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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Utformning av mjukvarusensorer för avloppsvatten med multivariata analysmetoder2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of real processes are based on measured data. In the past, the amount of available data was very limited. However, with modern technology, the information which is possible to obtain from measurements is more available, which considerably alters the possibility to understand and describe processes. Multivariate analysis is often used when large datasets which contains many variables are evaluated.

    In this thesis, the multivariate analysis methods PCA (principal component analysis) and PLS (partial least squares projection to latent structures) has been applied to wastewater data collected at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk WWTP (wastewater treatment plant).

    Wastewater treatment plants are required to monitor and control their systems in order to reduce their environmental impact. With improved knowledge of the processes involved, the impact can be significantly decreased without affecting the plant efficiency. Several variables are easy to measure directly in the water, while other require extensive laboratory analysis. Some of the parameters from the latter category are the contents of phosphorus and nitrogen in the water, both of which are important for the wastewater treatment results. The concentrations of these substances in the inlet water vary during the day and are difficult to monitor properly.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it is possible, from the more easily measured variables, to obtain information on those which require more extensive analysis. This was done by using multivariate analysis to create models attempting to explain the variation in these variables. The models are commonly referred to as soft sensors, since they don’t actually make use of any physical sensors to measure the relevant variable.

    Data were collected during the period of March 11 to March 15, 2013 in the wastewater at different stages of the treatment process and a number of multivariate models were created. The result shows that it is possible to obtain information about the variables with PLS models based on easy-to-measure variables. The best created model was the one explaining the concentration of nitrogen in the inlet water.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modellering av dagvattennät utgående från markhöjder2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to The Swedish Water and Wastewater Association (SWWA), a storm waternetwork must be able to handle a rainfall with a return period of 10 years. In order toevaluate whether a drain system is adequately dimensioned, a storm water model can beestablished. This requires knowledge about the levels at which the conduits are situated,and this information is insufficient in many areas. However, the pipes could largely beassumed to follow the topography and the pipes levels can be estimated from it.Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method for how the level of stormwater conduits could be assessed from the ground level, and the significance thismethod had for storm water modeling. A further aim was also to, according to thismethod; assess the storm water systems of the Lidingö community, which lackedinformation on the pipe levels. Furthermore, for the method to be useful it wasimportant to make it easily applicable even to large storm water networks.The method was developed using parts of the storm water network in Sundbyberg,Stockholm. The levels of the conduits were known beforehand, and an analysis of themresulted in a method where the depth of the manhole, which controls the levels of theconduits, was estimated to 2 m. An exception had to be made when the conduits were inreverse slope, in which cases horizontal slope was assumed.When evaluating the impact from the depth assessment on the runoff, the uncertaintyfrom the imperviousness was taken into account by using three different scenarios;unchanged, 30% lower and 30% higher imperviousness. The risk of flooding for eachone of the manholes was weighted from the results of these three scenarios. Thisresulted in a pressure level for each manhole, either above ground, below ground orinconclusive. This was done for the model with both known levels for the conduits, andwith the assessed levels. In order to evaluate how well the method for applying thedepth worked, the status of each manhole was compared between the two models.The conclusion from this study was that the method developed here, more or less gavethe same results as when the levels of the conduits were previously known.Discrepancies arose mainly in ditches, but also for a few landlocked areas and outlets.For the Lidingö storm water network, 18 % of the wells ended up with a pressure levelabove ground when applied to a rain with a 10 year return period. Another 16 % of thewells were inconclusive.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Online-instrumentering på avloppsreningsverk: status idag och effekter av givarfel på reningsprocessen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of automated treatment processes within wastewater treatment plants ultimately depend on the quality of the measurement data that is given from the installed sensors. Sensor faults affect the control of the treatment plants and are often the reason different control strategies fail. Today there is a lack of standardized guidelines for how to organize and work with online sensors at Swedish wastewater treatment plants which limits the opportunities for treatment plants to reach their effluent criteria in a resource efficient manner. Much research has been done on ways to optimize control strategies but the role of sensors in the efficiency of the treatment plants has not been given the same level of attention. The purpose of this thesis has been to examine how instrumentation at wastewater treatment plants can be organized and structured to ensure good quality measurement data and to examine how sensor faults affect the treatment process.

    Within the thesis a literature study was conducted where instrumentation at wastewater treatment plants was examined. The effects of sensor faults were examined by simulating a pre-denitrification process in Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 where off-sets (biases) and drift where added to measurements from different implemented sensors. The simulations showed that positive off-sets (0.10–0.50 mg/l) in an ammonium sensor within a cascaded feedback-loop adds to the energy consumption used for aeration by roughly 4-25%. It could further be shown that all types of faults in a DO sensor in the last aerated basin had significantly larger effect on the treatment process than the same fault in any of the other DO sensors in the preceding basins. If the last aerated basin is designed to have low DO concentrations the DO sensor in that basin is the most important DO sensor to maintain. Positive off-sets (200–1 000 mg TSS/l) in suspended solids sensors used for control of waste activated sludge flow contributed to large increases of ammonia, by 29-464%, in effluent waters. Negative drift in DO sensors showed that significant savings in aeration energy, roughly 4%, was possible to achieve with more frequent maintenance.

    Whether a sensor is affected by a positive or a negative fault, be it off-set or drift, will affect how much and in what way the treatment process will be affected. The study of sensor faults showed that the effect of a positive or a negative fault varied and that the effect on the treatment process was not linear. The effect of a sensor fault on the treatment process will ultimately depend on the implemented control strategy, settings in the controllers and on the controlled process.

  • 4.
    Anandhi, Aavudai
    et al.
    Florida A&M Univ, Coll Agr & Food Sci, Biol Syst Engn, Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA;Florida A&M Univ, Coll Agr & Food Sci, Ctr Water Resources, Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA.
    Pierson, Don
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Frei, Allan
    CUNY, Hunter Coll, Dept Geog, New York, NY 10065 USA;CUNY, CUNY Inst Sustainable Cities, New York, NY 10065 USA.
    Evaluation of Climate Model Performance for Water Supply Studies: Case Study for New York City2019In: Journal of water resources planning and management, ISSN 0733-9496, E-ISSN 1943-5452, Vol. 145, no 8, article id 06019006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating the suitability of data from global climate models (GCMs) for use as input in water supply models is an important step in the larger task of evaluating the effects of climate change on water resources management such as that of water supply operations. The purpose of this paper is to present the process by which GCMs were evaluated and incorporated into the New York City (NYC) water supply's planning activities and to provide conclusions regarding the overall effectiveness of the ranking procedure used in the evaluation. A suite of GCMs participating in Phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) were evaluated for use in climate change projections in the watersheds of the NYC water supply that provide 90% of the water consumed by NYC. GCM data were aggregated using the seven land-grid points surrounding NYC watersheds, and these data with a daily timestep were evaluated seasonally using probability-based skill scores for various combinations of five meteorological variables (precipitation, average, maximum and minimum temperatures, and wind speed). These are the key variables for the NYC water supply because they affect the timing and magnitude of water, energy, sediment, and nutrient fluxes into the reservoirs as well as in simulating watershed hydrology and reservoir hydrodynamics. We attempted to choose a subset of GCMs based on the average of several skill metrics that compared baseline (20C3M) GCM results to observations. Skill metrics for the study indicate that the skill in simulating the frequency distributions of measured data is highest for temperature and lowest for wind. However, our attempts to identify the best model or subgroup of models were not successful because we found that no single model performs best when considering all of the variables and seasons.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Utvärdering av prediktion och utfall av inläckage i bergtunnel: Fallstudie E4 Förbifart Stockholm2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater inflow to a rock tunnel is inevitable, but nonetheless important to limit. Otherwise both the surroundings and the tunnel itself risk becoming subject to damage. To prevent this, legal limitations are set for the inflow. Measurements are then made to ensure that the inflow does not exceed these limitations. When constructing a tunnel in hard rock, the limit objectives are hopefully met through the filling of rock fractures through grouting. Inflow predictions are made at an early stage of a tunnel project, both in order to establish the legal requirements but also as basis for grouting design. The aim of the work reported is to understand why these predictions in some cases deviate from the measured inflow. To accomplish this, a case study on two road tunnels in one of Sweden's most comprehensive infrastructure projects of all time, the construction of a motorway bypass around the capital Stockholm, is presented and assessed. Several causes of deviations between inflow predictions and observations in these two tunnels are suggested, most of them related to the hydraulic conductivity of the rock. Overall the rock quality seems to be worse than predicted. In one tunnel segment in particular, one cause of major deviations from inflow predictions is due to a fracture zone which has not been accounted for. These identified causes of increased inflow could have been foreseen in an early stage of the project, either through more extensive investigations or different interpretations of existing data. New inflow predictions have been made based on the suggested corrections. The result is consistently higher than the predictions made earlier and mostly less deviant from observations. This indicates that the real inflow is probably higher than initially predicted.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modellering av avrinning från gröna tak: Avrinningskoefficienter och modellparametrar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Larger and denser cities result in increasing amounts of impervious surfaces in urban areas. This generates an increase in storm water runoff, as the rainwater is prevented from infiltrating in natural soils and instead flows along the paved surfaces. The increased amount of storm water runoff is liable to cause problems in areas where the storm water system has been designed to handle the amounts of runoff previously generated in the area. Upsizing the capacity of the pipelines is usually costly, and it is therefore desirable to instead reduce the load on the existing system. One way of achieving this is to cover the rooftops with vegetation, so called green roofs. Green roofs are growing in popularity and have the potential to reduce the rate and volume of runoff, as well as attenuating the peak discharge. There are however uncertainties regarding how their abilities are affected by for example the antecedent weather conditions and the moisture content of the roof, as well as by various storm events.

     

    The purpose of this Master’s Thesis was to study the possibility to simulate the runoff from green roofs using an existing function in the modelling software SWMM by US Environmental Protection Agency, and using Mike Urban by the company DHI. An additional objective was to use on of the designed models to evaluate how green roofs can affect the load on an existing storm water system. Measurements of precipitation, runoff and potential evapotranspiration were obtained from Veg Tech AB and AgroTech A/S. The measurements had been carried out at their demonstration site in Taastrup, Denmark, and included runoff from green roofs of three different thicknesses: 4 cm moss-sedum, 7 cm sedum-herb-grass and 11 cm sedum-herb-grass, as well as an impervious roof used as reference. Initial analyses of the data showed that the storage capacity increased with an increased roof thickness. The thicker roofs were able to completely retain the rainfall from larger storm events than what was the case for the thinnest roof. An analysis of the relationship between precipitation depth and runoff volume showed a stronger correlation for rains with 60 and 120 minutes duration than what was the case for shorter durations.

     

    Comparisons of the two models’ performance showed different strengths and weaknesses, and none of the models were able to simulate runoff in a way that was satisfactory in all aspects. Mike Urban generally gave a higher coefficient of determination but consistently overestimated the discharged volume for extended time periods. SWMM gave a better conformity in observed runoff than Mike Urban during the first months of the simulation period, but generally gave a time lag in the runoff hydrograph. For the 4 cm roof calibration, SWMM also gave a more correct long-time runoff volume, while both models performed similarly for the other roof thicknesses. In an example, one of the models was used to simulate the runoff from the MAX IV laboratory in Lund. The results showed that in order to avoid flooding in the fictitious downstream storm water network, there had to be a four times larger detention pond in the case where conventional roofs where used compared to the scenario using green roofs.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Igensättning av långsamfilter i Östby vattenverk i Kramfors: studie av påverkande faktorer2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Östby waterworks in the community of Kramfors has since 2003 had problems of fast clogging of the slow sand filters. As the clogging appears more often, they must be cleaned more frequently which has made the drinking water preparation difficult. Wintertime it has sometimes been impossible to clean the filters which has led to their closing and this has influenced the water quality negatively.

    The waterworks is a surface waterworks which takes its raw water from the lake Sjöbysjön. The water is flocculated and filtered in a contact filter with the flocculent EKOFLOCK 91. Thereafter it is alkalinized before it reaches the outdoors placed slow sand filters. After the filters the water is alkalinized and disinfected before it reaches the customers.

