon alikely member of the early eukaryotic picoplankton.

  • 6.
    Agnas, Axel Jönses Bernard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Non-Independent Mate Choice in Female Humans (Homo sapiens): Progression to the Field 2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is much evidence that mate-choice decisions made by humans are affected by social/contextual information. Women seem to rate men portrayed in a relationship as more desirable than the same men when portrayed as single. Laboratory studies have found evidence suggesting that human mate choice, as in other species, is dependent on the mate choice decisions made by same-sex rivals. Even though non-independent mate choice is an established and well-studied area of mate choice, very few field studies have been performed. This project aims to test whether women’s evaluation of potential mates desirability is dependent/non-independent of same-sex rivals giving the potential mates sexual interest. This is the first field study performed in a modern human’s natural habitat aiming to test for non- independent mate choice in humans.

    No desirability enhancement effect was found. The possibilities that earlier studies have found an effect that is only present in laboratory environments or have measured effects other than non-independent mate choice are discussed. I find differences in experimental design to be the most likely reason why the present study failed to detect the effect found in previous studies. This field study, the first of its sort, has generated important knowledge for future experimenters, where the most important conclusion is that major limitations in humans ability to register and remember there surrounding should be taken in consideration when designing any field study investigating human mate choice. 

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  • 7.
    Aguirre-Gutierrez, Jesus
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England.;Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Biodivers Dynam, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Malhi, Yadvinder
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England..
    Lewis, Simon L.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Geog, Ecol & Global Change, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England.;UCL, Dept Geog, London, England..
    Fauset, Sophie
    Univ Plymouth, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Plymouth, Devon, England..
    Adu-Bredu, Stephen
    KNUST, CSIR Forestry Res Inst Ghana, Univ Post Off, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Affum-Baffoe, Kofi
    Forestry Commiss Ghana, Mensurat Unit, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Baker, Timothy R.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Geog, Ecol & Global Change, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Gvozdevaite, Agne
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England..
    Hubau, Wannes
    Univ Leeds, Sch Geog, Ecol & Global Change, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England.;Royal Museum Cent Africa, Serv Wood Biol, Tervuren, Belgium..
    Moore, Sam
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England..
    Peprah, Theresa
    KNUST, CSIR Forestry Res Inst Ghana, Univ Post Off, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Zieminska, Kasia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Arnold Arboretum Harvard Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Phillips, Oliver L.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Geog, Ecol & Global Change, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Oliveras, Imma
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England..
    Long-term droughts may drive drier tropical forests towards increased functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic homogeneity2020In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical ecosystems adapted to high water availability may be highly impacted by climatic changes that increase soil and atmospheric moisture deficits. Many tropical regions are experiencing significant changes in climatic conditions, which may induce strong shifts in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of forest communities. However, it remains unclear if and to what extent tropical forests are shifting in these facets of diversity along climatic gradients in response to climate change. Here, we show that changes in climate affected all three facets of diversity in West Africa in recent decades. Taxonomic and functional diversity increased in wetter forests but tended to decrease in forests with drier climate. Phylogenetic diversity showed a large decrease along a wet-dry climatic gradient. Notably, we find that all three facets of diversity tended to be higher in wetter forests. Drier forests showed functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic homogenization. Understanding how different facets of diversity respond to a changing environment across climatic gradients is essential for effective long-term conservation of tropical forest ecosystems. Different aspects of biodiversity may not necessarily converge in their response to climate change. Here, the authors investigate 25-year shifts in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of tropical forests along a spatial climate gradient in West Africa, showing that drier forests are less stable than wetter forests.

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  • 8.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Flexible mate choice2010In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior / [ed] Janice Moore & Michael D. Breed, Elsevier , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9. Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Elofsson, Helena
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Why is there no sperm competition in a pipefish with externally brooding males? Insights from sperm activitation and morphology2006In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 958-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nerophis ophidion sperm activation and morphology were investigated with the aim of explaining the apparent lack of sperm competition in this syngnathid with externally brooding males. Nerophis ophidion sperm were activated by a mixture of ovarian fluid and sea water, but not by sea water alone. This indicated that sperm were not shed into the water but needed to be released near the eggs, which probably restrained sperm competition.

  • 10.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 621 Charles E Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Ethnol Hist Relig & Gender Studies, Univ Vagen 10 E, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gowaty, Patricia Adair
    Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 621 Charles E Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, DPO, Box 0948,AA 34002-9998, Washington, DC USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Environm & Sustainabil, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    A conceptual review of mate choice: stochastic demography, within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and individual flexibility2016In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 14, p. 4607-4642Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice hypotheses usually focus on trait variation of chosen individuals. Recently, mate choice studies have increasingly attended to the environmental circumstances affecting variation in choosers' behavior and choosers' traits. We reviewed the literature on phenotypic plasticity in mate choice with the goal of exploring whether phenotypic plasticity can be interpreted as individual flexibility in the context of the switch point theorem, SPT (Gowaty and Hubbell ). We found >3000 studies; 198 were empirical studies of within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and sixteen showed no evidence of mate choice plasticity. Most studies reported changes from choosy to indiscriminate behavior of subjects. Investigators attributed changes to one or more causes including operational sex ratio, adult sex ratio, potential reproductive rate, predation risk, disease risk, chooser's mating experience, chooser's age, chooser's condition, or chooser's resources. The studies together indicate that choosiness of potential mates is environmentally and socially labile, that is, induced - not fixed - in the choosy sex with results consistent with choosers' intrinsic characteristics or their ecological circumstances mattering more to mate choice than the traits of potential mates. We show that plasticity-associated variables factor into the simpler SPT variables. We propose that it is time to complete the move from questions about within-sex plasticity in the choosy sex to between- and within-individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making of both sexes simultaneously. Currently, unanswered empirical questions are about the force of alternative constraints and opportunities as inducers of individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making, and the ecological, social, and developmental sources of similarities and differences between individuals. To make progress, we need studies (1) of simultaneous and symmetric attention to individual mate preferences and subsequent behavior in both sexes, (2) controlled for within-individual variation in choice behavior as demography changes, and which (3) report effects on fitness from movement of individual's switch points.

