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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bachofner Gran, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    de Afonseca, Ana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kalla, Christelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Livscykelanalys av förbrukningsvaror: En studie för minskad klimatpåverkan inom Landstinget i Uppsala län2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Landstinget i Uppsala län (LUL) presenterade år 2014 ett miljöprogram med målet att minskasin klimatpåverkan inom bland annat transport, energi och förbrukningsmaterial. Syftet meddenna studie var att undersöka möjligheten för LUL att minska sina utsläpp av växthusgasergenom att välja mer miljövänliga varianter av två välanvända förbrukningsvaror inom vården:operationsset och tvättlappar. Detta utfördes genom att tillämpa metoden livscykelanalys(LCA), där tre varianter av operationsset, två sorters tvättlappar samt ett jämförbartavtorkningspapper följdes ”från vaggan till graven”.Studiens resultat skulle besvara frågan om vilken produkt inom de två användningsområdenasom avgav minst växthusgaser i form av koldioxid, metan samt lustgas under en livscykel, föratt uppfylla samma funktion inom avdelningarna operation samt geriatrik. Resultatet skullepresenteras i enheten koldioxidekvivalenter (eCO2). Dessutom identifieradesförbrukningsvarorna som medförde de minsta årsförbrukningskostnaderna för LUL.Operationsseten som undersöktes bestod av polylaktid (PLA), polypropen (PP) samt viskos.Avtorkningspappret bestod av pappersmassa och tvättlapparna bestod bland annat av viskossamt skumplast. Studien avgränsades till att inkludera växthusgasutsläpp från tillverkning avråmaterial, tillverkning av förpackningsmaterial, transporter samt förbränning.Efter utförd LCA kunde det observeras att en årsförbrukning av operationssetet i PLA släppteut minst växthusgaser med cirka 11 100 kg eCO2 per år, operationssetet i PP släppte ut mestmed 25 100 kg eCO2 per år och operationssetet i viskos bidrog med 20 300 kg eCO2 per år. Enårsförbrukning av avtorkningspappret bidrog med minst växthusgasutsläpp med 67,1 kg eCO2per år, medan tvättlappen i viskos släppte ut 134 kg eCO2 per år och tvättlappen i skumplastbidrog med det största utsläppsvärdet på 1 150 kg eCO2 per år.En årsförbrukning av båda operationsseten i PLA och PP kostade cirka 127 000 kr medansamma mängd av operationssetet i viskos ungefär kostade 125 000 kr. Avtorkningspappretkostade 4 790 kr för en årsförbrukning, tvättlappen i viskos kostade 21 000 kr och tvättlappeni skumplast kostade 19 800 kr.Resultatet från denna studie tydde på att LUL skulle kunna minska sin klimatpåverkan frånförbrukningsmaterial genom att upphandla operationssetet i PLA samt avtorkningspappretistället för de alternativen som används i dagsläget. Det finns en osäkerhet i resultatet då flertaletantaganden gjordes i brist på tillgänglig information. Resultatet anses dock ge en rimlig bild avmiljöpåverkan från produkterna då de minst klimatpåverkande förbrukningsvarorna till stor delutgjordes av förnyelsebart material.

  • 2.
    Axelius, Torun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hellström, Josefine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Integration of sustainable management in retail: A case study of The Lobby - AMF Fastigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing environmental problems have today become global and changes are dras-tically needed in all levels of society. Customers’ buying behaviour can play a big partand it is possible to both contribute to a more sustainable world and add economic valueto a business, but new sustainable business models are needed. In this research projectThe Lobby, a new innovative marketplace owned by AMF Fastigheter, has been usedas a case study to find the key areas in retail business where change is most important.Furthermore, a life cycle assessment has been conducted to see where in a T-shirt’s lifecycle the most CO2equivalents are released and what the difference between a T-shirtbought at a physical store and e-commerce is. This research project has found that themost important area to focus on if sustainability is to be integrated successfully in aretail business is the company management. The commitment and attitude the companymanagement mediates to their employees is crucial for success. For The Lobby it is alsoimportant to evaluate which retailers they choose to approve due to the fact that its in-directly affecting their sustainability. The Lobby should also try to be more transparentand informative. By promoting their sustainability actions they can attract both cus-tomers and future retailers. But the research and knowledge in the field of influencingand changing customers’ behaviour is still limited and more research is needed.

  • 3.
    Axelius, Torun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hellström, Josefine
    Torpner, Jessie
    Trinh, Yvonne
    von Greyerz, Karin
    Office Recycling: Analys utifrån Triple Bottom Line2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Office Recycling Sverige AB efterfrågade en hållbarhetsrapport som kan användasinom företaget men även mot kunderna. I studien analyserades processer i företagetför att undersöka och kunna optimera verksamheten där resultatet sedan kan användassom underlag till en hållbarhetsrapport. Som metod valdes Triple Bottom Line därekonomiska, miljömässiga och sociala aspekter ingår. Alla undersökningar sompresenteras i rapporten utfördes enligt denna modell.I studien undersöktes hur utformningen av en hållbarhetsrapport utförs samt hurimplementering av Triple Bottom Line sker i företagets verksamhet. Undersökningarutfördes dessutom på företaget i helhet vilket innefattar företagets verksamhet,transporter inom företaget, produkten Miljörör och certifieringar. Studien har givitkunskap om företagets struktur och vilka områden som behöver optimeras ochförbättras i framtiden.Ett flödesschema över företagets processer skapades för att bättre förståkommunikationen inom Office Recycling men även hur det ser ut mot kunderna. Deresultat som har erhållits är att kommunikationen inom företaget är bristfällig enligtenkätundersökningen som skickades ut till servicepersonalen. Enkäten gav ävenresultat om arbetsmiljön där servicepersonalen anser att arbetet är stressigt och tungt.Office Recycling är märkta med Bra Miljöval för företagets val av biogas somdrivmedel i transporterna vid hämtning av verksamhetsavfall. Företaget är ävencertifierad med Fossilfritt Sverige och ISO-standarderna inom kvalité och miljö, ISO9001 respektive ISO 14001.Office Recycling har fått en utökning av kunder vilket bidrar till investeringen i tvånya servicebilar. Servicebilarna måste placeras på ett optimalt sätt för att underlättaarbetsbördan hos servicepersonalen, därför har tre förslag tagits fram som har utgåttfrån ekonomiska, sociala och miljömässiga aspekter. Resultatet är att förslag två ärdet mest optimala av de tre förslagen.