    This thesis work has looked into which factors influence the clogging and trials have been made in order to optimize the waterworks and thereby reduce the clogging. The raw water has been studied with aspect to biology and chemistry, the filtered water has been studied with aspect to chemistry and also the pressures in the slow sand filters have been studied.

    The colour of the raw water from Sjöbysjön and its catchment area has increased since the beginning of the 90-ies and also the bio volume has increased in the lake.

    The contents of aluminium before the slow sand filters are far higher than the contents after, which leads to the conclusion that aluminium is accumulated in the filters. The differential pressure over the sand bed increases with time after a cleaning. This indicates an accumulation of particles which increases with the load. Observations of the filter surface before cleaning showed that it was covered by a brown, jelly-like film. The internal resistance in the filter beds increases successively after a cleaning and one month after cleaning it is highest in the upper part of the sand bed. All this points to that flocculated aluminium is gathered in the slow sand filters, on the surface, causing clogging.

    While the thesis work has been going on a process of alkalinizing before the contact filters has been reengaged and this has influenced the flocking of organic materials. When raising the pH the dose of flocculent was increased and this combined increased the amount of flocculated material. The contact filters could not bear this increased amount of flock load but showed instead a breakthrough.

    In a few lab scale trials the flocking pH was varied as well as the dose flocculent to the raw water and after this the water was filtrated. A tendency was seen that the separation of aluminium, colour and turbidity increased with increasing pH and dose flocculent. At the pH 6.2 and the chemical dose of 60 g/m3 the content of aluminium, the colour and the turbidity showed the lowest values in the filtrate.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Ökad grundvattenbildning genom pumpning av salt grundvatten från berggrunden på Gotland2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of an increased shortage and an increased demand of fresh water on Gotland, the possibility to pump saline groundwater and thereby locally lower the saltwater interface and increase recharge was investigated. With the saltwater interface further down in the bedrock, deeper wells could be drilled and extraction of more fresh water would therefore be possible.

    To examine the concept, a groundwater model was created to simulate the idea on a region of the peninsula Sudret on the southern part of the island of Gotland, Sweden. To be able to simulate the idea of pumping groundwater in an aquifer with a mix of saline and fresh groundwater of variable density, a model was built using the groundwater modelling program GMS in combination with the modules/program codes MODFLOW, MT3DMS and SEAWAT. With these modules, the model can handle the complex situation with extraction by pumping from groundwater of variable density and changes of salt concentration over time. A three dimensional geological model over the area produced by SGU was used as a foundation for building the model.

    Since no site specific surveys considering groundwater levels and flow/dispersion parameters have been previously undertaken in the study area, the parameters of the model were chosen according to literature and findings from similar projects conducted in the past. First, a model was developed to simulate a stable saltwater interface without pumps. Parameters were changed until a groundwater level close to the surface of the model was given and the saltwater interface ended up around the transition between limestone and sandstone. When the model generated desirable results, it was further developed to include the extraction of saltwater by pumping. 

    Results from the project showed that the concept of lowering the saltwater interface by pumping works, with an increased recharge corresponding to 55 % of the extracted saltwater volume. Because of a lack of site specific parameters, the results should not be seen as more than an indication that the concept works. 

    Furthermore, geohydrological measures should be made to provide local parameters regarding flow and dispersion for more reliable future models. To gain a greater understanding of how well the concept would work in reality, further development should be undertaken to include fresh groundwater extraction to assess how that would affect the position of the saltwater interface.

  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Diana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Cederwall, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Litsmark, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sjödell, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Wilson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Östrand Myrlund, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Digidrick: Utvärdering av behov och begränsningar för digitala lösningar i svenska vattenverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige anses ha en välfungerande dricksvattenproduktion på grund av stor tillgång på råvatten med god kvalitet. För att kunna möta utmaningarna i framtiden, så som klimatförändringar och en ökad befolkning, krävs en ökad digitalisering på vattenverken för att erhålla en säker dricksvattenproduktion.

    Projektet syftar till att utreda vilka hinder och möjligheter som finns för en ökad digitalisering av övervakning och styrning på svenska vattenverk. Detta har gjorts genom en litteraturstudie som bidragit med kunskap för utformningen av en enkätundersökning där vattenverk fått svara på frågor gällande digitalisering av övervakning och styrning. Enkäten skickades ut till 370 vattenverk i Sverige varav 14 av dessa svarade och utgör underlaget för resultatet i denna rapport. Resultatet visar att samtliga vattenverk som har besvarat enkäten har ett behov av en ökad digitalisering av övervakning och styrning som utgörs av

    • Tidiga varningssystem

    • Förbättrad övervakning

    • Styrning av beredningsprocessen

    • Modeller för processer

    • Förbättrad IT-säkerhet

    Av resultatet framgår även att det finns en viss spridning av vilka behov som vattenverken anser som mest angelägna. I många fall upplever de 14 vattenverken organisatoriska, tekniska och ekonomiska hinder för att implementera eller utveckla digitaliseringen av övervakning och styrning. Den låga svarsfrekvensen gjorde att det inte erhölls en generell bild av svenska vattenverks syn på en ökad digitalisering.

    Inom projektet har även ett modellverktyg för kemisk fällning konstruerats med syfte att undersöka automatisk online-dosering av koaguleringsmedlet Al2(SO4)3* 14 H2O (ALG). En jämförelse mellan online-mätningens direkta dosering och en fördröjd mänsklig dosering har gjorts för att stödja argumentet om varför en automatisk dosering kan vara fördelaktig ur ett ekonomiskt och kvalitetsmässigt perspektiv. Undersökningen visade att det finns möjlighet att spara 330 000 SEK/år i enbart kostnad för ALG, vid en övergång från manuell till automatisk dosering.

  • 10.
    Aulin, Beatrice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Linnea, Henriksson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    The water balance in Graminha Basin2014Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, only 7 % of the Atlantic Rainforest, that once covered Brazil, remains scattered across the southern parts of the country. As the forest is rapidly disappearing, the government of Brazil has emerging interest of preservation. Thus more and more areas are turned into national parks and reserves. At the outskirts of one of these reserves, the Iracambi research station is situated. The center makes an effort to carry out applied research to find methods of preserving and learning about the forest. It is within that context the project described in this report has been performed. The project aimed to establish a water balance over Graminha Basin, the main river in the Iracambi research area. By doing this the understanding of the fluctuations of the amount of water in the ecosystem could increase. An important part of the objective was also to assess which methods can be used practically at Iracambi.The project was carried out during the rainy season from February 13th to April 12, 2012. During this time the water flow was measured at five stations along the river, using a current meter and instant slug-injection. Between six and fifteen flow measurements were made at each station. Slug- injection was generally the most suitable gauging method to use in the area. Precipitation was measured at two points. Evaporation was measured using an evaporation pan, and also calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Even though, the parameterization of the Penman-Monteith needs to be improved it was deemed to be the more suitable method for the area.The results give a rough estimate of the water balance during the period. It was concluded that the storage decreased during the project period. Based on the flow measurements and observations it was concluded that the areas covered by forest were less affected by the floods that occurred during heavy rainfalls than the areas covered by grass. Further on, the result of this report indicates that the Iracambi research station can continue to carry out assessments for changes in water flow, rainfall and evaporation with the simple equipment used in this project. However, more expensive and advanced equipment would be beneficial to establish a more accurate water balance.

  • 11.
    Bachofner Gran, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Grundvattenmodellering inom Loddby före detta Sulfitmassabruk2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Loddby sulphite pulp factory was during its active days located next to Loddbyviken, approximately five kilometers north of Norrköping. Production of sulphite paper pulp was conducted between the years 1899 and 1977 within an area of 18,6 hectares. The former sulphite pulp factory is today considered polluted to the extent that it is entailing a great risk for human health and the environment, but to be able to decide what measures to take, the hydrogeological conditions in the area need to be clarified.

    The objective of this master’s thesis was to map the groundwater flow pattern within Loddby former sulphite pulp factory by developing a site-specific groundwater model with the groundwater flow model MODFLOW in the software Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The master’s thesis also aimed at examining how the groundwater movement in the area is affected by fluctuations in the water level of Loddbyviken. A conceptual model was initially created to describe the hydrological system in a simplified way with regards to the geology, hydrology and climate within the area. The model domain was delimited by topographical water divides and hydrological boundaries, and was thereafter divided into three horizontal layers based on the main materials that have been identified during investigations within the area: filling material, clay and till.

    In GMS, the model domain was divided into a 5x5 meter grid and its borders were assigned appropriate boundary conditions. By interpolating the three model layers from scatter point data of known geology, the conceptual model could be described mathematically within the software. To increase the reliability of the model, the hydraulic conductivities of the materials were then calibrated against observed hydraulic head in several groundwater monitoring wells in the area. After the calibration, the hydraulic conductivities of the filling material, clay and till were 2,1ˑ10-4 m/s, 5,7ˑ10-7 m/s and 3,9ˑ10-5 m/s respectively. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to examine how the values of hydraulic conductivity and groundwater recharge would affect the model results.

    Simulations with the calibrated model showed that the groundwater generally moves from the western parts of the area towards Pjältån and Loddbyviken in the north and east. However, it moves around the areas where the impermeable bedrock is close to the ground surface. Changes in the water level of Loddbyviken proved to have some effect on the amount of water in the system, but they did not entail a greater influence on the groundwater movement pathways in the area. The sensitivity analysis showed that the model was very sensitive regarding the groundwater recharge and the hydraulic conductivity for the till. A very low conductivity of clay turned out to lead to some modeling difficulties and the conductivity of the filling material showed to only have a small effect on the result.

  • 12.
    Bar-Am, Maya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Spett, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Svanberg, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Thelander, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Viklund, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Widengren, Veronika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Zaff, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Infiltrationsbassängers kapacitet och  kontroll med avseende på  infiltrationsmängd och igensättningar: En jämförelse av plan och sluttande sandbotten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att framställa konstgjort grundvatten används idag infiltrationsbassänger som främsta metod i Sverige. Ytvatten pumpas upp till bassänger med sandfilter i botten där vattnet kan infiltrera för att sedan spridas och vidare filtreras genom underliggande rullstensås för att slutligen fylla på grundvattenmagasinet. I infiltrationsbassänger sker dock igensättningar till följd av lösa partiklar, kemiska utfällningar eller att porerna i sanden växt igen av biologiska processer. Detta är ett oundvikligt problem då allt ytvatten som används innehåller mer eller mindre löst kol. Dessutom sker igensättningarna i nuläget på okänd yta och djup. Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB har en hypotes att en bassäng med sluttande botten, istället för den nuvarande plana botten, skulle kunna ge ökad kontroll över var igensättningen sker. Syftet med projektet var att ta fram underlag till Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB och utreda om deras hypotes stämmer. Frågeställningen för projektet var hur kontrollerat och effektivt infiltrationen sker med avseende på igensättning i en infiltrationsbassäng med plan botten jämfört med en bassäng med sluttande botten. För att undersöka detta sammanställdes en litteraturstudie och sakkunniga inom området tillfrågades för utlåtande via både e-post och personlig kontakt. Ett flertal olika beräkningsmodeller skapades och dessa modeller användes för att beräkna horisontella hastigheter, storlek på infiltration, vattenpelare, tider att fylla bassänger med mera. Modellerna programmerades för att kunna varieras med olika värden för olika parametrar, detta för att koden enkelt skulle kunna anpassas efter olika förutsättningar. Resultatet av beräkningarna med antagna begynnelsevärden visar att den totala infiltrationen för en plan bassäng kommer att vara betydligt större än den för en sluttande bassäng. Detta förklaras med att den plana bassängen har en dubbelt så stor volym och på grund av detta en dubbelt så stor vattenpelare. Om volymen istället skulle vara lika stor för de båda typerna av bassängerna skulle det dock vara svårare att avgöra vilken som infiltrerar mest.