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  • 11.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    The influence of territoriality and mating system for the evolution of male care, a phylogenetic study on fish2005In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of male care is still poorly understood. Using phylogeneticallymatched-pairs comparisons we tested for effects of territoriality and matingsystem on male care evolution in fish. All origins of male care were found inpair-spawning species (with or without additional males such as sneakers) andnone were found in group-spawning species. However, excluding groupspawners, male care originated equally often in pair-spawning species withadditional males as in strict pair-spawning species. Evolution of male care wasalso significantly related to territoriality. Yet, most pair-spawning taxa withmale care are also territorial, making their relative influence difficult toseparate. Furthermore, territoriality also occurs in group-spawning species.Hence, territoriality is not sufficient for male care to evolve. Rather, we arguethat it is the combination of territoriality and pair spawning with sequentialpolygyny that favours the evolution of male care, and we discuss our results inrelation to paternity assurance and sexual selection.

  • 12.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Phylogenetic analysis of twinning in Callitrichinae2000In: American Journal of Primatology, ISSN 0275-2565, E-ISSN 1098-2345, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The callitrichines are known for twinning and for a communal rearingsystem in which all or most group members help care for the offspring.The origin of twinning has been the subject of much speculation. In thisstudy predictions from earlier hypotheses are tested on the basis of twoalternative phylogenetic trees. From this analysis we infer that helpingbehavior and male care preceded the origin of twinning, and that thesetraits did not coevolve with, but might have been important prerequisitesfor twinning in callitrichines. Small body size does not necessarilyresult in twinning, although it might still have been a prerequisite forits evolution. Gum feeding was an ecological change which evolved alongwith twinning. If nutrition was a limiting factor in the number of offspringproduced, then the use of a new feeding resource could have beencrucial for the origin of twinning in callitrichines. According to one of thetwo alternative solutions inferred by the total evidence tree, and in accordancewith the morphological tree, semi-annual breeding appears inthe marmosets together with specialization in gum feeding. The fact thatgums are available for these monkeys all year may have facilitated semiannualbreeding. We suggest that the exploitation of gums as a feedingresource could have been the decisive factor in the increase of the reproductiverate by twinning and by semi-annual breeding.

  • 13.
    Ahlgren, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Hyenstrand, Per
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Nitrogen limitation effects of different nitrogen sources on nutritional quality of two freshwater organisms, Scenedesmus Quadricauda (Clorophyceae) and Synechococcus sp. (Cyanophyceae)2003In: J. Phycol., Vol. 39, p. 906-917Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ahlgren, Ingemar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Eriksson, R
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Moreno, L
    Pacheco, L
    Montenegro-Guillén, S
    Vammen, K
    Pelagic food web interactions in Lake Cocibolca, Nicaragua2001In: Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., Vol. 27, no 4, p. 1740-1746Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I.
    Waldebäck, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Markides, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Sediment Depth Attenuation of Biogenic Phosphorus Compounds Measured by 31P NMR2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 867-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality, the turnover of phosphorus (P) in lake sediments is in need of deeper understanding. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. This P is incorporated in a poorly described mixture of autochthonous and allochthonous sediment and forms the primary storage of P available for recycling to the water column, thus regulating lake trophic status. To identify and quantify biogenic sediment P and assess its lability, we analyzed sediment cores from Lake Erken, Sweden, using traditional P fractionation, and in parallel, NaOH extracts were analyzed using 31P NMR. The surface sediments contain orthophosphates (ortho-P) and pyrophosphates (pyro-P), as well as phosphate mono- and diesters. The first group of compounds to disappear with increased sediment depth is pyrophosphate, followed by a steady decline of the different ester compounds. Estimated half-life times of these compound groups are about 10 yr for pyrophosphate and 2 decades for mono- and diesters. Probably, these compounds will be mineralized to ortho-P and is thus potentially available for recycling to the water column, supporting further growth of phytoplankton. In conclusion, 31P NMR is a useful tool to asses the bioavailability of certain P compound groups, and the combination with traditional fractionation techniques makes quantification possible.

  • 16.
    Ahnesjo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Kvarnemo, C
    Merilaita, S
    Using potential reproductive rates to predict mating competition among individuals qualified to mate2001In: BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY, ISSN 1045-2249, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 397-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential reproductive rate (PRR), which is the offspring production per unit time each sex would achieve if unconstrained by mate availability, often differs between the sexes. An increasing sexual difference in PRR predicts an intensified mating com

  • 17.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Forsgren, Elisabet
    Norsk institutt for naturforskning i Trondheim, Norway.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Enheten för biologisk mångfald och områdesskydd, Havs och Vattenmyndigheten, Göteborg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Zoologi, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Fiskbiologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Umeå.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Etologi, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Östlund Nilsson, Sara
    Nasjonalbiblioteket, Oslo, Norway.
    En beteende-ekologisk forskningsperiod på Klubbans biologiska station: Rapport från återträff med Doktorer som disputerade (1983-2001) på avhandlingar med fältarbete på Klubbans Biologiska station. I en värld av kantnålar, stubbar, spiggar och nudingar.2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We had the fortune as PhD-students and scientists in Animal Ecology at Uppsala University, to spend joyful and creative field work summers at Klubban Biological Station, during the 1980-90’s. A reunion in June 2018 resulted in this report highlighting research on pipefishes, gobies, sticklebacks and nudibranchs. Our research on these animals have provided novel insights and knowledge of the process of sexual selection and paternal care. These animals have, in many aspects, now become model organisms in evolutionary behavioral ecology in marine environments. Our list of publications provides many examples of how environmental factors influence how sexual selection and mate choice operate, how predictors like potential reproductive rates, operational sex ratios work and how male parental care is prominent in influencing selection. This research, that started at Klubban, has broadened our understanding of the ecological importance of shallow marine areas. The evolutionary understanding of how males and females can behave and how adaptive traits are selected in interaction with social and an increasingly changing ambient environment is in focus in our continued scientific endeavors. We have happily compiled this report illustrating how science and scientist can stimulate each other at a wonderful place like Klubban Biological Station, with the access to amazing organisms like pipefishes, gobies, sticklebacks and nudibranchs.

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  • 18.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Blue Center Gotland, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Zuk, Marlene
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, St Paul, MN 55455 USA.
    Obituary: Staffan Ulfstrand2024In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 35, no 1, article id arad113Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Life History and Tolerance and Resistance against Herbivores in Natural Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I combined observational studies with field and greenhouse experiments to examine selection on life history traits and variation in tolerance and resistance against herbivores in natural populations of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range. I investigated (1) phenotypic selection on flowering time and plant size, (2) the effects of timing of germination on plant fitness, (3) the effect of leaf damage on seed production, and (4) correlations between resistance against a specialist and a generalist insect herbivore.

