uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 56
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Alfimov, Vasily
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of 36Cl and 129I: Analytical Aspects and Applications2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two long-lived halogen radionuclides (36Cl, T1/2 = 301 kyr, and 129I, T1/2 = 15.7 Myr) have been studied by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Uppsala Tandem Laboratory.

    The 36Cl measurements in natural samples using a medium-sized tandem accelerator (~1 MeV/amu) have been considered. A gas-filled magnetic spectrometer (GFM) was proposed for the separation of 36Cl from its isobar, 36S. Semi-empirical Monte-Carlo ion optical calculations were conducted to define optimal conditions for separating 36Cl and 36S. A 180° GFM was constructed and installed at the dedicated AMS beam line.

    129I has been measured in waters from the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Most of the 129I currently present in the Earth's surface environment can be traced back to liquid and gaseous releases from the nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France). The anthropogenic 129I inventory in the central Arctic Ocean was found to increase proportionally to the integrated 129I releases from these reprocessing facilities. The interaction and origin of water masses in the region have been clearly distinguished with the help of 129I labeling. Predictions based on a compartment model calculation showed that the Atlantic Ocean and deep Arctic Ocean are the major sinks for the reprocessed 129I.

    The variability in 129I concentration measured in seawater along a transect from the Baltic Sea to the North Atlantic suggests strong enrichment in the Skagerrak–Kattegat basin. The 129I inventory in the Baltic and Bothnian Seas is equal to ~0.3% of the total liquid releases from the reprocessing facilities.

    A lake sediment core sampled in northeastern Ireland was analyzed for 129I to study the history of the Sellafield releases, in particular the nuclear accident of 1957. High 129I concentration was observed corresponding to 1990 and later, while no indication of the accident was found.

    The results of this thesis research clearly demonstrate the uniqueness and future potential of

    129I as a tracer of processes in both marine and continental archives.