    Utifrån studiens resultat är det dock svårt att presentera tydliga slutsatser. Detta eftersom beräkningarna gjorts på begynnelsevärden och antaganden som inte speglar verkligheten helt. Det finns däremot indikationer på att igensättning i en bassäng med sluttande botten sker gradvis över filtersanden, vilket är till fördel för ökad kontroll. Drift och underhåll av bassängen kommer inte skilja särskilt mycket mellan en plan eller en sluttande bassängbotten. Det som dock förblir svårt att avgöra är vilket alternativ av botten som ger en effektivare infiltration. Detta då data saknas kring hur påverkad den hydrauliska konduktiviteten i filtersanden blir av igensättningar.

    Projektet är komplext och det kan därför vara en god idé att följa upp teorin med praktiska försök. För fortsatta undersökningar bör det testas hur en sluttande botten kommer att fungera i praktiken, närmare bestämt hur skillnaden i infiltrationskapacitet skiljer sig och vad skillnaden i drift är för en plan gentemot en sluttande botten. Vidare bör det undersökas om sanden förflyttar sig på grund av isbildning vintertid för en sluttande bassängbotten, om det kan vara en god idé att ha ett djupare sandlager i den djupare delen av bassängen samt huruvida idén att exempelvis använda en mer finkornig sand i den djupa delen av den sluttande bassängbotten är tillämplig.

  • 13.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Jung, Byeongju
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon, South Korea.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Numerical simulation of geological storage of CO2 with impurities in large scale saline aquiferManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 14. Bergenstråle, Terese
    Effekten av att separera ett befintligt kombinerat system till separat spill- och dagvatten: Vasastan, Stockholm2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

  • 15.
    Berglund, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Cost-benefit analysis for sustainable stormwater management: A case study for Masthuggskajen, Gothenburg2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Densication and intensied precipitation patterns due to climate change, has increased

    the need for sustainable stormwater management. Sustainable stormwater management

    can be implemented as blue-green infrastructure (BGI), which integrates green features

    for natural inltration and detention such as green roofs and rain gardens. Through the

    use of BGI, added values can be provided as ecosystem services. Authorities and organizations

    in Sweden imply the need for valuation of ecosystem services for future integration

    in decision-making. This thesis include monetary estimations of ecosystem services within

    the use of a cost-benet analysis (CBA), for two alternatives of stormwater management

    in Masthuggskajen, Gothenburg. The applied valuation methods are methods commonly

    used in economic analysis. The ecosystem services identied and monetarily estimated as

    benets within this project were 

    ood protection, water treatment, air quality regulation,

    noise regulation and added recreational value. The result of the CBA indicated that the

    most protable alternative was considered to be the implementation of BGI rather than

    underground solutions.

    The ecosystem services contributing the most to the result was added recreational value,

    noise regulation and 

    ood protection. A sensitivity analysis was concluded by altering

    the value of costs and benets. Further analysis of the uncertainty in monetary estimates

    is of importance in order to integrate ecosystem services in decision-making.

    The diculty in covering the full extent of benets generated by BGI indicates the need of

    complementary tools in decision-making. However, this study highlights the importance

    of inclusion of ecosystem services in decision-making.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Berkelund, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Nylander, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Olsson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Renström, Terese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    HYDROGEOLOGISKA FÖRHÅLLANDEN I GÄVLEÅSEN: Analys av stabila syreisotoper och kemiska parametrar samt beräkning av flöden i Gävleåsen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt behandlar hur vatten rör sig i Gävleåsen, det vill säga åsens hydrogeologiska förhållanden. Gävle kommun tar sitt dricksvatten från Gävleåsens grundvattenmagasin. För att öka grundvattenbildningen i åsen används konstgjord infiltration av åvatten och grundvatten genom infiltrationsbassänger, infiltrationsbrunnar och en sprinkleranläggning. Projektet initierades med bakgrund att grundvattennivåerna i Gävle kommuns grundvattentäkt sjunker på grund av vattenuttaget. Syftet med projektet var att bestämma om variationer i halt löst syre, organiskt material, an- och katjoner samt stabila syre- och väteisotoper kunde användas för att förklara de hydrogeologiska förhållandena i Gävleåsen. Även storleken på flödet uppströms och nedströms om infiltrationsanläggningen samt blandningsförhållandet nedströms skulle fastställas.

    Tre modeller över hur flödet varierade i åsen utformades på grund av den stora osäkerhet som fanns vid uppskattning av åsens mättade hydrauliska konduktivitet som användes vid flödesberäkningarna. I den första modellen antogs att flödesmassbalansen i åsen stämde, det vill säga att flödet nedströms var en summa av flödet uppströms om och flödet från infiltrationsanläggningen. Den andra modellen byggde på att det skedde ett okänt nettoutflöde från åsen mellan flödet uppströms och flödet nedströms om infiltrationsanläggningen. Att vatten istället skulle ha tillkommit till akviferen från exempelvis Gavleån eller genom inträngning av äldre grundvatten undersöktes med den tredje modellen. Uppställning av en isotopmassbalans för de olika modellerna tydde på att alla modeller kunde vara en möjlig bild av hur flödena i Gävleåsens akvifer förhöll sig till varandra och infiltrationsflödet genom infiltrationsanläggningen.

    Vid beräkning av blandningsförhållandet mellan grund- och åvatten nedströms om infiltrationsanläggningen visade både syreisotopsberäkningar och beräkningar med kloridjoner att cirka 25 procent åvatten tillkommit i akviferen. De kemiska parametrarna löst syre och organiskt material visade sig inte vara lämpliga som spårämnen för att bestämma källor till ett flöde. Dock kan dessa parametrar användas för att bedöma om det skett en förändring i vattenkvaliteten.

  • 17.
    Björkman, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Stabilitetsberäkningar och åtgärdsförslag vid islast på Skålandammen2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is an important source of energy in Sweden and accounts for about 46 % of the total energy production. Sweden has about 1 200 hydropower plants and with the intention of raising the pressure head of the water and to store water, dams are built by the power plants. The storage reservoirs make it possible to adjust the energy production by demand and season. Dams in connection to the reservoirs are subjected to additional loading during periods of high floods or when an icecap in the winter is formed on the reservoirs. In order to maintain the dam safety, the power companies in Sweden are working with guidelines for dam safety from RIDAS. An important part of the work of dam safety is FDU that is carried out with purposes of improving the work of dam safety. A FDU made for the Skålan dam in the River of Ljungan showed that the levels of the safety factors for sliding and overturning of the dam was not fulfilled when subjected to loads from an icecap. The object of this thesis was to follow up the FDU and by carrying out extensive stability calculations on all parts of the Skålan dam, investigate what safety factors the different parts will get and also investigate some proposal measures in order to increase the dam stability.

    The stability calculations for the dam have been performed according to directions in RIDAS at four loading cases. Loading case I and II means a water level to the retained water level and an ice load of 200 and 100 kN/m respectively. Loading case III and IV means a situation without ice load but with a water level to the retained water level respectively a water level to a meter above the retained water level. The stability of the dam was studied with regards to sliding and overturning. The results from the stability calculations showed for both loading case I and II that the majority of the parts of the Skålan dam did not fulfill the levels of the safety factors. The calculations also showed that some parts of the dam did not fulfill the stability criteria of sliding at loading case III, which implies that these parts of the dam actually have not enough weight.

    The measure proposals studied were the ice preventive measures IR-elements and circulation of the deep warm water and the stability increasing measure with pre strained rock anchorages. The net present value (NVP) for the different measures were calculated with a life length of the dam estimated to 60 years. The results from the calculations of the NVP showed that the most economically feasible measure is circulation of the water but when considering the results from the stability calculations, the most suitable measure is the rock anchorages. Therefore, a combination of rock anchorages on parts which not fulfills the stability criteria in combination with circulation of the water is suggested to be the best measure.

  • 18.
    Blennow, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Återvinning av näringsämnen från hushållsspillvatten med omvänd osmos2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hammarby Sjöstad is a new district in Stockholm with high environmental standard. Stockholm Water Company evaluates a local wastewater treatment plant with cutting edge technology. The first step is an experimental treatment plant (Sjöstadsverket) with four parallel lines of treatment, each with a capacity to treat wastewater from 150 persons. Within the membrane technology subproject the possibility of using reverse osmosis (usually called RO) to regain nutrients is examined.

    Reverse osmosis separates the incoming water in a clean permeate and a concentrate that, as the name indicates, is a more concentrated version of the incoming water. Using this method in wastewater treatment, a solution high in nutrients can be obtained without the use of chemical precipitation agent and with no production of sludge. The solution can then be recycled to use on farmland. The disadvantages of the RO technology include high energy consumption and sensitivity to membrane fouling.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using RO at Sjöstadsverket and, if possible, to evaluate the chance of obtaining concentrate that can be accepted as a fertiliser and permeate that falls below emission limits. The experiments were carried out with an RO plant with three membranes in series operated in batch mode; the dimensioned permeate flow being 100 l/h. The incoming water was permeate from a membrane bioreactor in the majority of the trial runs.

    The results show that RO can be used in at least one of the lines of treatment. However the permeate exceeds the emission limits (phosphorus: 0,15 mg/l, nitrogen: 6 mg/l) while concentration in the concentrate is still too low. The limiting factor seems to be phosphorus. This could be solved with pre-precipitation of phosphorus or by reconstructing the RO plant to a two-stage system. The quota heavy metal – phosphorus in the concentrate is lower than the limit imposed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency but much higher than in human urine.

  • 19.
    Blomstrand, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control.
    Jemander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control.
    Systemteknisk studie av pumpstyrning på Henriksdals nya reningsverk2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of Stockholm is increasing and with it the amount of wastewater that needs treatment. To cope with the increase, Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Stockholm, Sweden, is currently being expanded into the worlds largest WWTP using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The plant will be controlled to a greater extent by pumps and good control is therefore vital to maintain operational stability and an energy efficient process. To analyse the intricate system of pumps and equalisation in tunnels a dynamic model is required.One reason for expanding Henriksdal WWTP is the decommissioning of Bromma WWTP. Wastewater from Bromma will be diverted to Henriksdal through a large tunnel which can be used for flow equalization. To examine whether flow equalization in the tunnel can even out diurnal variations and extreme rain events, water flow in the tunnel and throughout the WWTP was modelled. Models of the tunnel, pumps and basins were made in the programming language C and then merged with different controllers in Matlab/Simulink. To simulate different scenarios for the year 2040, data for the rainy year of 2012 was increased to match the expected population for 2040.Based on simulations for a scenario with dry weather the possibility for flow equalization could be shown. It required a thought-out control strategy for the control of Bromma pumping station based on flow measurements from several other inflows to the WWTP. The control strategy also proved adequate in handling downpours by increasing the amount of waste water subjected to biological treatment. When simulating snow melt or heavy rain, damming in the Bromma tunnel could help to prevent overflow if no strict boundaries were used for the water level in the tunnel. With a maximum allowed water level of 10 m it was, however, possible to dam the first flush containing high concentrations of pollutants and nutrients.Flow equalization makes it easier to maintain even levels in the basins for the return activated sludge (RAS), which in turn makes it easier to maintain high levels in said basins. Higher levels in the RAS-basins leads to reduced energy consumption. In the event of further development of the model, it is possible to add calculations of energy usage for the pumps, which would facilitate further optimization of controllers and their parameters.

  • 20.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Norström, Sara H.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Golovko, Oksana
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic..
    Grabic, Roman
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic..
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Koba, Olga
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic..
    Söderström Lindström, Hanna
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Occupat & Environm Med, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Removal of 30 active pharmaceutical ingredients in surface water under long-term artificial UV irradiation2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the i) kinetics, and ii) proportion of photolysis of 30 relatively stable active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) during artificial UV irradiation for 28 d in ammonium acetate buffer, filtered and unfiltered river water. Buffer was included to control removal kinetics under stable pH conditions and without particulate matter. Dark controls were used to determine removal due to other processes than photolysis and calculate the proportion of photolysis of the total removal. The removal of each API in each matrix was determined using online solid phase extraction/liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE/LC-MS/MS). Most APIs transformed during the 28 d of UV irradiation and the dark controls showed that photolysis was the major removal process for the majority of the APIs studied. The half-lives ranged from 6 h (amitriptyline) in unfiltered river water to 884 h (37 d, carbamazepine) in buffer. In unfiltered river water, the proportion of APIs with short half-lives (<48 h) was much higher (29%) than in the other matrices (4%), probably due to additional organic carbon, which could have promoted indirect photolysis. Furthermore, two APIs, memantine and fluconazole, were stable in all three matrices, while alprazolam was stable in buffer and unfiltered river water and four additional APIs were stable in buffer. Considering the relatively long-term UV-exposure, this study enabled the investigation of environmentally relevant half-lives in natural waters. Many APIs showed high persistence, which is environmentally concerning and emphasizes the importance of further studies on their environmental fate and effects.