    In all three study populations, flowering time was negatively related to plant fitness, but in only one of the populations, significant selection on flowering time was detected when controlling for size prior to the flowering season. The results show that correlations between flowering time and plant fecundity may be confounded by variation in plant size prior to the reproductive season.

    A field experiment detected conflicting selection on germination time: Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with large leaf rosette before winter and high survival and fecundity among established plants. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination, and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the relative strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

    Experimental leaf damage demonstrated that tolerance to damage was lowest among vegetative plants early in the season, and highest among flowering plants later in the season. Given similar damage levels, leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should thus exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering.

    Resistance against larval feeding by the specialist Plutella xylostella was negatively correlated with resistance against larval feeding by the generalist Mamestra brassicae and with resistance against oviposition by P. xylostella when variation in resistance was examined within and among two Swedish and two Italian A. thaliana populations. The results suggest that negative correlations between resistance against different herbivores and different life-history stages of herbivores may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in resistance.

    List of papers
    1. Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159506 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-03 Last updated: 2011-11-10
    2. Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing of germination on survival, fecundity and overall fitness in a natural population of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in north-central Sweden. Seedlings were transplanted at three different times in late summer and in autumn covering the period of seed germination in the study population. Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with high survival and fecundity among established plants. The advantages of germinating early more than balanced the disadvantage and selection favoured early germination. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the direction and strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159664 (URN)10.1111/jeb.12293 (DOI)000329254500018 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)
    2012 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 1, p. e30015-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected.

    Conclusions/Significance: The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels.

    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159665 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0030015 (DOI)000301457200028 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2021-06-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159685 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2011-11-10
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Noack, Sibylle
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genetic variation in leaf morphology and resistance against specialist and generalist insect herbivores in natural populations of Arabidopsis thalianaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana2014In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing of germination on survival, fecundity and overall fitness in a natural population of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in north-central Sweden. Seedlings were transplanted at three different times in late summer and in autumn covering the period of seed germination in the study population. Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with high survival and fecundity among established plants. The advantages of germinating early more than balanced the disadvantage and selection favoured early germination. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the direction and strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Akiyama & Ågren JEB 2014
  • 22.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Magnitude and timing of leaf damage affect seed production in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 1, p. e30015-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected.

    Conclusions/Significance: The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Selection on flowering time in three natural populations of Arabidopsis thalianaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Al Jewari, Caesar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    An excavate root for the eukaryote tree of life2023In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 9, no 17, article id eade4973Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the higher-order phylogeny of eukaryotes is well resolved, but the root remains elusive. We assembled a dataset of 183 eukaryotic proteins of archaeal ancestry to test this root. The resulting phylogeny identifies four lineages of eukaryotes currently classified as “Excavata” branching separately at the base of the tree. Thus, Parabasalia appear as the first major branch of eukaryotes followed sequentially by Fornicata, Preaxostyla, and Discoba. All four excavate branch points receive full statistical support from analyses with commonly used evolutionary models, a protein structure partition model that we introduce here, and various controls for deep phylogeny artifacts. The absence of aerobic mitochondria in Parabasalia, Fornicata, and Preaxostyla suggests that modern eukaryotes arose under anoxic conditions, probably much earlier than expected, and without the benefit of mitochondrial respiration.

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  • 25.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jaegerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Climate change and climatic events: community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 A degrees C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 A degrees C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 A degrees C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 26.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether shortterm responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 27.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Simulated global change: contrasting short and medium term growth and reproductive responses of a common alpine/Arctic cushion plant to experimental warming and nutrient enhancement2014In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 3, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cushion plants are important components of alpine and Arctic plant communities around the world. They fulfill important roles as facilitators, nurse plants and foundation species across trophic levels for vascular plants, arthropods and soil microorganisms, the importance of these functions increasing with the relative severity of the environment. Here we report results from one of the few experimental studies simulating global change impacts on cushion plants; a factorial experiment with warming and nutrient enhancement that was applied to an alpine population of the common nurse plant, Silene acaulis, in sub-arctic Sweden. Experimental perturbations had significant short-term impacts on both stem elongation and leaf length. S. acaulis responded quickly by increasing stem elongation and (to a lesser extent) leaf length in the warming, nutrient, and the combined warming and nutrient enhancements. Cover and biomass also initially increased in response to the perturbations. However, after the initial positive short-term responses, S. acaulis cover declined in the manipulations, with the nutrient and combined warming and nutrient treatments having largest negative impact. No clear patterns were found for fruit production. Our results show that S. acaulis living in harsh environments has potential to react quickly when experiencing years with favorable conditions, and is more responsive to nutrient enhancement than to warming in terms of vegetative growth. While these conditions have an initial positive impact, populations experiencing longer-term increased nutrient levels will likely be negatively affected.

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  • 28.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, p. e406-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-termresponses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity-diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant-plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

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  • 29.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

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  • 30.
    Alatalo, Rauno V
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Can Female Preference Explain Sexual Dichromatism In The Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula-Hypoleuca1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 39, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How important female choice is for the evolution of male secondary sexual characteristics is controversial. Two field and one laboratory experiment, using the pied flycatcher, were performed to test the female choice aspect of sexual selection. In addition, non-manipulative data from 5 years are presented. The observational data suggest a slight preference for dark males by females but in field experiments in which males had territories at random sites (i.e. they did not choose a territory) or the colour of concurrently arriving males was altered, there was no preference for darker ones. Similarly, oestradiol-treated females did not prefer black or brown males in the laboratory. Thus, there is little support for the idea that female choice has been an important mechanism in the evolution of sexual dichromatism in the pied flycatcher.