    List of papers
    1. Computer simulation of ion-beam optics in a gas-filled magnetic spectrometer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer simulation of ion-beam optics in a gas-filled magnetic spectrometer
    2004 (English)In: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B, Vol. 223-224, p. 180-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92484 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2009-03-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Anthropogenic 129I in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian Coastal Current to the North Pole
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anthropogenic 129I in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian Coastal Current to the North Pole
    2004 (English)In: Mar. Pollut. Bull., Vol. 49, p. 1097-1104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92485 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2009-03-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Tracing water masses with 129I in the western Nordic Seas in early spring 2002
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing water masses with 129I in the western Nordic Seas in early spring 2002
    2004 (English)In: Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, p. L19305 1-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92486 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2009-03-26Bibliographically approved
    4. Concentrations of 129I along a transect from the North Atlantic to the Baltic Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentrations of 129I along a transect from the North Atlantic to the Baltic Sea
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B, Vol. 223-224, p. 446-450Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92487 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2009-03-26Bibliographically approved
    5. 129I in the Arctic and Nordic Seas: numerical model approach and prognoses
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>129I in the Arctic and Nordic Seas: numerical model approach and prognoses
    (English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92488 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
    6. A retrospective search for evidence of the 1957 Windscale fire in NE Ireland using 129I
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A retrospective search for evidence of the 1957 Windscale fire in NE Ireland using 129I
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 2927-2935Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The accident at Windscale in October 1957 resulted in the release to the atmosphere of a large quantity of radioactivity. The presented work is a retrospective search for evidence of contamination from the accident in the northeastern region of Ireland. A lake yielding a high-resolution sedimentary record was identified near the northeast coast of Ireland. This site was used to reconstruct the history of radionuclide input to the region, based on the analysis of a set of cores extracted from the lake. A chronology for sediment accumulation within the lake was established using radioisotopic dating techniques (including 270Pb). High-resolution gamma and alpha spectrometry techniques were used to quantify concentrations of 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am, all of which were released during the accident. The primary radioactive component of the release was 131I (T1/2 = 8 days), but this short-lived isotope has long since decayed. However, 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 x 10(7) years) was also released during the accident, and in a known ratio to 131I. Recent advances in accelerator mass spectrometry now make it feasible to measure 129I at ultra-trace level and thereby retrospectively reconstruct 131I deposition. Clearly resolved concentration profiles for 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the lake cores reflect known historical fallout trends. The data suggest that any contamination from the Windscale fire that might have reached this catchment has been overwritten by input from the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. A time-series for 129I in lake sediment shows that concentrations in recent sediments are approximately 10 times greater than concentrations recorded in strata corresponding to the period of maximum fallout of other radionuclides from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons (1964). These recent increases in 129I are attributed to increased emissions from the nuclear industry. The study yields no evidence of any enhancement in radioisotope concentrations, over and above global fallout, in strata dated to 1957, and we conclude that contamination from the Windscale fire had negligible impact on the northeastern region of Ireland.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92489 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bergenstråle, Terese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Andersson Cada, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Fastlund, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Johansson, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sigvant, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Avfallsmängder: En studie om varför den genererande vikten avfall skiljer sig ifrån den förväntade vikten inom distrikt C i Uppsala kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta projekt har en undersökning gjorts om varför den teoretiskt beräknade vikten avfall skiljer sig från den vikt som faktiskt samlats in. Det har gjorts på uppdrag av Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB med fokus på distrikt C i Uppsala kommun. Projektet har grundat sig i att besvara Uppsala Vattens hypotes om att verksamhetsavfall (så som avfall från restauranger, tobaksaffärer och äldreboenden) väger mer än avfall från villor och flerbostadshus, samt verifiera om genereringstakten [kg/hushåll och vecka] som beräkningarna baserats på stämmer. Analysen gjordes utifrån tillhandahållna körlistor från Uppsala Vatten. För att undersöka Uppsala Vattens hypotes beräknades avfallsdensiteter utifrån de erhållna genereringstakterna av avfall för villor och flerbostadshus. Medelvärden för avfallsdensiteter uträknade från den totala kärlvolymen beräknades för villor, flerbostadshus samt verksamheter till 0.0475 [kg/l], 0.224 [kg/l], respektive 0.408 [kg/l]. Resultaten visade en stark indikation på att verksamhetsavfall väger mer än hushållsavfall och därmed stämmer troligtvis Uppsala Vattens hypotes. Resultatet från körlistorna bekräftade dock inte hypotesen fullständigt då det finns en osäkerhet i datan vilket genom metoden som används för beräkningar av avfallsdensiet gör att resultatet inte kan ses som ett direkt bevis. Verifieringen av genereringstakten har inte kunnat genomföras p.g.a att datan som analyserats i projetet inte hade den karaktär eller omfattning som behövdes. För att möjliggöra detta hade det behövs fler körlistor samt körlistor(ordlista Appendix A) med enbart verksamheter. Avslutande rekommendationer är att utforma en specialanpassad körlista som endast hämtar avfall från verksamheter, flerbostadshus eller villor för att direkt avfärda eller bekräfta Uppsala Vattens hypotes och dess genereringstakt från plockanalyserna.

  • 3.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing "Open Education": How does the ICT-based system function as a new medium of participation for sustainability?2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, p. 33-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has developed and deployed rapidly since 1980’s. Until now ICT has been considered as one of the most important infrastructures in living in the present globalized society. Along with diffusion of personal computers and highly leveraging information on the web, the way of learning has been changing gradually. Hundreds universities, institutes and companies constructs and releases the “open education” platform based on ICT, for example iTunes U, TakingITGlobal and so on. These open education platforms are basically open for everyone who wants to learn by using contents on the website for free in so far as they can access the Internet. And the movement toward the construction and use of ICT-based education platform is supported by international organizations, such as the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in OECD and UNESCO’s project “the Virtual University and e-learning”.

  • 4.
    Berg, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Modelling Nitrogen Flows in Peri-urban Vegetable Field Plots in Nanjing, China2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many parts of China are going through a rapid development and urbanization resulting in various environmental impairities. The Yangtze Delta Region surface water bodies are affected by eutrophication, partly caused by diffuse losses from agriculture. In this study, nitrogen, and to some extent also phosphorus, flows and losses from two plots in an intensively cultivated vegetable field in a peri-urban area of Nanjing, with a high input of organic fertilizer, were analysed by the use of the field-scale simulation model GLEAMS. The GLEAMS model was parameterized and calibrated against measurements of soil water and nitrogen content in two plots. A scenario with a reduced input of nitrogen was then simulated.