  • 21.
    Boklund, Ingrid
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ekosystemtjänster & grönstrukturplanering: Att synliggöra ekosystemtjänsternas nytta och värde i den kommunala planeringen med hjälp av ArcGIS-verktyget Matrixgreen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services are the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being. Clean air, clean water, pollination and biodiversity are all examples of ecosystem services that humans depend on and whose value needs to be integrated into decision-making processes in all different levels of society. Local authorities have an important role in this as they at local level through spatial planning have the possibility to steer development towards more sustainable solutions.

    The aim of this thesis is to make ecosystem services in Knivsta municipality visible through the green structure plan and to analyze the ecological connectivity between the ecological structures using the ArcGIS-tool Matrixgreen. A literature study laid the foundation for further work and was followed by a workshop where important ecosystem services to the municipality of Knivsta were identified. Ecological profiles were created where 11 of the 18 prioritized ecosystem services were associated with specific biotopes which in turn could be linked to a biological species or species groups, called target species, with the specific biotope as possible habitat. The habitat preferences of the target species (size requirements and distribution patterns) worked as a framework for how to analyze the connectivity for each biotope. This was followed by gathering of maps and the making of ecological networks in Matrixgreen. The networks were analyzed with respect to position of the patches in the network (Betweenness Centrality analysis) and the overall connectivity in the municipality (Component analysis).

    Common to the four selected biotopes (wetland, grassland, coniferous and deciduous forest) is that they indirectly provide us with the prioritized supporting ecosystem services habitats and biodiversity. The prioritized ecosystem services water treatment, flow regulation and flood control were linked to the biotope wetlands and materials (ornamental) and pollination were linked to the biotope grasslands. The biotopes coniferous and deciduous forest could be linked to the prioritized ecosystem services food (domestic and wild animals, wild plants), raw materials (fiber), bio-energy and climate control. The network analyses show good connectivity for wetland areas and coniferous forest in the municipality. The total connectivity for grasslands and deciduous forest is limited. The analyzes also show that for each biotope a couple of areas are especially important for the overall connectivity. These areas have a high Betweenness Centrality value.

    The ecological profiles upon which the analyzes are based are theoretical profiles, no site visits or surveys have been done to investigate how reality matches theory. The constructed and analyzed networks in this thesis are therefore to be seen mainly as a guide to where in the municipality the selected ecosystem services are available. The networks do not constitute adequate habitats for the selected target species and no conclusions can be drawn as to where in the municipality a specific species exists or not. Biodiversity is an ecosystem service itself but also represents an insurance for the ecosystem that becomes more resilient, i.e. more stable and resilient to external shocks. Resilient ecosystems are essential for the ecosystem services that have been studied. Lack of connectivity in the landscape could lead to increased fragmentation and eventually risk biodiversity depletion.

  • 22.
    Bonde, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Närsaltsdosering till luftad damm: en åtgärd för ökad TOC-reduktion hos Skoghalls Bruk luftade damm2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the process of making carton boards into Skoghall Mill, are great quantities of water being contaminated. This water has to be treated before it is possible to release into the recipient, Kattfjorden. One of the contaminations that is important to extract from the wastewater, is organic carbon (measured as TOC-total organic carbon) because microbiological breakdown can lead to the bottom becomig free of oxygen.

    The wastewater treatment at Skoghall Mill is done through an external wastewater treatment that is located at the factory. The biological treatment (aerated lagoon) is a 140 000 m3 water pool with surface aerator, which is give oxygen to the water. In the lagoon live microorganisms who performs the biggest part of the TOC-reduction.

    One problem with the lagoon is that the treatment of TOC is considerably worse during wintertime than during summertime. The reduction is during wintertime only 40 %, while during summertime it is about 70-80 %. This seasonal variation can to a large extent be explained by, that the water temperature in the lagoon decreases wintertime. The low water temperature does that the biological activity in the lagoon is reduced, which reduces the TOC-reduction. A second reason can also be that the microorganisms do not have enough bioavailable nutrients that is needed for growth of a new biomass.

    In this thesis the need of nutrient has been examined. In two test pools, addings of nutrient were being done, to come to the conclusion of a good dosage of nutrient which would lead to a larger reduction of TOC, without enlarged quantities of nitrogen/phosphorus in the outgoing water. One of the test pools hold a summer temperature (30°C), and the other test pool hold a winter temperature (10°C). The test was performed this way to see if there would be any difference in the need of nutrient between summertime and wintertime.

    The most important conclusion was that a nutrient dosage to the Skoghall aerated lagoon, rise the TOC-reduction wintertime. It was also concluded that it was foremost the nitrogen that contributed to the raised TOC-reduction, and nitrogen is thereby considered to be the growth restraining element wintertime. It seemed like phosphorus had been overdosed during the tests, while enlarged halts of the substance could be seen in the outgoing water, and an optimal dosage of phosphorus could not be done. The recommendation that came as a results from the tests, was that during wintertime add nitrogen and phosphorus according to TOC:N:P-quota 100:0,75:0,10. To the summer pool was no considerable improvement of the TOC-reduction seen, as a result of the nutrient addings. It is also no reason to dosage nutrients in summertime.

  • 23.
    Borg Berggren, Alma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Dagvattenhantering på underbyggda gårdar inom kvartersmark2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the expansion and densification of cities, green areas are removed while the proportion of hard surfaces are increased. Rain and melt water are not allowed to infiltrate through the hard surfaces, and instead it runs off like stormwater. With this and the expected increase of precipitation due to climate changes, it is becoming increasingly important to plan for the disposal of stormwater in new urban areas. Several Swedish municipalities are today providing restrictions regarding the diversion of stormwater on private properties and requirements that need to be met before connection to the public water network. Meanwhile, densification means that builders today are often forced to build residential yards on underground garages. There was a need to clarify and investigate today's situation regarding stormwater treatment in combination with underground garages.The purpose of this thesis was to analyse today's state of knowledge about stormwater treatment on yards with underground garages and to investigate how different actors experience the requirements. Qualitative interviews with representatives from the three groups of actors, stormwater sewer operators, planning divisions and developers were conducted. The aim was also to design a tool for highlighting connections between stormwater management and other interests on private properties.This thesis was delimited to study green roofs, plant beds and detention tanks. Five interests were identified on yards with underground garages: landscape architecture, architecture, construction, management and HVAC. A tool was designed including the stormwater facilities containing four steps: Today’s and future construction, Stormwater requirements, Choice of facilities and Further recommendations or suggestions for corrections. Within the tool, four checklists were established to describe connections between stormwater treatment on yards with underground garages and the interests.The interview results show that several interviewees find it difficult to impose restrictions for stormwater management due to legal uncertainties. Meanwhile developers find following the restrictions can be difficult with yards with underground garages, mainly due to lack of space. The checklists are intended to serve as guiding points that should be taken into consideration in stormwater management on underground garages and to help balance different interests. The hope is that the checklists can contribute to an increased understanding of the relationships between stormwater management with underground garages and other interests. The results of the thesis show that interaction between the various interests is needed to create conditions for a good stormwater management and that communication about a joint purpose for the yard with an underground garage is important for maintaining the function of the yard.

  • 24.
    Bosson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Modellstudie av föroreningsretention i Bäckaslövs våtmark: Tillämpning av modellverktygen MIKE SHE WET och MIKE 212004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the nineties, ecological handling of urban storm water became very popular in Sweden. Together with Chalmers University of Technology and two Swedish communities, DHI Water and Environment has been doing research of storm water ponds and constructed wetlands. This thesis work is a part of that research project. The work has been applied at the Bäckaslöv storm water treatment plant in Växjö, Sweden. The plant consists of one storm water pond and a downstream constructed wetland. Simulations in two different modelling programs, MIKE SHE WET and MIKE 21 have been performed. MIKE SHE WET has never been used in practical work. The purpose of the program is to describe chemical and biological processes in wetlands and how the plants affect the retention of nutrients in the water. Since the program never has been used before, the main work has been to test the model to investigate whether it fulfil its purpose or not. MIKE 21 has been used to describe how the geometry influences the retention of suspended material, nitrogen and phosphorus. MIKE 21 has also been used to study how the wetland works without the storm water pond. To be able to describe the natural processes going on in wetlands the program MIKE SHE WET has to be further developed. The work has yet resulted in a package of measures that can improve the model. Science is in need for a model like MIKE SHE WET. If the program will be edited it can contribute a lot to the research of wetlands and storm water treatment. The simulations in MIKE 21 show that today’s shape of the wetland is not most favourable. If the water was spread over a bigger area the retention of nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended material would increase.

  • 25.
    Bydell, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Extension of the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 with a model for chemical precipitation of phosphorus2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, there are more than 2000 wastewater treatments plants (WWTPs) in Sweden. Emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus from these, do contribute to the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea and watercourses on a daily basis. To reduce emissions of phosphorus, the Swedish approach has for the last 50 years been to use chemical precipitation.

    Today, software is used to test and evaluate different strategies in WWTPs, this in order to improve the operation and get a holistic view over the process. One model that can be used to achieve a holistic view is the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2). In order to get a software like BSM2 to best mirror the reality, it is important that the model well describes the actual process. Today, BSM2 does not take the load of phosphorus into account, which, if it was included in the model, would describe the process better.

    In this master thesis, the author has investigated the possibility of extending the BSM2 model, to include phosphorus and chemical precipitation. Thereafter the results from simulations in BSM2 were compared with measurements from Henriksdals WWTP in Stockholm.

    The results showed that a model, after some simplifications, for phosphorus and chemical precipitation could be included in BSM2. The model uses primary precipitation. Precipitation chemical was added with assistance of a PI controller. Generally the results showed that the model had potential to describe the total flow of phosphorus in the WWTP. In measurements from Henriksdal the average total phosphorus effluent from primary and secondary sedimentation were 3.97 and 0.43 mg/l, respectively. From a steady state simulation in BSM2 the values were ​​4.26 and 0.44 mg/l and the average values ​​of a dynamic simulation 3.96 and 0.46 mg/l.

    Although the average values of total phosphorus matches quite well, it was found difficult to simulate the different fractions of phosphorus effluent from the secondary sedimentation. In order to better evaluate the results and how the simplifications of the model affects them, more measurements need to be done and a comparison with the results received from the BSM2 needs to be carried out. Also an adjustment of parameters in BSM2 must be done, this to achieve a better compliance with the given plant.

  • 26.
    Bäcklund, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fotogrammetrisk analys av kornstorleksfördelningeni erosionsskydd vid kraftverksdammar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis was made to investigate the possibilities of using the Matlab-basedsoftware Basegrain to determine grain size distributions of erosion protections onhydropower dams. Basegrain is a photogrammetric tool developed to generate grainsize distributions and other information about coarse flood sediments by analyzing adigital photo of the stone bed. The investigation was made by validating the ability forBasegrain to assess grain size distributions of various materials smaller than the blocksused in an erosion protection by comparing sieving results or manual measurementswith the results obtained by the program. A statistical comparison was then made bycomparing the results from sieving and the program. The possibilities of using thesame method on existing hydropower dams were then investigated by determiningwhether the method was practically viable or not.The results showed that Basegrain generated grain size distributions for coarse gravelthat were very close to the sieving results. It also provided grain size distributions forlarger fractions of stones quite close to the results made by measuring the diameterof the stones by hand. The results also showed it was possible to use the samemethod on existing erosion protections on hydropower dams and obtain grain sizedistributions.