  • 4.
    Broberg, My
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Nilsson, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Miljöutredning för Trafikverket Färjerederiet samt förslag på åtgärder och målsättningar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljökonsekvenser orsakade av mänskliga aktiviteter gör sig tydligt påminda i dagens samhälle. Ett sätt för företag att ta sitt miljöansvar är att effektivisera och systematisera sitt miljöarbete genom att införa ett miljöledningssystem. En internationellt accepterad standard för miljöledningssystem är ISO 14001 som tillämpas av organisationer i hela världen.

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att förbättra Trafikverket Färjerederiets befintliga certifierade miljöledningssystem genom att utarbeta en ny miljöutredning för verksamheten. Studien innefattar identifiering av miljöaspekter, värdering av miljöaspekter och mätningar av emissioner från en av Trafikverket Färjerederiets vägfärjor. Identifieringen av miljöaspekter genomfördes genom litteraturstudier, studiebesök och intervjuer. Därefter värderades de identifierade miljöaspekterna genom att använda riskmatriser enligt Trafikverkets fastställda rutinbeskrivning. Emissionsmätningarna utfördes i samarbete med IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.

    Resultatet av studien visar att Trafikverket Färjerederiet har fem betydande miljöaspekter, vilka är:

    • Färjornas motordrift
    • Användning av kemiska produkter
    • Elanvändning vid landanläggningar
    • Bristande uppföljning av verksamhetssystemet
    • Upphandling av varvstjänster

    Resultatet innefattar föreslagna åtgärder och målsättningar för de betydande miljöaspekterna. Emissionsmätningarna visar att det studerade avgasreningssystemet har hög effektivitet vilket innebär att Trafikverket Färjerederiet kan införa systemet, där förutsättningar finns, för att minska miljöpåverkan från aspekten Färjornas motordrift. Inom Trafikverket Färjerederiets verksamhets tillämpas redan idag många åtgärder som minskar miljöpåverkan. Dessa bör systematiseras och följas upp för att uppnå ett mer framgångsrikt miljöledningssystem. 

  • 5.
    Davidsson, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Wall, Göran
    Gotland University, Department of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    A review of life cycle assessments on wind energy systems2012In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 729-742Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Several life cycle assessments (LCA) of wind energy published in recent years are reviewed to identify methodological differences and underlying assumptions.

    Methods

    A full comparative analysis of 12 studies were undertaken (10 peer-reviewed papers, 1 conference paper, 1 industry report) regarding six fundamental factors (methods used, energy use accounting, quantification of energy production, energy performance and primary energy,  natural resources, and recycling). Each factor is discussed in detail to highlight strengths and shortcomings of various approaches.

    Results

    Several potential issues are found concerning the way LCA methods are used for assessing energy performance and environmental impact of wind energy, as well as dealing with natural resource use and depletion. The potential to evaluate natural resource use and depletion impacts from wind energy appears to be poorly exploited or elaborated on in the reviewed studies. Estimations of energy performance and environmental impacts are critically analyzed and found to differ significantly.

    Conclusions and recommendations

    A continued discussion and development of LCA methodology for wind energy and other energy resources are encouraged. Efforts should be made to standardize methods and calculations. Inconsistent use of terminology and concepts among the analyzed studies are found and should be remedied. Different methods are generally used and the results are presented in diverse ways, making it hard to compare studies with each other, but also with other renewable energy sources.

  • 6.
    Garcia Teran, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Positional Analysis of Wave Power: Applied at the Pacific Ocean in Mexico.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy transition has started. The key is to find an alternative to uneconomical and unsustainable energy production. In this sense it is a challenge to develop renewable energy technologies suitable for the present and proper for the future. Uppsala University is driving the Lysekil project at its Division of Electricity. The aim is to design an environmentally friendly energy system with wave energy converters (WECs) that are simple and strong in design. However, little has been done to know more about its economically feasibility and the social impact of its benefits. Therefore, this research focuses on a positional analysis of a 3 MW Wave Power Park to understand the relevant aspects of implementing this kind of technology. The target area will be at Rosarito, Baja California at the Pacific Ocean in the Northeast of Mexico, a region experiencing increasing energy demand. This thesis combines technical, economical and social aspects. The technical part describes how the device works. The analysis is complemented by describing the current energy situation in Mexico and the social benefits of sustainable energy. Finally, the economical analysis is presented, it is focused on the perspective of the Merchant Power Plant. The review shows that wave power could be economically viable due to its high degree of utilisation. Energy diversification and security, economic and sustainable development, and clean energy are some of the advantages of wave power. Therefore, wave power is an interesting alternative for generating electricity in Mexico. However, the energy sector is highly subsidised, making it difficult for new technologies to enter the market without government participation. Another finding is that in the long run if the equipment cost decreases or subsidies are applied, the technology might be successfully implemented. Environmental consequences are described briefly, concluding that little is known and more research is needed.