  • 31.
    Alati, Victor Mwakha
    et al.
    Kenya Marine & Fisheries Res Inst, POB 81651-80100, Mombasa, Kenya.;Univ Roehampton, Dept Life Sci, Roehampton Lane, London SW15 5PU, England..
    Olunga, Jibril
    Kenya Marine & Fisheries Res Inst, POB 81651-80100, Mombasa, Kenya..
    Olendo, Mike
    Conservat Int, POB 1963-00502, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Daudi, Lillian Nduku
    Kenya Marine & Fisheries Res Inst, POB 81651-80100, Mombasa, Kenya..
    Osuka, Kennedy
    Coastal Oceans Res & Dev Indian Ocean CORDIO East, 9 Kibaki Flats,POB 10135-80101, Mombasa, Kenya.;Univ York, Dept Environm & Geog, York, N Yorkshire, England..
    Odoli, Cyprian
    Kenya Marine & Fisheries Res Inst, POB 81651-80100, Mombasa, Kenya..
    Tuda, Paul
    Leibniz Zentrum Marine Tropenforsch ZMT GmbH, D-628359 Bremen, Germany..
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Mollusc shell fisheries in coastal Kenya: Local ecological knowledge reveals overfishing2020In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 195, article id 105285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited documentation on the status and dynamics of fished marine shelled mollusc species in many countries. Some of the challenges are due to obscure documentation of species, extensive unregulated and unrecorded fishing and unawareness of drivers behind declining stocks. The lack of understanding makes it difficult to formulate effective management plans. Here, we assess the fishers' perceptions on changes in abundance of targeted marine shelled mollusc species and status of associated fished habitats. We interviewed 132 marine shelled mollusc gleaners (fishing by walking) at five sites in coastal Kenya. We established that a multispecies marine shelled mollusc fishery is present in Kenya and that this fishery is conducted by both women and men. We distinguished 158 different shelled mollusc species being targeted. The gleaners perceived a temporal decline of gleaned species. The main causes for the decline were perceived to be overfishing of shells, elevated sea-surface temperature and habitat destruction. The more experienced gleaners perceived a greater decline indicating a baseline shift in perceptions. Our findings suggest that local ecological knowledge is useful to understand historic changes in fisheries lacking long-term scientific data. Furthermore, it highlights the potential benefits of a collaboration between ecologists and gleaners to improve our understanding of the status and dynamics of fishing of marine shelled molluscs as well as other types of fishing.

  • 32.
    Alcalde, Joaquín
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    The effects of endocrine disruptor cocktails on bleak (Alburnus alburnus) behavior, growth, and morphology2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    The effects of endocrine disruptor cocktails on bleak (Alburnus alburnus) behavior, growth, and morphology
  • 33.
    Alessi, Nicola
    et al.
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Tesitel, Jakub
    Masaryk Univ, Dept Bot, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Zerbe, Stefan
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Spada, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Sapienza Univ Roma, Dept Environm Biol, Rome, Italy.
    Agrillo, Emiliano
    Sapienza Univ Roma, Dept Environm Biol, Rome, Italy.
    Wellstein, Camilla
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Ancient refugia and present-day habitat suitability of native laurophylls in Italy2019In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 564-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions European native laurophyllous species are interesting for their biogeography and evolutionary history, as well as for their responses to global changes. We identified Italian native laurophylls on the basis of morphology, biogeographical history and ecological niche to study whether these species are in equilibrium with the present-day climate. Furthermore, we localized Quaternary refugia and areas of potential spread of native laurophylls using distribution patterns of realized and potential aggregations of native laurophylls, respectively. Location Italy. Methods We extracted data for 17 087 forest plots from a phytosociological database. Detrended Correspondence Analysis of these plots with overlay of climatic and environmental variables was performed to identify native laurophylls, i.e., evergreen broad-leaved species of late Tertiary radiation, occupying a warm and humid niche. Potential ranges of laurophylls were calculated using Beals' index of sociological favourability. The realized/potential range-size ratio was calculated for each single laurophyll to understand whether it is in equilibrium with the present-day climate. Distribution patterns of realized and potential aggregations of laurophylls were mapped. Results Ordination analysis provided a selection of 11 species as Italian native laurophylls. Most of them occupied less than half of their estimated potential range. Realized aggregations richest in native laurophylls were localized in the central Apennines. However, the Italian forests showed high potential for native laurophylls with the richest potential aggregations in the whole Apennines and in the southern Alps. Conclusions Most of the Italian native laurophylls showed non-equilibrium with the current climate, suggesting that late-Quaternary events could better explain their present-day distribution than on-going climate change. Furthermore, their refugia in central Italy suggest the persistence in sites with temperate climate during Quaternary environmental changes. The high suitability of Italian forests for laurophylls, along with global changes, suggests possible future spreading of these species.

  • 34.
    Alessi, Nicola
    et al.
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Pzza Univ 5, I-39100 Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Wellstein, Camilla
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Pzza Univ 5, I-39100 Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Spada, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Sapienza Univ Roma, Dept Environm Biol, Lgo Cristina di Svezia 24, I-00165 Rome.
    Zerbe, Stefan
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Pzza Univ 5, I-39100 Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Phytocoenological approach to the ecology of Laurus nobilis L. in Italy2018In: Rendiconti Lincei SCIENZE FISICHE E NATURALI, ISSN 2037-4631, E-ISSN 1720-0776, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laurus nobilis L. (Laurel) is considered one of the most emblematic epigones of the late-Tertiary laurophyllous biome, persisting within the Mediterranean vegetation. Describing its present ecology and coenology is crucial to understand its biogeographical history as well as to develop consistent conservation and management practices in the context of the European Habitat Directive. We used recently available vegetation and environmental databases to investigate the coenological amplitude of Laurus in Italy, and to elucidate significant aspects of its persistence in the country. The coenological amplitude was assessed using the clustering method. Ordination techniques and regression trees were used to understand which environmental factors influence, respectively, the occurrence and the abundance of the species and, therefore, characterize its niche. Our results show a wide coenological amplitude of Laurus with respect to other laurophyllous species, growing within a wide range of forest communities. While the occurrence of the species is limited by winter temperature and favored by precipitation seasonality, changes in its abundance show a more refined pattern. In this latter case, two main groups of Laurus populations were differentiated based on water availability. The first group depends on abundant precipitations during the year while the second one buffers the summer aridity with soils rich in nutrients and moisture. Our findings provide crucial knowledge on Laurus habitats in Italy. However, discrepancies between our results and guidelines of the European Habitat Directive arose. The results presented here allow scientifically sound procedures for the regional conservation and management program.