    The resemblance between simulated and measured water content in the different soil layers was quite poor. The simulated inorganic nitrogen content in the soil was significantly lower than the measured during great parts of the simulation period. This could be due to an inappropriate simulation of the mineralization of organic N under these conditions, or an underestimated decomposition rate of manure. It is also possible that the poor water simulations contributed to the underestimated inorganic N content in the soil. There were similar results for the two plots, except for an unexplained 20% increase in leaching and erosion losses of N in Plot B. For simulation of scenarios to find best management practices, the model parameterization should be further refined.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Green growth? A consumption perspective on Swedish environmental impact trends using input–output analysis2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption-based environmental impact trends for the Swedish economy have been generated and analysed in order to determine their levels compared to official production-based data, and to determine whether or not the Swedish economy has decoupled growth in domestic final demand from worldwide environmental impact. Three energy resources (oil, coal and gas use, as well as their aggregate fossil fuel use) and seven emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO and NMVOC, as well as the aggregate CO2 equivalents) were studied.

    An augmented single-regional input–output model has been deployed, with world average energy and emission intensities used for products produced abroad. A new method for updating input–output tables for years missing official input–output tables, was also developed. For each of the resources and the emissions, two time series were generated based on two different revisions of Swedish national accounts data, one for the period 1993–2003, the other for the period 2000–2005. The analysis uses a recently revised time series of environmental data from the Swedish environmental accounts, as well as recently published global environmental data from the IEA and from the EDGAR emissions database (all data from 2010 or later). An index decomposition analysis was also performed to detect the various components of the time series.

    For fossil fuels consumption-based data don't differ much from production-based data in total. For the greenhouse gases there is a clear increase (CO2eq emissions increase approximately 20 % from 1993–2005, mainly driven by an increase in CH4 emissions), resulting from increased emissions abroad due to the increased demand for imported products. This suggests Sweden has not decoupled economic growth from increasing greenhouse gas emissions – contrary to what the slightly decreasing official production-based UNFCCC data say. For the precursor gases (SO2, NOx, CO and NMVOC), emissions are generally decreasing, with the exception of SO2 and NOx which increase in the second time series. For all emissions studied, consumption-based data lie at much higher levels than the official production-based UNFCCC data.

    However, further research is needed regarding the resolution of the data of the energy use and the emissions generated abroad by the Swedish domestic final demand. Also, extension of the time series and of the environmental parameters to such things as material use is needed to find out with more certainty to what extent Swedish growth has been sustainable or not.

  • 6.
    Carlström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kompostering av organiskt avfall från Gästrikeregionen – miljöpåverkan av olika behandlingsalternativ2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the coming years, organic food waste will be collected in the region of Gästrikland, Sweden. The collection is planned to cover the entire region by the end of year 2007. To start with, smaller amounts are being collected and transported to a central composting plant in Sala. However, a central composting plant in the region of Gästrikland is projected.

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate a number of possible methods for composting of organic food wastes regarding their environmental impacts and localization.

    There are four scenarios for future composting of organic waste that have been evaluated. There are two that consist of membrane composting, either in Sala or in the region of Gästrikland. The other two scenarios consist of tunnel composting in the region of Gästrikland with two possible placements.

    The result from the systems analysis shows a lower environmental impact when using tunnel composting, compared to membrane composting. As the tunnel compost uses technologies for treating the compost gas, the amount of substances that can contribute to acidification and eutrophication is considerably lowered. However, the use of electricity is higher since the automatic process demands a greater electricity input. At a membrane composting plant, vehicles are being used to move compost material. The combustion of diesel oil gives rise to gases that increase the global warming. According to future legislations, tunnel composting gives an easier control of the emissions and optimization of the compost process.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för energi och teknik.
    Energy optimization, Sobacken biogas plant2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to make the biogas plant at Sobacken located 8 km west of Borås more

    profitable you must become aware of flows at the plant. This not only concerning the

    incoming waste to the plant but also the use of energy. Since the rebuilding in 2005 of