    The environmental constraints, economic implications and uncertainties of a high energy future are disturbing. In that sense, renewable energy appears to be unequivocally better than rely to a greater extent on fossil fuels, in the sense that they offer a sustainable development and less environmental damage. 

  • 7.
    Good, Clara
    et al.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Phys & Technol, Tromsø, Norway.
    Shepero, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Boström, Tobias
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Phys & Technol, Tromsø, Norway.
    Scenario-based modelling of the potential for solar energy charging of electric vehicles in two Scandinavian cities2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 168, p. 111-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, electric vehicles (EVs) should be charged using electricity from renewable energy sources. This paper describes a study of photovoltaics (PV) utilization for EV charging in two Scandinavian cities: Tromsø in Norway and Uppsala in Sweden, with the objective to evaluate self-sufficiency and self-consumption.

    The suitable areas for PV were determined using building area statistics and utilization factors. The PV yield was simulated for integration scenarios of 10%-100% of the suitable area. EV charging patterns were generated using a stochastic model based on travel survey data. The scenarios include EV penetration of 10%-100% of the personal vehicle fleet.

    The results show that the PV energy yield could cover the EV load in most of the scenarios, but that the temporal load match could be improved. The energy balance was positive for all seasons and EV levels if the PV integration was over 50%. The highest self-sufficiency was achieved in Tromsø during summer, due to the longer days. For high EV penetration and low PV integration, the self-sufficiency was higher in Uppsala, indicating that installed PV power is more important than yield profile above a certain number of EVs.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-19 10:22
  • 8.
    Hamad, Thaer Waleed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Westlin, Angelica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Gapanalys mellan ISO 14001:2015 och OKGs verksamhetssystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is something people have

    been talking about for decades and it is something

    many organizations working with globally. One way to

    work with it is to introduce an environmental

    management system that helps an organization to

    improve their environmental performance and meet its

    environmental objectives. ISO 14001 is a standard

    applicable environmental management system that

    organizations can certify against. 2015 came a new ISO

    14001, so companies that today have the old standard

    from 2004 need to analyze the new set of requirements

    and implement it in their operations.

    OKG, which owns three nuclear reactors in Sweden is

    certified to ISO 14001: 2004. The purpose of this report

    is to examine the gaps that exist between the different

    standards and which of these gaps are gaps against

    OKG's operational systems. The methods for performing

    gap analysis consists of information, meetings, training,

    and data collection, some of the gap analysis has been

    done at OKG.

    The outcome of the gap analysis shows that it is not

    only the standard's structure and composition that has

    changed. Many new requirements have been added and

    it has become tougher demands on top management's

    commitment and dedication to the organization's

    environmental management system. Some requirements

    have similar structure in the old and new standard.

    Other demands have however been given a more

    detailed design in the new standard.

    Discussions are ongoing on how much work needs to be

    done on the introduction of the new standard,

    everything depends on how the organization's

    environmental management system is today. OKG

    belonging to an industry with high demands already

    have a part of the new standard implemented in their

    operations, partly due to the company is certified to the

    old standard, partly due to other standards authority in

    some respects makes similar demands on the activities

    OKG conducts.

    The conclusion shows, as already mentioned, that some

    of the new requirements have already been taken into

    custody in OKG's operational systems while in other

    cases it has identified gaps where further analysis

    needs to be done and correct implementation is verified

    before the new requirements take effect.

    The implemented gap analysis forms the basis for

    OKG's continued efforts to implement the new standard.

  • 9.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Future coal production outlooks in the IPCC Emission Scenarios: Are they plausible?2011In: Energy and Environment, ISSN 0958-305X, E-ISSN 2048-4070, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 837-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic climate change caused by CO2 emissions is strongly linked to the future energy production, specifically coal. The Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) contains 40 scenarios for future fossil fuel production and is used by the IPCC to assess future climate change. This study examines the SRES coal production outlooks. Fundamental assumptions regarding coal availability and production in SRES was also compared with recent studies on reasonable future production outlooks. It was found that SRES puts unreasonable expectation on just a few countries. Is it reasonable to expect that China, already accounting for 46% of the global output, would increase their production by a factor of 8 over the next 90 years, as implied by certain SRES scenarios? It is concluded that SRES is underpinned by a paradigm of perpetual growth and technological optimism as well as old and outdated resource estimates. This has resulted in overoptimistic production outlooks.

  • 10.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Dean, Fantazzini
    Moscow State University.
    André, Angelantoni
    Post Peak Living.
    Simon, Snowden
    University of Liverpool.
    Coal-to-Liquids: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy2012In: Twenty Ninth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converting coal to a liquid, commonly known as coal-to-liquids (CTL), can supply liquid fuels and has been successfully used in several countries, particularly in South Africa. However, it has not become a major contributor to the global oil supply. Increasing awareness of the scarcity of oil and rising oil prices has increased the interest in coal liquefaction. This paper surveys CTL technology, economics and environmental performance. Understanding the fundamental aspects of coal liquefaction technologies is vital for planning and policy-making since future CTL production will be integrated in a much larger global energy and liquid fuel production system.