  • 27.
    Calestam, Karl-Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bestämning av vattendelare i urban miljö: Metod för avgränsning av avrinningsområden i ArcGIS utgående från dagvattensystemet2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Growing populations result in expanding cities. An increase in the amount of impervious surfaces in the area will follow and thereby generate more storm water. The capacity of the drainage system can be evaluated using hydraulic modelling. The model highly depends on the catchment areas, which will determine the water volume each pipe section receive. Watershed delineation is usually done based on the topography. However, if a storm water drainage system is present, it may route the water in a different direction than the slope indicates. ArcHydro Tools is an extension to ArcMap and is commonly used to delineate catchment areas. The method heavily relies on topography during this process. A function has been developed during the course of this project to allow for the drainage system to be the primary source of information for watershed delineation.

    This function made sure that outlets in the model were to be evaluated as such, even if they happen to be located in the middle of the area of interest. The water is therefore not necessarily routed to the edge of the elevation model, but can be allowed to stay at the appropriate position. In order to do this, the drainage system was represented as a stream network.

    The new method was applied to test data supplied by Lidingö city, Stockholm, Sweden, and included elevation data and information about the drainage system. The result implies that it is indeed possible to use the drainage system as a base for delineation of catchment areas. A more efficient method of calculating catchment areas will reduce the required amount of manual processing, thereby saving time and resources. Another function, for finishing up the resulting catchment areas, is proposed but not fully implemented. The whole process was used to delineate catchment areas for Molkom, County of Värmland, Sweden. The resulting watersheds were later successfully used for modelling the storm water drains in the area. 

  • 28.
    Carlsson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tillförlitligheten i beräknade dimensionerande flöden i två mindre vattendrag med trånga sektioner2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is currently an accepted method for determining the design floods for dams which is described in The Swedish Design Flood Guidelines. The theoretical calculations of the design floods for dams associated with Flood Design Category I are based on the HBV model, a conceptual hydrological model that describes the interaction between the meteorological and hydrological conditions within a basin. Conceptual hydrological models are based on the water balance and are used to determine runoff to streams, lakes or other bodies of water. Conceptual hydrological models do not take explicit account for the geometry of the watercourse. Narrow sections in natural streams may prevent water flow and cause impoundment upstream from the narrow section. Following that, a part of the flow peak can be retained in the terrain and thereby attenuated and delayed. Hydraulic models describe the flow of water through the watercourse. High resolution elevation data is the foundation of a hydraulic model and hydraulic models thus take into account the basin topography as well as the watercourse bathymetry.

    The objective of this study was to analyze the reliability of design floods that have been determined according to The Swedish Design Flood Guidelines. By establishing hydraulic models of two specific streams affected by narrow sections it could be examined whether the narrow sections cause flow attenuation and whether the flow attenuation depends on the size of the water flow. The areas which were the subject of this study were a subsection of River Lagan and part of River Bolmån, which is River Lagan’s largest tributary.

    The results of the hydraulic model simulations showed that the flow peaks were attenuated and that it was the narrow sections that caused the main flow attenuation. Furthermore, the results showed that the relative attenuation depends on the size of the inflow in the hydraulic models. The relative attenuation of the design floods was 1.2 % and 2.0 % at River Lagan and 6.7 % at River Bolmån. The relative attenuation of the design flood was thus marginal at River Lagan. The fact that the design floods nevertheless were attenuated at both areas which were the subject of this study should be reason enough to review the method for the determination of design floods for dams associated with Flood Design Category I and examine whether it is possible to include hydraulic modeling in today’s conventional calculation methodology.

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Identifiering av parametrar för tillståndsbedömning av en vattenkraftstation2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report begins with a general inventory of possible technical faults in a hydropower plant and of possible fault indicating measurements. Then an investigation is made concerning a few different faults. Based on this investigation a choice on seal box condition and water leakage is made as problem for a more thorough examination, in which it is concluded that the turbine water leakage is larger when the turbine is put into operation. The examination ultimately results in a computer alarm for faults related to the seal box. Finally a few things are mentioned about flow measurement and pressure measurement in relation to the project as a whole.

  • 30.
    Cronander, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Återskapande av naturliga trösklar i mindre vattendrag och våtmarker: Modellutveckling för simulering av förändradeflödesregimer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 20th century a decrease in coastal predatory fish in the Baltic Sea has been observed. It has been suggested that exploitation of the fish’s spawning habitats, mainly through draining of coastal wetlands, was one reason for the fish decline. To recreate spawn and growth areas, natural thresholds can be installed in trenches draining coastal wetlands. To quantify the effects of a natural threshold on water discharge in the drainage area under various water flow regimes modeling is needed.In this study, a hydraulic model was developed to estimate the effect of changing water discharges of three wetlands when natural thresholds are implemented, i.e. Maren, Hyllekärr and Brokhål, located on northern Öland. The model was run under different water flow regimes. Through an observed strong relation between catchment area and discharge, extreme discharge situations could be simulated. A method for investigating the effects of natural thresholds on upstream flow regimes has been developed with hydraulic modeling in HEC-RAS. To validate the model results, a comparison with empirical data during the spring flood 2017 was made.Model simulations showed that only water discharges in Brokhål behaved as expected, Maren behaved as expected for large flows and results for Hyllekärr were considered not being reliable. Validation showed that the elevation model for topography and bathymetry deviated from reality in all three wetlands. The elevation model has been identified as the single largest source of error in the water discharge model.From the model results, it is concluded that natural thresholds have none, or very minor effects on the upstream water flow regimes. It should however be emphasized that the model has major limitations, in particular the elevation model’s resolution. It is highly recommended to further develop the elevation model before further simulations on water discharges are made. The results from this study should only be considered as a first approximation where more detailed studies are needed to confirm that natural thresholds won’t result in major changes in upstream water flows.

  • 31. Dahlbäck, Niklas
    et al.
    Norrlund, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Examples of Benefits from Efficiency Evaluation Using Comparative Tests2014In: 10th International Conference on Hydraulic Efficiency Measurements 2014-09-16 - 19, Itajubá, Brazil, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, most field efficiency measurements are made to verify guarantees for a new project, which have led to that this issue is well covered by standardization guidelines. There are however several other situations where information from field efficiency measurements contributes with value. Depending on issue and site characteristics, there are several feasible options, that are not described in current standards of primary methods.

    A comparative test is here defined as a test where efficiency is evaluated at the same flow conditions but with modified or changed turbine or water conduits. At an efficiency evaluation of a comparative test, many systematic uncertainties will cancel, and the overall evaluation of uncertainty will be at a very useful level. 

    This paper presents experiences of the hydropower producer Vattenfall, from several efficiency tests, where different types of comparative tests settings have been used.

  • 32.
    Dahllöf, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Trycksatt avloppssystem och självfallssystem i Fredrikstad kommun. En jämförande fallstudie.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of stricter treatment requirements and city expantion the length of the sewer network is steadily increasing. To drain wastewater by gravity requires a continuous slope which often results in great excavation - a very costly part in the process. An advantageous alternative could be a pressurized sewer system, which has been a useful complement to traditional gravity systems in hilly or rocky areas since the 70’s. Even though pressurized sewer systems lately have tended to be more frequently used outside their common application area due to stricter requirements on treatment and cost-efficiency, gravity systems are still the most common sewer system in urban areas. Concerning this, it would be intresting to investigate which of the two systems that suites a residental area on the outskirts of a city center best, since the area is outside the traditional usage of the two established systems. In addition it would be interesting for the wastewater industry in general to investigate how the two systems compare. 

    For this reason the aim of this master thesis was to compare pressure sewer systems with gravity systems on the basis of economy, environment and capacity. In addition, it was examined whether any general conclusions could be determined from the case study. The survey was based on a residental area in the outskirts of Fredrikstad city center, recently designed with a gravity system. A theoretical pressure sewer system was designed. Economy was evaluated based on the operating and maintenance costs and basic and reinvestment costs. The capacity was compared numerically and through design templates. As for the environmental comparison, an evaluation was done on the basis of reports from the Swedish Water & Wastewater Association and Norwegian Water BA.

    An expansion to double the number of real properties was planned for the area of study, which proved to be crucial to the financial results. The gravity system was most appropriate from an economic standpoint and the vital factor was the high investment and operating costs for the pumping units. Even from an environmental point of view, the gravity system was maginally better. Given that the risk effects are not ranked relative to each other. In terms of capacity the gravity system was dimensioned for almost twice the flow compared to the pressure sewer systems, which gave the pressure sewer system a more adusted capacity. The result indicated that the pressure sewer system is favorable in densely built flexible areas.

  • 33. Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Floods in a Changing Climate: Inundation Modelling2012Book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Eckersten, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Updating Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves in Sweden Accounting for the Observed Increase in Rainfall Extremes2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased extreme precipitation has been documented in many regions around the world, in- cluding central and northern Europe. Global warming increases average temperature, which in turn enhances atmospheric water holding capacity. These changes are believed to increase the frequency and/or intensity of extreme precipitation events. In determining the design storm, or a worst probable storm, for infrastructure design and failure risk assessment, experts commonly assume that statistics of extreme precipitation do not change significantly over time. This so- called notion of stationarity assumes that the statistics of future extreme precipitation events will be similar to those of historical observations. This study investigates the consequences of using a stationary assumption as well as the alternative: a non-stationary framework that con- siders temporal changes in statistics of extremes. Here we evaluate stationary and non-stationary return levels for 10-year to 50-year extreme precipitation events for different durations (1-day, 2-day, ..., 7-day precipitation events), based on the observed daily precipitation from Sweden. Non-stationary frequency analysis is only considered for stations with statistically significant trends over the past 50 years at 95% confidence (i.e., 15 to 39 % out of 139 stations, depend- ing on duration, 1-day, 2-day, ..., 7-day). We estimate non-stationary return levels using the General Extreme Value distribution with time-dependent parameters, inferred using a Bayesian approach. The estimated return levels are then compared in terms of duration, recurrence in- terval and location. The results indicate that a stationary assumption might, when a significant trend exists, underestimate extreme precipitation return levels by up to 40 % in Sweden. This report highlights the importance of considering better methods for estimating the recurrence in- terval of extreme events in a changing climate. This is particularly important for infrastructure design and risk reduction. 

  • 35.
    Ekergård, Boel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Full Scale Applications of Permanent Magnet Electromagnetic Energy Converters: From Nd2Fe14B to Ferrite2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents research regarding a full scale linear ferrite permanent magnet generator, installed in a wave energy conversion system. The ferrite based magnetic circuit, supplementing the previous utilized Nd2Fe14B-magnet design, is designed with an electromagnetic numerical simulation tool, where the model is derived from Maxwell’s equations. The full scale design is, known to the author, the first developed linear ferrite based machine. The material change in the magnetic circuit required different mechanical solutions of the generator. The fundamental, primary theory and reasoning behind the new mechanical design is here presented, where sustainability, economy and production have been in focus and affected the final design. Two versions of the generator have been assembled and deployed at the projects experimental site on the Swedish west coast, and three more are under construction, planned to be installed during the autumn of 2013.  

    Further, the thesis presents an electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena. Full scale experimental results present a successfully achieved electric resonance between the linear wave energy generator and external circuit.

    Finally, research regarding a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle is presented. Detailed analytical and numerical calculations are utilized to investigate the losses in the machine over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate the possibility of an increased efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system and argue for elimination of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased.   

    The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the Lysekil Wave Power Project, developed by a research group at Uppsala University, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electric vehicles with ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System.      

    List of papers
    1. Supplementing rare-earth metal with ferrite in wave power generator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supplementing rare-earth metal with ferrite in wave power generator
    (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207161 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Ideal Analytical Expression of the Magnetic Circuit in a Permanent Magnet Linear Machine
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ideal Analytical Expression of the Magnetic Circuit in a Permanent Magnet Linear Machine
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), 2013, 2013, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to presents a study and derived expressions of the magnetic flux density in the air-gap of the linear synchronous permanent magnet generator, utilized in the wave energy converter. The significance of a well-modelled magnetic flux density-term is important, when, for example, modelling the induced voltage and dimension the support structure due to the magnetic force between the stator and translator at no load situation.