  • 35.
    Alessi, Nicola
    et al.
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Bolzano, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, Geol & Environm Sci, Biodivers & Macroecol Grp,Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Irnerio 42, I-40126 Bologna, Italy..
    Wellstein, Camilla
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Bolzano, Italy..
    Spada, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Zerbe, Stefan
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Bolzano, Italy..
    Population structure of Laurus nobilis L. in Central Italian forests: evidence for its ongoing expansion2021In: Rendiconti Lincei SCIENZE FISICHE E NATURALI, ISSN 2037-4631, E-ISSN 1720-0776, Vol. 32, p. 365-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, an ongoing spread of broad-leaved evergreen laurophyllous species has been reported for forests of Southern Europe. Several factors were suggested as the main drivers of the phenomenon, namely global warming, land-use change, evolutionary history, and increase in atmospheric CO2. Among laurophylls, Laurus nobilis L. is considered one of the most prominent from the morphological, evolutionary, and ecological point of view. We studied the population structure of L. nobilis in Central Italy in its natural habitat to investigate its regeneration and potential expansion along with the influence biotic and abiotic factors. To define types of population structures, we collected proportions of six growth classes of L. nobilis in 16 sites. We obtained three types of population structure, i.e., (1) stable, (2) dynamic, and (3) regressive. The first two types are the most frequent, suggesting a potential increase of L. nobilis abundance within forests of Central Italy. The regressive population type occurs mainly in sites with heavy ungulate impact. High propagule pressure along with shaded and moist environmental conditions favor L. nobilis regeneration. Accordingly, we found evidence of a recent L. nobilis spread in Central Italian forests. We suggest the increase of forest cover and age, due to the abandonment of traditional rural practices, as key factors for the regeneration of this apparently late-successional laurophyll. In conclusion, the recent expansion of L. nobilis that we observed in the Italian forest stands can therefore be ascribed to a process of natural recover of a potential niche following land-use change.

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  • 36.
    Alexander, Michelle
    et al.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England.;Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Dept Archaeol, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland..
    Ho, Simon Y. W.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Molak, Martyna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, PL-00679 Warsaw, Poland..
    Barnett, Ross
    Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Res Lab Archaeol, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Carlborg, Örjan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dorshorst, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Virginia Tech, Dept Anim & Poultry Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Honaker, Christa
    Virginia Tech, Dept Anim & Poultry Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Besnier, Francois
    Inst Marine Res, Sect Populat Genet, N-5024 Bergen, Norway..
    Wahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Dobney, Keith
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Dept Archaeol, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland..
    Siegel, Paul
    Virginia Tech, Dept Anim & Poultry Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Larson, Greger
    Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Res Lab Archaeol, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Mitogenomic analysis of a 50-generation chicken pedigree reveals a rapid rate of mitochondrial evolution and evidence for paternal mtDNA inheritance2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 20150561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondrial genomes represent a valuable source of data for evolutionary research, but studies of their short-term evolution have typically been limited to invertebrates, humans and laboratory organisms. Here we present a detailed study of 12 mitochondrial genomes that span a total of 385 transmissions in a well-documented 50-generation pedigree in which two lineages of chickens were selected for low and high juvenile body weight. These data allowed us to test the hypothesis of time-dependent evolutionary rates and the assumption of strict maternal mitochondrial transmission, and to investigate the role of mitochondrial mutations in determining phenotype. The identification of a non-synonymous mutation in ND4L and a synonymous mutation in CYTB, both novel mutations in Gallus, allowed us to estimate a molecular rate of 3.13 x 10(-7) mutations/site/year (95% confidence interval 3.75 x 10(-8)-1.12 x 10(-6)). This is substantially higher than avian rate estimates based upon fossil calibrations. Ascertaining which of the two novel mutations was present in an additional 49 individuals also revealed an instance of paternal inheritance of mtDNA. Lastly, an association analysis demonstrated that neither of the point mutations was strongly associated with the phenotypic differences between the two selection lines. Together, these observations reveal the highly dynamic nature of mitochondrial evolution over short time periods.

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  • 37.
    Allander, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Temporal variation and reliability of blood parasite levels in captive Yellowhammer males Emberiza citrinella1997In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 325-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal variation of blood parasites in captive Yellowhammer males was studied in order to investigate possible costs of parasites. Birds were caught in the wild in early April and kept in aviaries during the study period. Blood samples were taken, body mass measured, and moult was scored twelve times for the same individuals from April to October. Blood parasites were detectable in smears during the whole study period with an intensity peak coinciding with breeding in the wild. Young birds had more parasites and a consistently higher body mass than older birds. There was no relationship between parasite intensity and mass in older birds but possibly one in young birds. Parasites did not seem to affect moult in either age class. Repeatability of parasite counts of smears from the same individual was very high and smears are therefore a reliable method for estimating parasite intensity. We conclude that blood parasites are probably most severe during, but occur in their hosts long after, the breeding season. Possible costs of parasites outside the breeding season require further study.

  • 38.
    Aller, E. Alonso
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklöf, J. S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gullström, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Kristineberg, Fiskebackskil, Sweden.
    Kloiber, U.
    Chumbe Isl Coral Pk CHICOP, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    Linderholm, H. W.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Temporal variability of a protected multispecific tropical seagrass meadow in response to environmental change2019In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 191, no 12, article id 774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a changing environment, there is an increasing interest to monitor ecosystems to understand their responses to environmental change. Seagrass meadows are highly important ecosystems that are under constant pressure from human activities and climate impacts, with marked declines observed worldwide. Despite increasing efforts, monitoring of multispecific tropical seagrass meadows is scarce, particularly in low-income regions. Based on data from a monitoring programme in a marine protected area in Zanzibar (Tanzania), we assessed temporal changes in seagrass cover and species composition during a 10-year period in relation to local variability in environmental variables. We observed a strong, gradual decline in seagrass cover and changes in species composition, followed by a period of recovery. However, the timing and length of these temporal patterns varied in space (between transects). Multiple environmental variables-cloud cover, temperature, storm occurrence, sunspot activity, and tidal amplitude and height-influenced seagrass cover, although only to a minor extent, suggesting that the monitored seagrass meadow may be influenced by other unmeasured factors (e.g. water currents and sediment movement). Our results show that seagrass meadows can be highly dynamic at small (10-50 m) spatial scales, even in the absence of major local anthropogenic impacts. Our findings suggest that high-resolution monitoring programmes can be highly valuable for the detection of temporal changes in multispecific seagrass meadows; however, to understand the causes of change, there is a need of long-term (> 10 years) data series that include direct measurements of environmental variables and extreme events.