    The economic analysis shows that many CTL studies assume conditions that are optimistic at best. In addition, the strong risk for a CTL plant to become a financial black hole is highlighted. This helps to explain why China has recently slowed down the development of its CTL program.

    The technical analysis investigates the coal consumption of CTL. Generally, a yield of between 1–2 barrels/ton coal can be achieved while the technical limit seems to be 3 barrels/ton coal. This puts a strict limit on future CTL capacity imposed by future coal production, regardless of other factors such as economic viability, emissions or environmental concern. For example, assuming that 10% of world coal production can be diverted to CTL, the contribution to the liquid fuel supply will be limited to only a few million barrels per day (Mb/d). This prevents CTL from becoming a viable mitigation plan for liquid fuel shortage on a global scale.

    However, it is still possible for individual nations to derive a significant share of their fuel supply from CTL but those nations must also have access to equally significant coal production capacity. It is unrealistic to claim that CTL provides a feasible solution to liquid fuels shortages created by peak oil. At best, it can be only a minor contributor and must be combined with other strategies to ensure future liquid fuel supply.

  • 11.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Tang, Xu
    China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
    Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change: a review2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 52, p. 797-809Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future scenarios with significant anthropogenic climate change also display large increases in world production of fossil fuels, the principal CO2 emission source. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has also been identified as a future challenge. This chapter reviews the connection between these two issues and concludes that limits to availability of fossil fuels will set a limit for mankind’s ability to affect the climate. However, this limit is unclear as various studies have reached quite different conclusions regarding future atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by fossil fuel limitations.

    It is concluded that the current set of emission scenarios used by the IPCC and others is perforated by optimistic expectations on future fossil fuel production that are improbable or even unrealistic. The current situation, where climate models largely rely on emission scenarios detached from the reality of supply and its inherent problems is problematic. In fact, it may even mislead planners and politicians into making decisions that mitigate one problem but make the other one worse. It is important to understand that the fossil energy problem and the anthropogenic climate change problem are tightly connected and need to be treated as two interwoven challenges necessitating a holistic solution.

  • 12.
    Ilic, Danica Djuric
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Energy Syst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Ola
    Univ Gavle, Div Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Ödlund (Former Trygg), Louise
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Energy Syst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Åberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    No zero burden assumption in a circular economy2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the product's life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with "zero burden", by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation.

  • 13.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden.
    Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of good coverage of sustainability and sustainable development both in scientific journals and other publications, humanity is on a steady unsustainable track consuming more than is produced. Understanding of change needs, does not seem to convert into sufficient change action. Sustainability issues are often complex, interdependent and hard to comprehend, indicating that sustainable development, in addition to change willingness, requires a holistic perspective. Seeing and understanding systems - systems thinking - is important. This implies that sense-making of systems and of sustainable development is important as a prerequisite for change. Possibilities of realising synergies between quality management and sustainable development are often discussed but do often not seem to be fully realised. This paper tests two system models from Quality Management in the context of sustainability in cement manufacturing and building material production. The indicative results suggest that the proposed system models are able to describe and identify improvement opportunities that could be used to create interest for change.

  • 14.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Babatunde, Oluwayomi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Opportunities for improved sustainability in house building: The case of Dar es Salaam2019In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 457-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of a growing population and economic development in Africa will form strong drivers for building growth. Buildings drive energy consumption and carbon emissions. On the material side, cement is the driver for cost and carbon emissions. A cement productivity index is proposed. Results from a case study in Dar es Salaam show that cement is poorly used in the main application of sandcrete blocks. The relative cement productivity is < 30% compared to ordinary concrete. The main problem is the design of the blocks. Mostly, only some 5% of cement by weight is used. However, the sand matrix often needs up to 10% of water for good compaction. This means that the w/c ratio is always high in the mixes, which leads to low cement productivity. One first step could be going from solid to hollow blocks, which would enable increasing the cement content and improving cement productivity up to 50% of the defined benchmark. However, there is resistance to hollow blocks in the market. Alternative solutions, such as soil-stabilized earth, should also be looked into. For realizing the full cement strength potential, other affordable concrete solutions need to be developed for the market.

  • 15.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Testing a Maturity Grid for Assessing Sustainability Reports2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability reporting could be seen as output of sustainability performance management. This paper tests a maturity grid assessing the reporting structure quality of 39 sustainability reports - Are the right sustainability impacts reported and is the performance reported in the right way for easy interpretation? Students and one of the authors carry out the assessment. Results indicate a low level of maturity and that it is difficult to make sense of sustainability reports. Results from carbon emission reporting indicate that only some 10% of the reports provide usable results. A new version of the maturity grid has been proposed.