    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207165 (URN)10.1109/EVER.2013.6521545 (DOI)000325276700028 ()978-1-4673-5269-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Eighth International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies EVER’13, March 27-30, 2013, Monte-Carlo, Monaco
    Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2014-01-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Experimental results from a linear wave power generator connected to a resonance circuit
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental results from a linear wave power generator connected to a resonance circuit
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, ISSN 2041-8396, E-ISSN 2041-840X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 456-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The output voltage from a direct-driven permanent magnet linear generator installed in a wave power plant varies both in amplitude and frequency. Electrical conversion is therefore necessary before grid connection can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to present an electrical conversion system based on the electric resonance phenomena. As one of the first steps in the development, and to gain further knowledge and understanding of the proposed resonance circuit, experimental tests with a single-phase permanent magnet linear generator connected to a resonance circuit were performed. The experimental results presented in this paper indicated that a successful resonance between the generator and external circuit was achieved. The research regarding the wave energy converters lies within The Lysekil Wave Power Project at Uppsala University and has been ongoing since 2002.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-190112 (URN)10.1002/wene.19 (DOI)000343208400007 ()
    Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Electric resonance-rectifier circuit for renewable energy conversion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric resonance-rectifier circuit for renewable energy conversion
    2012 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 043511-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed generators are used more frequently for converting the energy from renewable energy sources to electric energy. The power production form a variable speed generator is dependent on the electrical damping of the generator. In this paper, a resonance circuit connected to a direct driven linear generator used for wave energy utilization is investigated. At resonance, the electrical damping in the generator increases which results in an increased power production. The results show that resonance can be achieved with the suggested circuit.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171440 (URN)10.1063/1.3680097 (DOI)000300064500076 ()
    Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    5. A resonance circuit for electrical conversion systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A resonance circuit for electrical conversion systems
    2011 (English)In: PS Public Service Review, Vol. European Union, no 22, p. 268-271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PS Public Service Review, 2011
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-164211 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2011-12-16 Last updated: 2016-04-20Bibliographically approved
    6. Linear Generator Connected to a Resonance-Rectifier Circuit
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linear Generator Connected to a Resonance-Rectifier Circuit
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, ISSN 0364-9059, E-ISSN 1558-1691, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a linear direct driven generator used for wave energy utilization. The generator is placed on the seabed and connected to a buoy on the ocean surface. Due to the reciprocating motion of the translator, an electrical conversion system is needed between the wave energy converter (WEC) and the grid. Depending on how the conversion system is designed, the generator will be subjected to different loads. A novel conversion system is presented in this paper where the voltage from the WEC is rectified in a resonance circuit. Both simulations and experiments are performed on the circuit. The results from the simulations show that a higher power absorption and power production can be achieved with the resonance circuit compared to a WEC connected to a passive rectifier. A WEC, L9, developed by Uppsala University (Uppsala, Sweden) was used in the experiment. Significantly higher power absorption was obtained for L9 compared to power data from the first installed WEC, L1, at the Lysekil research site.

    Keywords
    Linear direct driven generators, resonance circuits, wave energy conversion
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-200363 (URN)10.1109/JOE.2012.2227552 (DOI)000317920200004 ()
    Available from: 2013-05-28 Created: 2013-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    7. Theory and Simulations of an End Stop Solution in a Linear Wave Power Generator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theory and Simulations of an End Stop Solution in a Linear Wave Power Generator
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207205 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved
    8. Tolerance Analysis in a Linear Permanent Magnet Generator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tolerance Analysis in a Linear Permanent Magnet Generator
    (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207166 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2014-01-23Bibliographically approved
    9. Analysis of longitudinal ends effects in a Linear Permanent Magnet Generator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of longitudinal ends effects in a Linear Permanent Magnet Generator
    (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207168 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2014-01-23Bibliographically approved
    10. Prediction of the Inductance in a Synchronous Linear Permanent Magnet Generator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of the Inductance in a Synchronous Linear Permanent Magnet Generator
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, ISSN 1942-0730, E-ISSN 1942-0749, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 155-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents calculations of the varying inductances profile for a synchronous linear surface mounted permanent magnet generator in an ABC reference system. Calculations are performed by utilizing the reluctance term, known from analytic calculations and finite element method simulations. With the inductance term identified, the voltage difference between the generator’s no load and load voltage can be calculated and an external circuit can be designed for optimal use of the generator. Two different operation intervals of the linear generator are considered and the results are discussed. The result indicates that time costly finite element simulations can be replaced with simple analytical calculations for a surface mounted permanent magnet linear generator.

    Keywords
    Wave Power, Synchronous Linear Permanent Magnet Generator, Varying Inductance, ABC of Frame Reference
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-164202 (URN)10.4236/jemaa.2011.35025 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2011-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    11. Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All Electric Vehicles: a Review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All Electric Vehicles: a Review
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 475-484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical review of the drivelines in all Electric Vehicles (EVs). The motor topologies that are the best candidates to be used in EVs are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each electric motor type are discussed from a system perspective. A survey of the electric motors used in commercial EVs is presented. The survey shows that car manufacturers are very conservative when it comes to introducing new technologies. Most of the EV’s in the market mount a single induction or permanent magnet motor with a traditional mechanic driveline with a differential. The study illustrates that comparisons between the different motors are made difficult by the large number of parameters and the lack of a recommended test scheme. The authors propose that a standardized drive cycle is used to test and compare motors.

    Keywords
    Motor drives, Road vehicle electric propulsion, Road vehicle power systems, Traction motors
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157858 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2011.2177873 (DOI)000300427400005 ()
    Available from: 2012-04-19 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    12. On a Two Pole Motor for Electric Propulsion System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On a Two Pole Motor for Electric Propulsion System
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology, ISSN 2319 - 5967, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 99-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207170 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2016-10-06Bibliographically approved
  • 36.
    Eklund, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Massbalansmodellering av fosfor i ett åländskt kustområde: en utredning om lokaliseringen av Lotsbroverkets utloppsledning2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is commissioned by the Water and Sewage Agency in The City of Mariehamn, Åland. The basic aim is to investigate positive or negative effects of a relocation of the sewage pipe from a wastewater treatment plant, Lotsbroverket. The environmental licence of Lotsbroverket is to be revised and The Environmental Appeal Board at Åland’s Government and Administrative Board has made demands that several possible locations in an outer water area should be examined. The present location of the sewage pipe is in Svibyviken, which has been classified as an “inner water area”.

    The objective of this work is to study to which extent the nutrient loading from Lotsbroverket influence the environmental conditions in Svibyviken, and to investigate the suitability of different locations of the wastewater pipe from Lotsbroverket.

    The way a coastal area looks, i.e., its morphometry, determines to a large extent its ecological characteristics. The investigated coastal area was digitalized from a nautical chart. The software used for this was Roots 3.3 and the GIS-tool ArcGIS 8.3. The localization of the coastal boundaries for the entire coastal area and for investigated sub-areas was determined according to the topographical bottleneck method, i.e., the boundary lines were drawn where the exposure of the coast to the open sea is minimized.

    A process-based dynamic mass-balance model for total phosphorous has been used in this study. Using this model, one can estimate and quantify the effects of different nutrient sources in coastal areas. All the fluxes of phosphorous to, from and within the defined areas were studied and ranked. Model simulations have shown how changes in any of the phosphorous fluxes influence the mean monthly concentrations of total phosphorous. The situation for total nitrogen was determined with a statistical/empirical regression model between phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations. To estimate the expected ecological effects from a change in the nutrient loading from Lotsbroverket, statistical/empirical correlations between modelled nutrient concentrations and ecological effect variables have been used. Standard effect variables for the study of eutrophication effects in coastal areas are, e.g., the chlorophyll concentration, Secchi depth and oxygen saturation in deep water. These variables have also been used in this study.

    It has been shown that (1) the nutrient concentrations of the Baltic Sea controls the concentration of nutrients in the studied areas to a very large extent, (2) that the nutrient fluxes from Lotsbroverket are small compared to the nutrient fluxes from the Baltic Sea and hence also of minor importance for the nutrient state of the receiving water system, (3) that the influence of the nutrient emissions from Lotsbroverket are most noticeable in the present inner recipient, Svibyviken, and (4) that the impact logically decreases with distance between the location of the sewage pipe and boundary line to the open sea. The overall conclusion is that no major improvement of the conditions in Svibyviken can be expected by a reduction or a relocation of the nutrient emissions from Lotsbroverket.

  • 37.
    Eliasson, Mikaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kvantifiering av föroreningstillskott från dagvatten inom skyddsområdet för Göta Älv: en simuleringsstudie med modellen SEWSYS2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The river Göta Älv reaches between Vänern and Gothenburg and is the main raw water source for Gothenburg that supplies about 700 000 people with water. To protect and maintain a high water quality, continuously samples and water analyses are made throughout the river. In 1998 a protection area was founded between surte and Lärjeholm where the raw water intake is. This was made to increase the awareness of the importance to protect the water. However, there is a lot of contribution of untreated stormwater to Göta Älv within the protection area.

    Göteborg Water and Sewage Works commissioned this thesis where two areas, Tagene industrial area and Kärra residential area, with untreated stormwater outlets within the protection area are studied. The areas have been divided according to surface composition with different rates of pollutant contribution. Then the stormwater flow and the contribution of pollutants was simulated with the model SEWSYS. The future aim is that the model will be able to simulate the contribution of pollutants for a variety of rains, for the whole protection area.

    SEWSYS (Sewer System) is built in MATLAB/Simulink and consists of three modules, a stormwater module, a sanitary wastewater module and a treatment plant module. This project only includes the stormwater module. The model simulates the stormwater flow and the pollutants total phosphorous, total nitrogen, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Samples and analysis for the two areas has been carried out for another thesis work during the same period. The results from those analyses have been used for the model settings for the areas.

    Simulations have been performed to adjust the model and evaluate its ability to describe the stormwater flow and the pollutant contribution within the areas. The amount of stormwater and the runoff are well simulated by the model. However, the measured and analysed data has not been enough to get reliable simulations over the pollutant contribution. Further development of the model is necessary. Generally the model simulates lower values compared to measured values, especially in the industrial area. For a more general understanding over how SEWSYS works for the two areas, simulations were carried out on a yearly basis. Those simulations have been compared with general data for stormwater pollutants. Even though the results from the simulations have shown lower values than the measured values, the model shows clearly that the contribution of pollutants from the industrial site is greater than the contribution from the residential site.

  • 38.
    Englund, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jarmander, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Forsgren, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Toranian, Adela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Perman, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Gannholm, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Vägval för vattenanvändning i Uppsalas framtida stadsdelar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uppsala is one of eight cities which, by request from the Swedish government, has been elected for the mission of sustainable urban development. This project centers around the city district Bergsbrunna in Uppsala, which the municipality (Uppsala Kommun) is planning to develop. The area will cover the southern part of Uppsala. By commission of the municipality, a study has been made on different methods in the field of water-use. The study will lay the groundwork for the municipality’s development plans and sustainable urban development. This with the goal to answer how the water-use is made up, with today’s methods compared to with new, possible methods. Data from the methods which have been studied in this project will later be used by Uppsala Kommun to model water-use in the modelling program LEAP. 

    According to Uppsala Vatten, a person living in Uppsala uses, on average, 140 L of drinking water per day. This project studies several possible methods to reduce water-use; how water-meters affect water-use, if rainwater collection is possible and to which degree drinking water can be replaced by rainwater, water-saving techniques in households such as water-saving nozzles, water circulating showers and grey water reuse, as well as different techniques for sewer systems, urban farming, urban runoff management and green roofs.

    The quantified methods are compared with each other and with the water consumption given by Uppsala Vatten. For washing-up, the greatest drinking water reduction is given by the nozzle’s mist-mode (0.56 L per person and day). For showering, the greatest drinking water reduction is given by a water circulation shower (5.6 L per person and day). For sewer systems and toilets, the urine sorting vacuum system gives the lowest water-use (1.1 L per person and day). A method, whose function gives awareness concerning water-use amongst the population, is the installation of individual water-meters, which reduces the use of drinking water by 20 %. For urban runoff and urban farming, examples are calculated. A risk assessment for methods studied in this project can be a guide for decision-making.