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  • 39.
    Alsos, Inger Greve
    et al.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Lammers, Youri
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Kjellman, Sofia E.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Merkel, Marie Kristine Foreid
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Bender, Emma M.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Rouillard, Alexandra
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway.;Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect GeoGenet, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark..
    Erlendsson, Egill
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Gudmundsdottir, Esther Ruth
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect GeoGenet, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.;Univ Iceland, Nordic Volcanol Ctr, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Benediktsson, Ivar Orn
    Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Farnsworth, Wesley R.
    Univ Iceland, Nordic Volcanol Ctr, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Brynjolfsson, Skafti
    Iceland Inst Nat Hist, IS-600 Borgum Vio Noroursloo, Akureyri, Iceland..
    Gisladottir, Gudrun
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Dögg Eddudottir, Sigrun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Schomacker, Anders
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Ancient sedimentary DNA shows rapid post-glacial colonisation of Iceland followed by relatively stable vegetation until the Norse settlement (Landnam) AD 8702021In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 259, article id 106903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding patterns of colonisation is important for explaining both the distribution of single species and anticipating how ecosystems may respond to global warming. Insular flora may be especially vulnerable because oceans represent severe dispersal barriers. Here we analyse two lake sediment cores from Iceland for ancient sedimentary DNA to infer patterns of colonisation and Holocene vegetation development. Our cores from lakes Torfdalsvatn and Nykurvatn span the last c. 12,000 cal yr BP and c. 8600 cal yr BP, respectively. With near-centennial resolution, we identified a total of 191 plant taxa, with 152 taxa identified in the sedimentary record of Torfdalsvatn and 172 plant taxa in the sedimentary record of Nykurvatn. The terrestrial vegetation at Torfdalsvatn was initially dominated by bryophytes, arctic herbs such as Saxifraga spp. and grasses. Around 10,100 cal yr BP, a massive immigration of new taxa was observed, and shrubs and dwarf shrubs became common whereas aquatic macrophytes became dominant. At Nykurvatn, the dominant taxa were all present in the earliest samples; shrubs and dwarf shrubs were more abundant at this site than at Torfdalsvatn. There was an overall steep increase both in the local accumulated richness and regional species pool until 8000 cal yr BP, by which time 3/4 of all taxa identified had arrived. The period 4500-1000 cal yr BP witnessed the appearance of a a small number of bryophytes, graminoids and forbs that were not recorded in earlier samples. The last millennium, after human settlement of the island (Landnam), is characterised by a sudden disappearance of Juniperus communis, but also reappearance of some high arctic forbs and dwarf shrubs. Notable immigration during the Holocene coincides with periods of increased incidence of sea ice, and we hypothesise that this may have acted as a dispersal vector. Thus, although ongoing climate change might provide a suitable habitat in Iceland for a large range of species only found in the neighbouring regions today, the reduction of sea ice may in fact limit the natural colonisation of new plant species.

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  • 40.
    Amanda, Folkö
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    The relationship between body size and dry weight in hoverflies (Syrphidae), and their movements along an urban linear landscape element2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 41.
    Ament-Velásquez, Sandra Lorena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Tuovinen, Veera
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergström, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Spribille, Toby
    Biological Sciences CW 405, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Vanderpool, Dan
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.
    Nascimbene, Juri
    Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Yamamoto, Yoshikazu
    Department of Bioproduction Science, Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan.
    Thor, Göran
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    The plot thickens: haploid and triploid-like thalli, hybridization, and biased mating type ratios in Letharia2021In: Frontiers in Fungal Biology, E-ISSN 2673-6128, Vol. 2, article id 656386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the reproductive biology of lichen fungal symbionts has been traditionally challenging due to their complex lifestyles. Against the common belief of haploidy, a recent genomic study found a triploid-like signal in Letharia. Here, we infer the genome organization and reproduction in Letharia by analyzing genomic data from a pure culture and from thalli, and performing a PCR survey of the MAT locus in natural populations. We found that the read count variation in the four Letharia specimens, including the pure culture derived from a single sexual spore of L. lupina, is consistent with haploidy. By contrast, the L. lupina read counts from a thallus’ metagenome are triploid-like. Characterization of the mating-type locus revealed a conserved heterothallic configuration across the genus, along with auxiliary genes that we identified. We found that the mating-type distributions are balanced in North America for L. vulpina and L. lupina, suggesting widespread sexual reproduction, but highly skewed in Europe for L. vulpina, consistent with predominant asexuality. Taken together, we propose that Letharia fungi are heterothallic and typically haploid, and provide evidence that triploid-like individuals are hybrids between L. lupina and an unknown Letharia lineage, reconciling classic systematic and genetic studies with recent genomic observations.

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  • 42.
    Amortegui, Julio Cesar Espana
    et al.
    Swedish Food Agcy, Sci Dept, Box 622, SE-75126 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Sci Fac, Chem Dept, Cr 45 N 26-85,POB 111321, Bogota, Colombia..
    Pekar, Heidi
    Swedish Food Agcy, Sci Dept, Box 622, SE-75126 Uppsala, Sweden.;Stockholm Water & Waste Co, Bryggerivagen 10, SE-10636 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Retrato, Mark Dennis Chico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Persson, Malin
    Swedish Food Agcy, Sci Dept, Box 622, SE-75126 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Karlson, Bengt
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Res & Dev, Oceanog, Sven Kallfelts Gata 15, SE-42671 Vastra Frolunda, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zuberovic, Aida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Food Agcy, Sci Dept, Box 622, SE-75126 Uppsala, Sweden..
    LC-MS/MS Analysis of Cyanotoxins in Bivalve Mollusks: Method Development, Validation and First Evidence of Occurrence of Nodularin in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Oysters (Magallana gigas) from the West Coast of Sweden2023In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 15, no 5, article id 329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of cyanotoxins with hydrophilic and lipophilic properties in edible bivalves is presented. The method includes 17 cyanotoxins comprising 13 microcystins (MCs), nodularin (NOD), anatoxin-a (ATX-a), homoanatoxin (h-ATX) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). A benefit to the presented method is the possibility for the MS detection of MC-LR-[Dha7] and MC-LR-[Asp3] as separately identified and MS-resolved MRM signals, two congeners which were earlier detected together. The performance of the method was evaluated by in-house validation using spiked mussel samples in the quantification range of 3.12-200 mu g/kg. The method was found to be linear over the full calibration range for all included cyanotoxins except CYN for which a quadratic regression was used. The method showed limitations for MC-LF (R-2 = 0.94), MC-LA (R-2 <= 0.98) and MC-LW (R-2 <= 0.98). The recoveries for ATX-a, h-ATX, CYN, NOD, MC-LF and MC-LW were lower than desired (<70%), but stable. Despite the given limitations, the validation results showed that the method was specific and robust for the investigated parameters. The results demonstrate the suitability of the method to be applied as a reliable monitoring tool for the presented group of cyanotoxins, as well as highlight the compromises that need to be included if multi-toxin methods are to be used for the analysis of cyanotoxins with a broader range of chemical properties. Furthermore, the method was used to analyze 13 samples of mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Magallana gigas) collected in the 2020-2022 summers along the coast of Bohuslan (Sweden). A complementary qualitative analysis for the presence of cyanotoxins in phytoplankton samples collected from marine waters around southern Sweden was performed with the method. Nodularin was identified in all samples and quantified in bivalve samples in the range of 7-397 <= g/kg. Toxins produced by cyanobacteria are not included in the European Union regulatory monitoring of bivalves; thus, the results presented in this study can be useful in providing the basis for future work including cyanotoxins within the frame of regulatory monitoring to increase seafood safety.