  • 16.
    Kowalik, Piotr
    et al.
    Gdansk Technical University.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Dahmani, Amine
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Andersson, Alicja
    Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate, Stockholm.
    18. Soil Protection and Solid Waste Management2003In: Environmental Science: Understanding, protecting and managing the environment in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Lars Rydén, Pawel Migula and Magnus Andersson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, p. 534-565Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Metcalfe, Peter
    et al.
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England..
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England..
    Freer, Jim
    Univ Bristol, Sch Geog, Bristol BS8 1SS, Avon, England..
    Dynamic TOPMODEL: A new implementation in R and its sensitivity to time and space steps2015In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 72, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001, Beven and Freer introduced a "dynamic" variant of TOPMODEL that addressed some of the limitations of the original model whilst retaining its computational and parametric efficiency. The original assumption of a quasi-steady water table was replaced by time-dependent kinematic routing within hydrological similar areas. The new formulation allows a more flexible discretisation, variable upslope drainage areas and spatially variable physical properties. There has, however, never been a freely distributable version of dynamic TOPMODEL. Here, we describe a new, open source, version developed in the R environment. It incorporates handling of geo-referenced spatial data that allows it to integrate with modern GIS. It makes use of data storage and vectorisation features of the language that will allow efficient scaling of the problem domain. The implementation is evaluated with data from a small catchment. The formulation of the model in terms of a flow distribution matrix is described and its use illustrated for treatment of surface and subsurface flow routing. The model uses an improved implicit solution for updating the subsurface storages and fluxes. The paper focuses on the robustness of the predicted output variables to changes in the time and space discretisations.

  • 18.
    Moberg, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    The water footprint of coffee production in Miraflor, Nicaragua2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A water footprint is a tool for assessing the impacts of freshwater use by mapping the water use of the production of a good or a service, a process in a production chain, a business or even of a whole country. One of the most commonly used methods for calculating the water footprint was developed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN). The objective of this study was to account for the water footprint of the production of coffee in the area of Miraflor, Nicaragua, using the WFN method. The study aimed to highlight where improvements can be made regarding water resources management, both with respect to the quantity of the water appropriated in the different process steps, as well as concerning the treatment of residues of the coffee production.

    The results of the study show a water footprint of 20 049 m3 per ton of harvested coffee in Miraflor. This equals a consumption of more than 6 000 000 m3 of water when considering the overall production of the harvest of 2015/2016. The results pinpoint the growing phase as crucial with 98.1 % of the total water footprint. Nicaragua and the region where Miraflor is located are having increasing problems with water scarcity due to drought and contamination of water resources. Together with these circumstances, the results of the study show that the current management should be improved in order to minimize the impacts on local water resources and the environment. It is mainly the application of pesticides and fertilizers in the cultivation of the coffee that give rise to the large water footprint. Furthermore, the current management violates the law restricting the discharge of effluent waters from coffee processing plants. Another important factor contributing to the water footprint yields in the consumption of rainwater via evapotranspiration by the crops in field.

    In order to reduce the water footprint there should be a more conscious use of pesticides and fertilizers as well as a development in the treatment of the effluent water. The latter factor can be elaborated by considering new installations where even smaller ones probably could make a considerable change. Other management practices to decrease the water footprint consist of generating a higher yield per hectare of land. 

  • 19.
    Rajagopalan, Kishore
    University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.
    31. Minimising Industrial Wastes from the Fabricated Metal Products Industries2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 249-256Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Sargsyan, Grisha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Comparative Study of Methodologies for Onshore Wind Power Project Economic Analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the methodological differences of wind power project economic analysis and to indicate the preferred methodology among the considered cases. The study compares the economic appraisals of onshore wind power projects. The economic appraisals of wind power projects are for evaluating wind power projects' impact on an economy. Economic appraisals of wind power projects include economic justifications of projects in comparison with the next best alternative projects, consider negative and positive externalities but exclude transfer payments such as taxes and subsidies. Also, in wind power project economic appraisals, the valuations of costs and benefits are at shadow prices and discounting of future costs and benefits at a social discount rate. There are methodological guidelines from different institutions on how to conduct project economic analysis. This study compares methodologies of three onshore wind power project economic appraisals conducted by the European Investment Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Mott MacDonald and discusses methodological differences for each case study in comparison with each other. The results of this study are for any investors, institutions and government authorities involve in wind power projects and seek not only corporate profits but also social benefits. They may consider the methodological differences identified in this study to improve the assessment of wind power project economic impacts. The results indicate that the identified methodological differences complement each other rather than substitute. The preferred methodology for onshore wind power projects economic analysis would be the methodology that considers the identified differences for the comprehensive evaluations.

  • 21.
    Siva, Vanajah
    et al.
    Chalmers, Dept Technol Management & Econ, Div Qual Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers, Dept Technol Management & Econ, Div Qual Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Garvare, Rickard
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Zobel, Thomas
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    The support of Quality Management to sustainable development: a literature review2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 138, p. 148-157Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Management is considered to be suitable as support for the integration of sustainability considerations in areas such as product development. The purpose of this paper is to review research in which Quality Management methods, tools or practices have been used in conjunction with sustainable development initiatives. We have identified four themes that synthesize the research on Quality Management and its support to approaches for sustainable development: (I) supporting sustainability through integration of management systems, (II) Quality Management as support to the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and to the management of sustainability, (III) supporting integration of sustainability considerations in daily work, and (IV) supporting stakeholder management and customer focus. By far the most research has been conducted within the first two themes. This paper also contributes with proposals for future research, such as the need to move beyond existing standards and management systems to enable more radical improvements, and the need for empirical evidence of the effect of integrated management systems on environmental performance. We also highlight the point that Quality Management practices and tools must be developed and adapted in order to support sustainability considerations.