    The result particularly shows two scenarios where methods have been combined using Sankey diagrams. The first scenario shows how the drinking water-use would change by implementing water-meters and conventional, water-use reducing toilets. This resulted in a reduction by up to 31 L of drinking water per person and day. The second scenario is called the “most water reducing scenario” and consists of the most water reducing techniques as well as replacement of drinking water by rainwater for the categories toilet flushing, laundry and other. This resulted in a reduction by up to 127 L of drinking water per person and day. Another result shows that some methods should not be combined, for maximum effect.

    The quality of the references used in this project varies. To perform calculations and obtain results some simplifications and assumptions have been made. The limited extent of the project results in many of the sustainability aspects beyond water-use only being treated superficially or to no extent. Therefore, the result should not be used directly but should instead be seen as a guide to further studies and future decisions.

    In conclusion, new techniques and methods should be standard for sustainable urban development in water-use. The study shows that there are a great number of possible methods that can contribute to a reduction in water-use and sustainable urban development

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Lakvattenrening och kontroll vid deponier: granskning och sammanställning2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If not purified leachate from landfills would cause damages on the environment. At most landfills in Sweden local treatment of leachate is achieved, at the rest the leachate is transported to sewertreatment. While no comprehensive legal provisions for discharge exist in Sweden there is a difference in discharges between the installations for landfill. If no comprehensive legal provisions is produced guidance must improve.

    Treatment of leachate and self monitoring system at fifteen installations in Sweden has been studied and compared. A study of literature about different treatment solutions has also been performed. Practical information about the landfills has been gathered through visits. Processes of treatment described in literature correspond to measures. Variations exists between the self monitoring systems at the installations both between parameters for analyses, how often controls take place and were testpoints are situated.

    Knowledge of reactions and techniques for treatment of compounds common in leachate exist. Further research about compounds whose effect we do not know for certain must be achieved.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sigvant, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Causes and impact of surface water pollution in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Surface water is globally becoming more and more a scarce resource, and in Addis Ababa the capital of Ethiopia, river water quality has been degraded due to anthropological forcing for many years. Therefore, the study objective was to investigate causes and impact of surface water pollution in Kebena and Great Akaki rivers. The technical aspect of the study focused on analysing the parameters E. coli, phosphate, nitrate and total ammonia nitrogen in 34 different sampling sites in the western part of the Great Akaki catchment. The other aspect was to evaluate authorities’ and companies’ perspective on the water quality, usage and future plans to mitigate further pollution of rivers. Another perspective was to interview households and farmers regarding their view on usage, water quality and health risks.

    The main finding was a high surface water contamination in both Kebena and Akaki river, throughout the city, mostly from domestic, municipality and industrial wastewater and solid waste. E. coli concentrations exceeded thresholds given by WHO. Concentrations of phosphate and total ammonia nitrogen strongly indicated eutrophication. Nitrate values were lower than expected with no perceived healthrisk. The interview study with authorities, households and farmers indicated irrigation as the main usage. Little to moderate health risks perceived by farm users and high health risks perceived by authorities for farmers were found.

    Therefore, addressing a stronger collaboration between authorities and the local community is important. In addition, the implementation of mitigation strategies should be strengthened and the stakeholders need to be accountable for their actions. A continued monitoring of pollutants as well as a multi-sectoral approach to solidwaste and wastewater management will help improve the river water quality.

  • 41.
    Eriksson Russo, Victoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för vatten och miljö.
    Mikroplast i behandlat lakvatten: En fallstudie med åtta avfallsanläggningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers and authorities worldwide recognize the substantial accumulation of microplastics in the oceans as well as the uptake of these microplastics by various living organisms. Microplastics are often defined as plastic particles smaller than five millimeters and can originate from several anthropogenic activities. The majority of all plastics ever produced are accumulated in landfills or the natural environment. Since studies have found plastic additives in leachate from landfills, landfill leachate is thought to be a possible source of microplastic emissions.

    In this study, the occurrence of microplastics ≥ 100 micrometers was examined in treated leachate from eight waste facilities in Sweden: seven with landfills and one without. The leachate was filtered through filters with a 100 micrometer pore size. Particles on the surface of the mesh were examined under a stereo microscope and then further investigated by a melting test in order to quantify the number of microplastic particles. To see if the leachate samples might have been contaminated with microplastics from other sources, reference samples were analyzed by letting tap water go through the same sampling procedure as the leachate samples. In the leachate samples from the waste facilities with landfills, microplastic concentrations between 0 and 2.7 microplastic particles per liter were found. In the control samples the corresponding concentrations were between 0.2 and 1.7 microplastic particles per liter. Due to similar concentrations in the leachate and control samples, it was impossible to determine if the microplastics originated from the leachate or came from contamination via sampling and analysis. The results of the study therefore indicate that the microplastic concentrations in treated leachate from landfills are low or even nonexistent.

    The waste facility without a landfill in the study was a sorting facility. At this facility, microplastic concentrations between 2.3 and 4.2 microplastic particles per liter were found in the leachate samples. In the control sample the corresponding concentration was 0.2 microplastic particles per liter. The difference between the concentrations in the leachate samples and control sample indicate that some of the microplastics might have originated from the leachate. Therefore it is possible that other microplastics from waste activities than landfilling can end up in the leachate. However, this result is only based on one sample. Studies including more samples from more sorting facilities are needed to confirm these results.

    Mass calculations based on the microplastic concentrations, assuming that detected concentrations originated from the leachate, indicate that if microplastics ≥ 100 micrometers are emitted through the leachate from Swedish landfills the maximum emission is only a few tens of kilograms per year. This makes treated leachate from waste facilities insignificant in comparison to other known microplastic sources in Sweden.

  • 42.
    Euren, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    System Identification of Irrigation Channels with Overshot and Undershot gates2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water resources in Australia are limited. For a farmer the access to water is crucial and due to the dry climate the farmers in Australia can not rely on precipitation. Irrigation is therefore a very important part of the farming industry.

    The Coleambally Irrigation Area is situated in the southern parts of New South Wales close to the border of Victoria. The Irrigation Network often supplies the irrigation channels with too much water to be sure that the demand of water is satisfied. Due to this over supply a great amount of water gets wasted. Design of a bettercontrol system would be able to reduce the water wastage.

    A mathematical model describing the dynamics of the irrigation system can be used as a tool for the control system design. The aim of this project was to build a mathematical model with the system identification approach. The model should be able to describe the downstream water level of a single pool of an irrigation channel which has both undershot and overshot gates. A model was built by estimating unknown parameters of a chosen model structure from a set of experimental data. The data was collected from an experiment performed on the real irrigation system in Coleambally.

    The result of the system identification was a first order output error grey box model. The model performs well on validation data and may therefore be used for design of a more efficient control system. The model gave such good results that it additionally may be used for various simulation purposes.

  • 43. Fastlund, Martina
    Arseniks löslighet i grundvattenakviferen i Hjältevad: Utvärdering med geokemisk modellering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive concentrations of arsenic in soil- and groundwater constitute a global issue. The spread of arsenic is due to both natural and anthropogenic effects in the environment. Historically, the anthropogenic emissions have originated from several different industrial sectors e.g. wood impregnation. In Sweden, there are approximately 85 000 contaminated sites. Most of them are contaminated due to industrial activities. The emissions of arsenic in Sweden are mainly due to the wood impregnating agent CCA (copper, chromium and arsenic). Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that predominantly occurs as the inorganic compounds arsenite As[III] and arsenate As[V] in soil and groundwater. The mobilization of the arsenic compounds in soil water is affected by the redox conditions and by other conditions in the field, e.g. pH. Arsenate adsorbs stronger to iron- and aluminum hydroxides. Arsenite is the most toxic, mobile and soluble of the two compounds.

     

    In a previously remediated impregnation plant in Hjältevad, Småland, arsenic has started to spread in the soil and groundwater. High dissolved concentrations of arsenic have been measured in the area. A hypothesis about the recent mobilization of arsenic is that pollutants below the groundwater table which were left behind after remediation started to dissolve due to changed redox conditions. This report aims to evaluate how the mobilization and adsorption of arsenic in Hjältevad is effected by pH and redox potential. This was addressed by leaching tests and geochemical modeling in Visual MINTEQ. Soil samples were collected during autumn 2017. Soil samples from seven different sampling points, taken from different depths were collected. Leaching tests were carried out for both dry and humid soil samples. Oxalate extractable arsenic was used together with measured dissolved concentrations of cat- and anions as input in Visual MINTEQ. The input data were used to evaluate the mobilization and adsorption of arsenite, arsenate and total arsenic due to pH, redox potential and the specific surface area of ferrihydrite. The modeling showed that the mobilization and adsorption of arsenic is dependent on pH, redox potential and reactive surfaces in the soil solution. Arsenate was adsorbed more strongly between pH 4.5 and 6.5 while arsenite was adsorbed at pH values greater than 7. The conclusion is that the mobilization and adsorption of arsenic were affected to some extent by the pH value. However the redox potential and the specific surface area of ferrihydrite were more influential. To verify the trends seen in the report, additional modeling is required. The report shows that most likely, arsenic started to mobilize in Hjältevad due to the changed redox conditions.

  • 44.
    Filipsson, Ingela
    Institutionen för energi och teknik, SLU.
    Latrin som substrat vid rötning: utvärdering av biogaspotential och reduktion av läkemedelsrester2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous which can cause eutrophi-cation in lakes and streams. Meanwhile, large quantities of nutrients are used in agriculture in order to produce food. One way to utilize nutrients in wastewater and return them to agriculture could be source separation of sewage. This way, nutrients are collected in smallvolumes and are not mixed with bathing, washing, and cleaning water. This thesis aimed at investigating anaerobic digestion as a treatment method and technology to make use of the energy in latrine. In anaerobic digestion, microorganisms degrade organic material and produce energy rich biogas that can be used for heating, electricity, or vehicle fuel. The residue remaining after digestion contains nutrients but also pollutants. The study examined the content of heavy metals and drug residues in latrine, and to what extent the digestion process affected the pharmaceutical content.

    To evaluate the anaerobic digestion as treatment of latrines, 44 batch experiments wereperformed at laboratory scale. Latrine was taken from a collection basin in Norrtälje. Inoculum from two active anaerobic digestion plants were mixed with latrine in sealed glass bottles and put on shaking tables for approximately 60 days. Some bottles contained an addition of eight drugs dissolved in methanol. Two parallel experiments were performed one at mesophilic temperature (37ºC) and one at thermophilic temperature (52ºC). The volume of gas produced and methane content was measured for calculation of the biogas potential. After completion of the digestion period, the liquid and solids were separated and frozen pending analysis of drug residues.

    The biogas produced was a little over 250 Nml CH4/gVS after 60 days being comparable to production from pig and chicken manure. The bottles containing added substances showed no inhibition of the biogas process since the gas production was slightly greater in these. The nitrogen content of latrine was 3.7 g/L, the phosphorus content 1.0 g/L and potassium content of 1.0 g/L. The cadmium-phosphorus ratio was 25 mg Cd/kg P, same as the average of Revaq certified sewage sludge. The heavy metal concentrations were below the limits allowed for sewage fractions applied on arable land as proposed by the Swedish Environ-mental Protection Agency. The latrine could be used as fertilizer with current and proposed regulations. Several things indicate that the latrine used contained a higher feces-urine ratio than expected and therefore does not fully represent a complete blackwater.

    Analyses on drug concentrations were preformed on the liquid phase of the material before and after various periods of anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion proved not to be an effective method to reduce pharmaceuticals in latrine. There were more cases where the concentration of the drug increased rather than decreased during digestion. The increase could be due to changes in adsorption properties of the material during digestion, making them more observable in the analysis. The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is relatively well known but more understanding is needed on the hazards of pharmaceutical residues in aquatic and especially agricultural environment.

  • 45.
    Florberger, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Dagvattendammars reningseffekt: påverkande faktorer och metodik för statistisk modellering2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Storm water is defined as runoff from precipitation such as rain or snow. It is collected in sewage disposal systems and since it mainly originates from urban areas it can contain high levels of heavy metals, nutrients and oil etc. Polluted storm water is currently treated by different methods such as wet ponds, constructed wetlands and filter strips. This study investigates these methods, which in earlier studies have shown to give varying results regarding their treatment efficiency.