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  • 43.
    Ampoorter, Evy
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Forest & Nat Lab, Campus Gontrode, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, BE-9090 Melle Gontrode, Belgium.
    Barbaro, Luc
    Univ Toulouse, DYNAFOR, INRA, INPT, INPT EL PURPAN, Castanet Tolosan, France.
    Jactel, Hervé
    Univ Bordeaux, INRA, Biogeco, Cestas, France.
    Baeten, Lander
    Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Forest & Nat Lab, Campus Gontrode, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, BE-9090 Melle Gontrode, Belgium; Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, Museum Natl Hist Nat, CESCO, Paris, France.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carnol, Monique
    Univ Liege, Lab Plant & Microbial Ecol, InBioS, Dept Biol, Ecol, Evolut, Liege, Belgium.
    Castagneyrol, Bastien
    Univ Bordeaux, INRA, Biogeco, Cestas, France.
    Charbonnier, Yohan
    Univ Bordeaux, INRA, Biogeco, Cestas, France.
    Dawud, Seid Muhie
    Wollo Univ, Coll Agr, Dept Forestry, Dessie, Ethiopia.
    Deconchat, Marc
    Univ Toulouse, DYNAFOR, INRA, INPT, INPT EL PURPAN, Castanet Tolosan, France.
    De Smedt, Pallieter
    Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Forest & Nat Lab, Campus Gontrode, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, BE-9090 Melle Gontrode, Belgium.
    De Wandeler, Hans
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Leuven, Belgium.
    Guyot, Virginie
    Univ Toulouse, DYNAFOR, INRA, INPT, INPT EL PURPAN, Castanet Tolosan, France; Univ Bordeaux, INRA, Biogeco, Cestas, France.
    Hättenschwiler, Stephan
    Univ Paul Valery Montpellier, Univ Montpellier, Ctr Evolutionary & Funct Ecol, UMR5175, CNRS, EPHE 1919, Montpellier, France.
    Joly, Francois-Xavier
    Univ Stirling, Biol & Environm Sci, Stirling, Scotland.
    Koricheva, Julia
    Royal Holloway Univ London, Sch Biol Sci, Egham, Surrey, England.
    Milligan, Harriet
    Royal Holloway Univ London, Sch Biol Sci, Egham, Surrey, England.
    Muys, Bart
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Leuven, Belgium.
    Nguyen, Diem
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Dept of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ratcliffe, Sophia
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Systemat Bot & Funct Biodivers, Leipzig, Germany.
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael
    Univ Freiburg, Geobot, Fac Biol, Freiburg, Germany.
    van der Plas, Fons
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Systemat Bot & Funct Biodivers, Leipzig, Germany.
    Van Keer, J.
    Kapelle‐op‐den‐Bos, Belgium.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Forest & Nat Lab, Campus Gontrode, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, BE-9090 Melle Gontrode, Belgium.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Allan, Eric
    Univ Bern, Inst Plant Sci, Bern, Switzerland.
    Tree diversity is key for promoting the diversity and abundance of forest-associated taxa in Europe2020In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant diversity is an important driver of diversity at other trophic levels, suggesting that cascading extinctions could reduce overall biodiversity. Most evidence for positive effects of plant diversity comes from grasslands. Despite the fact that forests are hotspots of biodiversity, the importance of tree diversity, in particular its relative importance compared to other management related factors, in affecting forest-associated taxa is not well known. To address this, we used data from 183 plots, located in different forest types, from Mediterranean to Boreal, and established along a climatic gradient across six European countries (FunDivEUROPE project). We tested the influence of tree diversity, tree functional composition (i.e. functional trait values), forest structure, climate and soil on the diversity and abundance/activity of nine taxa (bats, birds, spiders, microorganisms, earthworms, ungulates, foliar fungal pathogens, defoliating insects and understorey plants) and on their overall diversity and abundance/activity (multidiversity, multiabundance/activity). Tree diversity was a key driver of taxon-level and overall forest-associated biodiversity, along with tree functional composition, forest structure, climate and soil. Both tree species richness and functional diversity (variation in functional trait values) were important. The effects of tree diversity on the abundance/activity of forest-associated taxa were less consistent. Nonetheless, spiders, ungulates and foliar fungal pathogens were all more abundant/active in diverse forests. Tree functional composition and structure were also important drivers of abundance/activity: conifer stands had lower overall multidiversity (although the effect was driven by defoliating insects), while stands with potentially tall trees had lower overall multiabundance/activity. We found more synergies than tradeoffs between diversity and abundance/activity of different taxa, suggesting that forest management can promote high diversity across taxa. Our results clearly show the high value of mixed forest stands for multiple forest-associated taxa and indicate that multiple dimensions of tree diversity (taxonomic and functional) are important.