  • 22.
    Tikkanen, Toni
    Green Know-How network of Turku.
    3. Waste management and nutrient flows in the city of Turku: A detailed N and P flow study to estimate the capacity of biowaste sorting to contribute to nutrient recycling2003In: Urban Environmental Management: Reports from the Superbs project / [ed] Lars Rydén, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, p. 27-41Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed quantitative study of flows of nitrogen and phosphorus in all organic waste in Turku was made to evaluate the potential of recycling of nutrients. Both inputs and outputs in all municipal and private sewerage, nutrient-containing fluent and solid waste flows were estimated. These included municipal and private sewerage, municipal solid waste, and municipal as well as private composting. The volume or weight of each of these was measured as well as their content of N and P either measured or estimated using reference values from literature. The total flows for the 170,000 inhabitants and their animals were found to be 3,074 kg of N and 583 kg of P per day. 64% of the inputs were found in the municipal wastewater, 11% in private sewarage, 10% in solid organic waste sent to incineration and 7% in organic waste sent to landfill. The major flows of output nitrogen included 53% (1,647 kg/day) to surface waters and 23% (765 kg/day), to sludge, while for phosphorus 15% (90 kg/day) went to surface waters and 61% (368 kg/day) to sludge. Only 1% of the nutrients were recycled for new agricultural production. If separate sorting of biowaste is achieved (planned for 2005) this figure will increase to 7% and with maximum recycling amount to 15-16%.

  • 23.
    Timoseva, Anastasija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Renewable Energy Policy: A Comparative Case Study of Latvia and Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In autumn 2017, a news scandal surfaced in the Latvian media about a potential subsidy scam by the renewable energy generating companies. The scandal bought the attention of the Latvian government towards the renewable energy policy in Latvia with thoughts to research the existing support system and potentially change it to a new one. This situation provided the ground for reviewing the Latvian renewable energy policy in a comparison study with another European Union (EU) member country with an example of a good renewable energy policy implementation. Sweden was selected as the subject for the studies. This study was performed through a qualitative empirical data review, using documents and journal articles as the main information sources.

    The study has shown that both Sweden and Latvia take a leading position within the EU when it comes to the renewable energy share in the final energy mix regardless of the considerable gap in the quality of governance index that has an impact on the sustainable development of a country.

    A comparison of Latvian and Swedish policy also shows a difference in the policy consistency and stability. Lack of coherent policy terminology throughout the different authoritative information sources, more frequent policy revisions than in Sweden and general lack of data availability summarizes the situation in Latvia.

    The research has identified that the main difference between Latvian and Swedish renewable energy policy is the administrative processes surrounding it. In general, it can be said that Sweden has a more transparent system with less bureaucracy whereas in Latvia the process is more complex and therefore is more susceptible to corruption.

  • 24.
    Walch, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Expertise and policy-making in disaster risk reduction2015In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 706-707Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction ended with an agreement lacking ambition. The conference showed that better communication between the scientific community and decision-makers is needed to develop informed frameworks.

  • 25.
    Wang, Wenhuan
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing.
    Tang, Xu
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing.
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing; Chinese Acad Sci, Acad Math & Syst Sci, Beijing.
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing.
    Zhang, Yiqiong
    UNSW Business School, The University of New South Wales, Sydney.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Energy savings in China's energy sectors and contributions to air pollution reduction in the 12th Five Year Plan2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 200, p. 305-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency and air pollution mitigation are critical issues for future development of the Chinese economy. Energy savings and their contribution to reduced air pollution from energy sectors during the 12th Five Year Plan are assessed using input-output analysis. A new dynamic quantitative method was developed to explore key sectors and identify critical paths for efficient emission reductions from energy industries. All the energy intensive key sectors, including Metal, Power, Chemical Products, Nonmetal are used to determine critical paths for emission reductions. Results indicate that the Coal Sector failed to achieve significant energy savings and did not contribute to direct and overall emissions reductions. The Oil Sector only achieved co-effects for reduction of overall waste gas, SO2, and particulates, while the Power Sector achieved emission reductions of all air pollutants. The results suggest that Chinese government should enact four main measures to achieve effective targets for energy savings and emission reductions: (1) Strengthen energy conservation in Coal and Oil Sectors, particularly the Coal Sector. (2) Promote energy conservation and emission reductions in highly energy intensive sectors to help emission reductions from other sectors. (3) Promote synergy effects of energy savings and emission reductions to enterprises. (4) Set lowest emission reduction targets for each department combined with targets for energy savings.

  • 26.
    Weiß, Philipp
    et al.
    BeraCon Unternehmensentwicklung Cologne, Germany.
    Bentlage, Jörg
    BeraCon Unternehmensentwicklung Cologne, Germany.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Environmental Management Systems and Certification2006 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Widengren, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Hållbarhet och miljömanagement i projektledarrollen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work towards a sustainable world is our generation’s greatest challenge, to take care of Earth as we have known it and preserve it for future generations. Species are eradicated, the icecaps are melting, sea levels are rising, the oceans die and the latest addition to our growing debt: for the first time in our history - climate refugees. Studies indicate that this is only the beginning, if we do not change our way of living and strive to create better sustainable societies. Thirty years ago, the Brundtland report Our Common Future was published and the problems caused by human activities were presented – these are problems we still struggle with today. In thirty years, the flow of information about sustainability and methods of working with sustainability has grown immensely and today there are only a few deniers.