    This thesis has been written on commission of SWECO VIAK and was aimed at studying those parameters that may affect the treatment efficiency of nutrients and heavy metals in storm water treatment facilities (STF:s). Through literature studies the dominating treatment processes in ponds and wetlands were examined. The flow pattern was then simulated in four different storm water ponds, of varying shape and size, by using a physically based computer model. The residence time distribution for each pond could then be calculated as well as the hydraulic efficiency, which is a measure on how well the inflowing water is spread throughout a pond. Finally a multiple regression analysis was performed. This analysis examined how the reduction of lead, copper, zinc and cadmium depends on the following factors: the specific pond area, the variance of the residence time distribution, the hydraulic efficiency and the concentration of incoming metals and suspended solids. The specific pond area is a factor which is defined as the pond area divided by the reduced run off area.

    The results from the multiple regression analysis indicate that an increasing content of inflowing suspended solids leads to a better treatment efficiency regarding lead and copper. The specific area showed to have some effect on the treatment efficiency, but this effect was less than that of the content of inflowing suspended solids. The reduction of cadmium depended mainly on the specific area and the incoming concentration of cadmium. An increasing reduction of zinc could to some extent be explained by an increasing specific area.

    The results from this analysis and earlier studies are emphasizing the fact that adsorption to particles and sediment is one of the main processes for a good separation of heavy metals from storm water. Longer measurements series from additional treatment facilities are needed to build a statistical model which, in the future, can be used to predict the treatment efficiency of storm water ponds.

  • 46.
    Forsberg, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Dimensionering och utformning av dagvattendammar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Storm water runoff in urban areas will be collected in storm water systems and one typeof solution to receive a flow and pollution reduction is storm water ponds. This studyincludes a literature study that compiles knowledge and literature about storm water andtreatment of storm water by ponds. Compiled information and equations describingrunoff and processes in storm water ponds have been used as base for creating an Excelbased calculation tool specific for storm water ponds. By entering information about astorm water pond as input to the tool step by step it provides an estimated resultregarding the pollution reduction efficiency of the incoming storm water. The toolestimates the reduction efficiency for suspended soils (SS), phosphorus, (P), copper(Cu) and zinc (Zn). The reduction efficiency of SS is determined in the tool by usingtwo different methods that includes input data of the pond hydraulics depending on itsdesign, incoming concentration of SS and the pond volume relative to runoff area. Thetool also estimates the reduction efficiency of SS by particle fraction. Reduction of P,Cu and Zn is estimated in two methods by using the particle bound and the reductionefficiency of SS. The created tool has thereafter been applied on six well documentedponds located in Sweden. The estimated results by the tool is thereafter compeered tothe documented results regarding incoming flow, pollution concertation and reductionefficacy. The estimated tool is also compared with results from StormTac, which is aprogram for design of storm water facilities. The result indicates that the tool estimatesthe incoming flow and concentration relatively well but that it is complicated toestimates the big variations in storm water. Both the tool and StormTac generallyestimates lower reduction efficacy of SS than the actual for all selected ponds. Thereduction efficiency of P, Cu and Zn is also underestimated by the tool compared to theactual values. However, it can be observed that the estimated result follow the sametrend as the actual values and result from StormTac.

  • 47.
    Forslund, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Dosering av fällningsmedel i avloppsreningsverk: Utformning och design av en tryckluftsinjicerande doserramp2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En central del i reningsverkens behandling av avloppsvatten är att dosera fällningskemikalier i syfte att reducera halten fosfor samt organiskt material. Under fällningsprocessen är det viktigt att det sker en snabb och fullständig inblandning av fällningsmedlet i avloppsvattnet för att uppnå goda reningsresultat. På Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm undersöks möjligheten att tillämpa en doseringsanordning som med hjälp av tryckluft doserar fällningskemikalien genom ett perforerat rör från kanalens botten för att på detta vis åstadkomma en effektiv inblandning. Anordningen, en doserramp, är tänkt att utnyttjas som extra fällningssteg under högflödesrening, vilket förekommer när det inkommande flödet överskrider reningsverkets hydrauliska kapacitet och uppstår vanligtvis vid kraftiga skyfall eller snösmältningsperioder. Under dessa perioder bräddas avloppsvattnet förbi den biologiska behandlingen, antingen till sandfiltreringen eller direkt till recipienten vilket resulterar i utsläpp av avloppsvatten med förhöjda föroreningshalter.

    Projektet utgick efter befintlig design och modell för dosering av fällningsmedel med tryckluft. Genom pilotförsök har sedermera en egenutvecklad doserramp utformats, utvärderats och optimerats i ändamål att kunna implementeras i verksamheten på Henriksdals reningsverk. Pilotförsöken kompletterades med teoretiska beräkningar av de resulterande tryckförlusterna genom rörsystemet via Darcy-Weisbachs ekvation. Tester utfördes på en doserramp i fullstor skala med två olika rördimensioner, DN50 (innerdiameter 50 mm) respektive DN25 (innerdiameter 25 mm) med en horisontell rörlängd på 4 m. Som vätskemedium användes vatten från reningsverket. Resultaten från experimenten med båda rördimensionerna visade att bäst prestanda uppnåddes när en korrigerad hålbild med avtagande centrumavstånd mellan luftningshålen implementerades i kombination med att luftningshålen vinklades vertikalt nedåt. Vid experiment med den större rördimensionen DN50 uppmättes bäst prestanda när den horisontella rördelen fylldes med fyllkroppar vilka fyllde funktionen att finfördela luft- och vätskeblandningen och samtidigt bibehålla en hög turbulens längs det horisontella röret. Den resulterande tryckförlusten genom doserrampen beräknades till 4–8 bar beroende på vätskekälla och ingående lufttryck.

  • 48.
    Fredlund, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ett flervariabelt feldetekteringssystem för övervakning av bärlagertemperaturen i vattenkraftturbiner2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis work was to develop an automatic fault detection system for surveillance of bearing temperature in hydropower turbines. The parameters used except the bearing temperature were cooling water temperature and cooling water flow. A simple static model based on data sampled every minute was developed to estimate the bearing temperature. Then a detector for detection of change in bearing temperature based on the CUSUM-algorithm was designed. Since the amount of data was very small the developed model was too uncertain to be used in a working system.

    The designed fault detection system showed to work well for the available data. It is, however, recommended that the performance of the system should be evaluated using more data. Another model based on data sampled once every minute for at least a year has to be developed before the system can be fully evaluated. The results shown were:

    • The fault detection system can discover fast and slow changes in bearing temperature.

    • No false alarms were given for measuring faults and sensor faults of the types used in this thesis. If a measuring fault occurs for too long there will be an alarm.

    The fault detection algorithm was also implemented in Delphi to be used in a working system over the Internet where for example trends and alarms will be presented.

  • 49.
    Fridlund, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Utvärdering av den biologiska reningen av processavloppsvattnet vid GE Healthcare i Uppsala2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GE Healthcare operates in Uppsala (Sweden) and develops systems, equipments and medium to purify medical substances. Discussions with the local authority concerning planed far-reaching changes and upgrades of the biological process techniques for sewage management, aroused the question about revising the terms of permit for the activity. Therefore it seemed necessary to evaluate a newly installed biological process technique, which is the background of this thesis. The evaluated biological treatment process was built in 2003 and consists of a biological reactor filled with moving bed carriers with a high surface area for biological growth. At the time of the project the biological wastewater treatment plant consisted of a flow equalization facility and two following parallel biological processes; a biological reactor with moving bed carriers and a tower trickling filter.

    The aim of this thesis was to survey the function of the biological reactor with respect to the reduction of organic matter. Further to clarify which circumstances that have a negative effect on the organic reduction. During the three forthcoming years, an extensive reconstruction of the biological wastewater treatment facility will be accomplished. During the construction period the flow equalization will be very limited. Therefore an emission forecast with respect to organic matter was performed comprising the construction period during the years 2005, 2006 and 2007. This to estimate the safety margin to the emission standard during the construction period.

    Several parameters were surveyed during the project, water temperature, pH, plural nutrition elements, flow, oxygen concentration, suspended solids, organic load and microbial activity. At two occasions, the parameters were extensively studied during a 24-hour period respectively. Two capacity experiments were performed in order to evaluate the organic reduction at different organic loads. The obtained results together with an estimation regarding the organic load performed by AB Ångpanneföreningen were used for the emission forecast. The forecast considered two cases, operation with and without dosage of a flow with high organic content from the local solvent recycling facility (called T10-dosage).

    According to the forecast, the emission standard will be fulfilled during an average month regarding the organic load. This without T10-dosage and with an average reduction of 55 %. To fulfill the standard during a month with maximum organic load, a reduction of 65 and 75 % will be required in the cases without and with T10-dosage respectively. The organic reduction is negatively effected by lasting loads of 7 kg CODfilt/m3 or higher, or by a great increase of the load in a short period of time. Sporadic peaks regarding the organic load appeared to have temporary or no negative effects on the reduction. Flow variations during evenings, nights and weekends caused variations in the organic load with negative effect of the reduction rate. The oxygen concentration in the biological reactor has a conclusive significance of the reduction rate, a lower concentration than 2 mg/l affects the reduction rate in a negative way. The buffering capacity in the biofilm reactor showed to work excellently, the pH value varied between 6.8 and 8.9. There is an immediate risk of temperatures over 40oC during the construction period. This could have a negative influence of the organic reduction. Individual measured temperatures of 38oC did not have a negative effect on the reduction rate. The amount of suspended solids varied a lot in the outflow from the biological reactor and will continue to do so during the construction period.

  • 50.
    Frösegård, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Rening av bionedbrytbart löst organiskt kol (BDOC) i dricksvatten: En studie av vattenreningsprocesser vid Lovö vattenreningsverk med fokus på BDOC och potential för mikrobiell återväxt2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Halten organiska kolföreningar ökar i svenska ytvatten till följd av bland annat klimatförändringar och förändrad markanvändning i avrinningsområdet. Organiskt kol bidrar till färg, smak och lukt på vattnet och fungerar även som substrat för akvatiska mikroorganismer. Ungefär hälften av svenskt dricksvatten produceras idag från ytvatten. Det är av stor vikt att det organiska kolet, och då särskilt den bionedbrytbara lösta kolfraktionen, BDOC, renas bort från dricksvatten då dessa kolföreningar annars kan utgöra en fara för dricksvattensäkerheten. Vid Lovö vattenreningsverk i Stockholm testas nu en ny jonbytesbaserad reningsprocess i pilotskala för att förbättra vattenreningen av ytvatten med förhöjda halter organiska kolföreningar.

    För att undersöka och utvärdera den nya reningsprocessen togs vattenprover på ingående råvatten och därefter mellan varje steg i den jonbytesbaserade reningsprocessen. För jämförelse genomfördes samma provtagning i den fullskaliga, konventionella reningsprocessen, en process som idag producerar dricksvatten till konsumenter i norra delen av Stockholm. Proverna inkuberades i mörker i 20° C under cirka tre veckor. Under tiden utfördes mätningar och prover togs för analys. De parametrar som analyserades var syrgaskonsumtion, förändringar i bakteriehalt och halten totalt organiskt kol (TOC), samtliga med målet att kvantifiera den mikrobiella tillväxtpotentialen och innehållet av BDOC.

    Analyserna visade att det nya processteget i pilotanläggningen, som baseras på suspenderade anjonbytare, har potential att rena bort delar av den bionedbrytbara fraktionen av TOC. Det efterföljande, desinficerande, ozoneringssteget oxiderar därefter delar av kvarvarande TOC till mer bionedbrytbar form. Det allra sista reningssteget, ett granulerat aktivt kolfilter var ej i drift under projektet. Detta steg har dock i andra studier visats rena bionedbrytbart kol effektivt, varför den sammantagna bedömningen är att den nya reningsmetoden har god potential för rening av bionedbrytbara kolföreningar. 

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