  • 44.
    Anderson, Bruce
    et al.
    Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch Univ., Cape Town, South Africa..
    Pannell, John
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Billiard, Sylvain
    University Lille, CNRS, UMR 8198 – Evo-Eco-Paleo, 59000 Lille, France..
    Burgarella, Concetta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    de Boer, Hugo
    Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway..
    Dufay, Mathilde
    CEFE, University Montpellier, CNRS, University Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, Ephe, IRD, Montpellier, France..
    Helmstetter, Andrew J.
    FRB – CESAB, 5 Rue de l’École de Médecine, 34000 Montpellier, France..
    Méndez, Marcos
    Area of Biodiversity and Conservation, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain..
    Otto, Sarah P.
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Roze, Denis
    IRL 3614, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Station Biologique de Roscoff, 29688 Roscoff Cedex, France..
    Sauquet, Hervé
    National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.;Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Schoen, Daniel
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada..
    Schönenberger, Jürg
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria..
    Vallejo‐Marín, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana
    Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0225, USA..
    Käfer, Jos
    Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive UMR 5558, 69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. CNRS, Ecosystèmes Biodiversité Evolution (Université de Rennes), 35000 Rennes, France.
    Opposing effects of plant traits on diversification2023In: iScience, E-ISSN 2589-0042, Vol. 26, no 4, article id 106362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species diversity can vary dramatically across lineages due to differences in speciation and extinction rates. Here, we explore the effects of several plant traits on diversification, finding that most traits have opposing effects on diversification. For example, outcrossing may increase the efficacy of selection and adaptation but also decrease mate availability, two processes with contrasting effects on lineage persistence. Such opposing trait effects can manifest as differences in diversification rates that depend on ecological context, spatiotemporal scale, and associations with other traits. The complexity of pathways linking traits to diversification suggests that the mechanistic underpinnings behind their correlations may be difficult to interpret with any certainty, and context dependence means that the effects of specific traits on diversification are likely to differ across multiple lineages and timescales. This calls for taxonomically and context-controlled approaches to studies that correlate traits and diversification.

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  • 45.
    Andersson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Developing a protocol for RT-qPCR of wing-tissue gene expression and investigating the dynamics of photoperiodically induced polyphenism in the water strider Gerris buenoi2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wing polyphenism in insects is a type of phenotypic plasticity where environmental factors trigger the development of a set of discrete wing morphologies. In the water strider Gerris buenoi, photoperiods are the main environmental cue that trigger wing morph determination. The genetic mechanisms connecting environmental cues and the determination of wing morph in G. buenoi are not clear. However, recent experimental work suggests that engagement of the Hippo pathway via ecdysone signalling is a promising model for further investigation. In this study, a reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) protocol was developed, aimed at elucidating this potential transduction pathway by quantifying gene expression of Fat, Dachsous, Yorkie, EcR, E75 and E74. This was done using melt curve analysis, gel electrophoresis, sequencing of RT-qPCR products and qPCR standard curves. Additionally, wing morph distribution in extreme and intermediate photoperiods were examined. Wing morph proportions were significantly different between adults emerging in the intermediate photoperiods 15.30:8.30 and 15:9 (hours light : hours dark). An effect of sex was observed, with a higher probability of males becoming long-winged compared to females. This has likely evolved as a result of a dispersal-reproduction trade-off. Taken together, this study provided insight for future investigations of periodically induced wing morph determination and its genetic mechanisms in G. buenoi that will contribute to the understanding of phenotypic plasticity.

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  • 46. Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Hasselid, Sara
    Widen, Per
    Bax, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Landscape Dynamics. ELD.
    Is the Snow Leopard (Unica unica) endangered?: A study of popular viability and distribution using vulnerability and GIS analysis methods2004In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on High Mountain Remote Sensing Cartography, 2004, p. 224-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Andersson, Lars I.
    et al.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Bryophytes and decaying wood– a comparison between managed and natural forest1991In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Texas A&M Univ, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    André, Carl
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, Stromstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, Stromstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ecological adaptation in cod and herring and possible consequences of future climate change in the Baltic Sea2023In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 10, article id 1101855Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Atlantic herring and Atlantic cod are two marine fish species that have successfully adapted to the brackish Baltic Sea, and the former is able to spawn in near-freshwater conditions in the inner Gulf of Bothnia. Here, we review the state of current knowledge concerning ecological adaptation in the two species and make an attempt to predict how they will be able to cope with future climate change. Previous whole genome sequencing studies in Atlantic herring have revealed hundreds of genetic loci underlying ecological adaptation, including several loci that show very strong associations to variation in salinity and temperature. These results suggest the existence of standing genetic variation available for adaptation to a changing environment. However, although Atlantic herring probably has the genetic potential to adapt, its future status also depends on how climate change will affect plankton production and competing species, such as sprat and three-spined stickleback. In cod, the situation is challenging, as there is only one true Baltic population, spawning east of Bornholm and then dispersing towards the east and north. This Baltic cod population is threatened by overfishing, low oxygen levels in benthic waters and generally bad physiological condition of individual fish, in addition to being completely isolated from gene flow from nearby cod populations at the entrance of the Baltic Sea.

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  • 49.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Berga, Mercè
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    The spatial structure of bacterial communities is influenced by historical environmental conditions2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1134-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial structure of ecological communities, including that of bacteria, is often influenced by species sorting by contemporary environmental conditions. Moreover, historical processes, i.e., ecological and evolutionary events that have occurred at some point in the past, such as dispersal limitation, drift, priority effects, or selection by past environmental conditions, can be important, but are generally investigated much less. Here, we conducted a field study using 16 rock pools, where we specifically compared the importance of past vs. contemporary environmental conditions for bacterial community structure by correlating present differences in bacterial community composition among pools to environmental conditions measured on the same day, as well as to those measured 2, 4, 6, and 8 d earlier. The results prove that selection by past environmental conditions exists, since we were able to show that bacterial communities are, to a greater extent, an imprint of past compared to contemporary environmental conditions. We suggest that this is the result of a combination of different mechanisms, including priority effects that cause rapid adaptation to new environmental conditions of taxa that have been initially selected by past environmental conditions, and slower rates of turnover in community composition compared to environmental conditions.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Martin Gustav Ingemar
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Muddring i Ireån: indirekta effekter på bottenfaunan nedströms2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to investigate the effects that dredging may have on benthic fauna. The dredging took place in the stream Ireån on northern Gotland during the early summer 2010. My area of research was taking place in a scenic area downstream in Ireån close to the Baltic Sea. I chose this area due to the dredging that started just upstream of this area and continued further upstream. Thus it is not the direct impact of the dredging that is the focus for this paper but the side-effect the dredging may have on the area downstream. In this research I used the M42-method and BQI- index in order to evaluate the results. The effects on the dredging were weaker than expected, with only minor changes occurring within the benthic fauna (BQI-value before dredging: 3.35, BQI-value after dredging: 3.51).

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    FULLTEXT02
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