     

    This thesis aimed to investigate the prerequisites a project manager has to work with, concerning sustainability and environmental management. In addition, the purpose has also been to expand the knowledge of what stage in the project, the ability to influence sustainability is greatest and what factors affect it the most. Consequently, a literature review and a qualitative study with interviews were conducted. The literature review was based on sustainability, environmental management (EM) and project management. Thus, the interviews were held with project managers at WSP Management and followed the same structure as the literature review.

     

    The study showed that the definition of sustainability and EM is ambiguous and not common to all studies. The most common definition of sustainability is according to the Brundtland report with economic, social and ecological factors. For EM, the most accepted definition is how one works with sustainability and EM systems. Moreover, EM has gone from focusing purely on the environment to be more focused on sustainability. The interviews also revealed the amount of knowledge the project managers have as well as the knowledge and tools they request from WSP. Interviews also showed where in the project they experienced the greatest potential of influence and what factors that greatest affected sustainability work.

     

    Sustainability and EM are very important to work with in order to create future societies and that the project leader's greatest potential for impact is early in the projects. The earlier aspects of sustainability are taken into account, the better the results for both the client and the project manager's company.

  • 28.
    Wiklund, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. 199506260109.
    Integration av de globala målen och miljömålen: - ett näringslivsperspektiv2018Student paper other, 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015 the United Nations (UN) agreed on 17 Global Goals to create a socially, economically and ecologically sustainable world. The business sector in Sweden has quickly adopted these goals and works actively to achieve them. Many companies seem to prefer the Global Goals over the Environmental Objectives. Meanwhile, the government has decided that the Environmental Objectives will be retained. The relation between the Global Goals and the Swedish Environmental remains undefined; the government has stated that the Environmental Objectives will represent the Swedish implementation of the ecological part of the Global Goals. Governmental agencies promote the Environmental Objectives and the business sector experiences that laws are motivated by the Environmental Objectives. This study aims to investigate how the two goal systems could be integrated to be efficient and value-adding for the business sector.

    To investigate this, the interactions between the Global Goals targets 12.2 – 12.5 (regarding Responsible Consumption and Production) and the Environmental Objectives were analysed and interviews with business representatives were conducted. The analysis of the interactions followed a model developed by Nilsson et al. (2016) and aimed to find whether there is alignment between the Global Goals and the Environmental Objectives. The interviews aimed to study how business sector experiences the two goal systems and what function a goal system may serve.

    The result of the study showed that the two goal systems correlate on a goal level. Most interactions between the systems were classified as weak synergies. No interactions were, on goal level, classified as conflicts. Reduced Climate Impact, A Non-Toxic Environment, A Protective Ozone-Layer, Zero Eutrophication, Good Quality Groundwater and Sustainable Forests were considered to have the strongest synergies to the Environmental Objectives. However, there seemed to be conflicts on a general level, i.e. in the structure of the systems, according to the results of the interviews. It was expresses that communicating the two goal systems simultaneously is inefficient and profitless. The global and holistic perspective of the Global Goals was also preferred by the business sector.

    The fact that the two goal systems are designed differently means that they suit different actors with different demands. However, this does not have to be a problem if two systems strive towards the same direction which seems likely according to the results of this study. The question as to how the two systems could be integrated could then be reformulated to how the intersection between the two systems could be improved. An extended analysis of interactions between all Global Goals and the Environmental could hence be useful for the understanding of the intersection. This mapping could preferably partly be conducted in the form of a workshop with representatives from business sector and governmental agencies. If the Environmental Objectives were to be changed, it would be an opportunity to introduce cross-system indicators that also show the Swedish interpretation of the Global Goals.

  • 29.
    Wilkinson, M. E.
    et al.
    James Hutton Inst, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Mackay, E.
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England.;Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Lancaster, England..
    Quinn, P. F.
    Newcastle Univ, Sch Civil Engn & Geosci, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Stutter, M.
    James Hutton Inst, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Beven, Keith J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England..
    MacLeod, C. J. A.
    James Hutton Inst, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Macklin, M. G.
    Aberystwyth Univ, Dept Geog & Earth Sci, Aberystwyth, Dyfed, Wales.;Massey Univ, Inst Agr & Environm, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Elkhatib, Y.
    Univ Lancaster, Sch Comp & Commun, Lancaster, England..
    Percy, B.
    Univ Reading, Reading e Sci Ctr, Reading, Berks, England..
    Vitolo, C.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, London, England..
    Haygarth, P. M.
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England..
    A cloud based tool for knowledge exchange on local scale flood risk2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 161, p. 38-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emerging and urgent need for new approaches for the management of environmental challenges such as flood hazard in the broad context of sustainability. This requires a new way of working which bridges disciplines and organisations, and that breaks down science-culture boundaries. With this, there is growing recognition that the appropriate involvement of local communities in catchment management decisions can result in multiple benefits. However, new tools are required to connect organisations and communities. The growth of cloud based technologies offers a novel way to facilitate this process of exchange of information in environmental science and management; however, stakeholders need to be engaged with as part of the development process from the beginning rather than being presented with a final product at the end. Here we present the development of a pilot Local Environmental Virtual Observatory Flooding Tool. The aim was to develop a cloud based learning platform for stakeholders, bringing together fragmented data, models and visualisation tools that will enable these stakeholders to make scientifically informed environmental management decisions at the local scale. It has been developed by engaging with different stakeholder groups in three catchment case studies in the UK and a panel of national experts in relevant topic areas. However, these case study catchments are typical of many northern latitude catchments. The tool was designed to communicate flood risk in locally impacted communities whilst engaging with landowners/farmers about the risk of runoff from the farmed landscape. It has been developed iteratively to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The pilot tool combines cloud based services, local catchment datasets, a hydrological model and bespoke visualisation tools to explore real time hydrometric data and the impact of flood risk caused by future land use changes. The novel aspects of the pilot tool are; the co-evolution of tools on a cloud based platform with stakeholders, policy and scientists; encouraging different science disciplines to work together; a wealth of information that is accessible and understandable to a range of stakeholders; and provides a framework for how to approach the development of such a cloud based tool in the future. Above all, stakeholders saw the tool and the potential of cloud technologies as an effective means to taking a whole systems approach to solving environmental issues. This sense of community ownership is essential in order to facilitate future appropriate and acceptable land use management decisions to be co-developed by local catchment communities. The development processes and the resulting pilot tool could be applied to local catchments globally to facilitate bottom up catchment management approaches.

  • 30.
    Wärmark, Katarina
    Institutionen för vatten och miljö, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Assessment of water footprint for civil construction projects2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water is an irreplaceable resource and the strain on it is getting tougher. Around 40 per cent of the water withdrawn in Europe is for industrial use. With a growing population and an increased demand for food and energy per capita, the demand and pressure on our water resources will increase.

    CEEQUAL is a rating scheme for the civil construction industry and has raised the water footprint as an important sustainability issue to consider when choosing building materials. There is however little knowledge within the industry of how to do this. This paper offers information regarding available water footprint tools and gives a practical example using two of the most developed methods; the Water Footprint Network (WFN) method and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).

    The case study showed that the results are very dependent on which method one chooses. The LCA method gives a bigger footprint since it is more inclusive than the WFN method. There are however some similarities when looking at which of the materials that are high-risk and low-risk materials when it comes to freshwater footprint. Among the studied products, steel was the material that uses and consumes the most water per kilogram, and could also be imported from water scarce areas. Fill material had a low water consumption and use per kilogram, but the huge amount used in the project makes it the material that used and consumed most water in total. Fill material is most often produced locally because of the large amount used, and was therefore not as significant when weighting the results by a water stress index.

    Calculating a water footprint can be used as a part of declaring the environmental performance of a project by including it in an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), a sustainability report or by setting up an Environmental Profit and Loss (E P&L) account for water. It can also be used to identify and assess risks related to water use.

  • 31. Xenarios, Stefanos
    et al.
    Polatidis, Heracles
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Alleviating climate change impacts in rural Bangladesh: a PROMETHEE outranking-based approach for prioritizing agricultural interventions2015In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 963-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a PROMETHEE multicriteria outranking-based approach for prioritizing agricultural interventions to alleviate climate change on a farm basis. The drought-prone areas of Rajshahi and flood-saline-prone areas of Barisal in rural Bangladesh were chosen as case studies. A number of existent agricultural interventions have been comparatively evaluated upon several diversified criteria. The process of evaluation was held through an online survey to experts with knowledge in rice farming and climate change effects in Bangladesh. The findings indicate that water storage systems were prioritized first in northern drought area, whereas the introduction of improved rice varieties in flood-saline south was of the highest importance. Furthermore, the combined implementation of water storage, improved rice varieties, and seminars on agricultural management to farmers was signified as an integrated response to climate change for both regions. The findings were already presented to key stakeholders where a strong support for the combined implementation of the suggested interventions in pilot sites was given.

  • 32.
    Österberg, Nicole
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Implementering av miljökvalitetsnormer för vatten i samband med miljökonsekvensbeskrivning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive came in the year 2000 and its aim is to improve the water quality within the union. The directive is legally binding for all member states and sets out to achieve good status for Europe’s all water bodies. In the work of water management are the following two terms commonly used, the concept of status classification, a measure of the water quality in a water body, and Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), the time when a certain water quality should be reached. The status classification consists of ecological quality and chemical quality. Ecological quality is assessed based on quality factors (e.g. phytoplankton, nutrients), which are assessed based on parameters (e.g. biovolume, total phosphorus), and chemical quality is assessed from an EU-defined limit value. In 2015 came the Weser ruling, a preliminary ruling by the European Court of Justice regarding interpretations in the Water Framework Directive. The Court found that the member states are required to not give permission to a project that could cause a deterioration of status or jeopardize current environmental quality standard in a water body. Regarding the interpretation of when a “deterioration of status” occurs, the Court found that it occurs when a quality factor is lowered by one statues class. The Weser ruling has changed the legal situation around the environmental quality standards, which in Sweden has led to major uncertainties among authorizations and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). In Sweden, an adjustment of the law is considered needed.

    This master thesis main purpose is to study how the Land and Environment Court of Appeal has dealt with the Weser ruling in trial and how Environmental Quality Standards for surface water should be managed in EIA for projects. The thesis consists of a literature study, a study of cases in the Land and Environment Court of Appeal and a study of the presentation of Environmental Quality Standards in EIA in projects.

    The study shows that the Weser ruling leads to a stronger interpretation of the Environmental Quality Standards, gives the ecological statuses the same legal value as chemical statues and lead to a need for adaption of the Swedish legalization to the new legal position. The case study shows that Environmental Quality Standards plays an important role during trial and that the impact assessment should be done on at the level of quality factors and is of great importance for the trial. The study of presentation in EIA shows higher demands on impact assessment at the level of quality factors, but still has room for improved motivation of relevant and non-relevant quality factors.

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