    the plant there has been no follow up concerning the energy use. This thesis is meant

    to clarify the use of electricity and heat at the plant. The work determining the use of

    energy at Sobacken biogas plant has been done by collecting data from documentation

    from the builder Läckeby Water but also by obtaining information from the computer

    systems and frequency converters. The results of the study and its calculations shows

    that the plant uses approximately 3,2 GWh of electricity per year and 3,1 GWh of

    biogas, produced at the plant for heating per year. The production of biogas is

    corresponding to 17,7 Gwh per year of which 14,1 GWh reaches the distribution

    network. The biogas is used by the city buses but could also be used by private car

    owners in Borås refuelling at the newly built tank station at Åhaga. The study does

    not only show that the process consumes 6,3 Gwh per year to produce 14,1 Gwh

    per year, there is also a large amount of energy being released in secondary energy

    flows. These energy flows consists mostly by heat form the cooling system which

    could potentially be recovered by heat exchangers and used to heat the process.

  • 8. Estrada, Ernesto
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Using network centrality measures to manage landscape connectivity2008In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 1810-1825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a graph-theoretical landscape modeling approach to investigate how to identify central patches in the landscape as well as how these central patches influence (1) organism movement within the local neighborhood and (2) the dispersal of organisms beyond the local neighborhood. Organism movements were theoretically estimated based on the spatial configuration of the habitat patches in the studied landscape. We find that centrality depends on the way the graph-theoretical model of habitat patches is constructed, although even the simplest network representation, not taking strength and directionality of potential organisms flows into account, still provides a coarse-grained assessment of the most important patches according to their contribution to landscape connectivity. Moreover, we identify (at least) two general classes of centrality. One accounts for the local flow of organisms in the neighborhood of a patch, and the other accounts for the ability to maintain connectivity beyond the scale of the local neighborhood. Finally, we study how habitat patches with high scores on different network centrality measures are distributed in a fragmented agricultural landscape in Madagascar. Results show that patches with high degree and betweenness centrality are widely spread, while patches with high subgraph and closeness centrality are clumped together in dense clusters. This finding may enable multispecies analyses of single-species network models.

  • 9.
    Hedberg, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Regional Quantification of Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on Streamflows in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The anthropogenic impact on earth’s systems has rapidly increased since the middle of the last century and today it is hard to find a stream that is not influenced by human activities. The understanding of causes to changes is an important knowledge for future water management and planning and of that reason climatic and anthropogenic impact on streamflow changes in Sweden were explored and quantified. In the first step trends and abrupt changes in annual streamflow were detected and verified with the non- parametric Mann-Kendall’s and Pettitt’s test, all performed as moving window tests. In the second step HBV, a climatic driven rainfall-runoff model, was used to attribute the causes of the detected changes. Detection and attribution of changes were performed on several catchments in order to investigate regional patterns. On one hand using smaller window sizes, period higher number of detected positive and negative trends were found. On the other hand bigger window sizes resulted in positive trends in more than half of the catchments and almost no negative trends. The detected changes were highly dependent on the investigated time frame, due to periodicity, e.g. natural variability in streamflow. In general the anthropogenic impact on streamflow changes was smaller than changes due to temperature and streamflow. In median anthropogenic impact could explain 7% of the total change. No regional differences were found which indicated that anthropogenic impact varies more between individual catchments than following a regional pattern.

  • 10.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Depletion rate analysis of fields and regions: a methodological foundation2014In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 95-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical framework for depletion rate analysis and ties it to the physics of depletion. Theory was compared with empirical data from 1036 fields and a number of regions. Strong agreement between theory and practice was found, indicating that the framework is plausible. Both single fields and entire regions exhibit similar depletion rate patterns, showing the generality of the approach. The maximum depletion rates for fields were found to be well described by a Weibull distribution.

    Depletion rates were also found to strongly correlate with decline rates. In particular, the depletion rate at peak was shown to be useful for predicting the future decline rate. Studies of regions indicate that a depletion rate of remaining recoverable resources in the range of 2–3% is consistent with historical experience. This agrees well with earlier “peak oil” forecasts and indicates that they rest on a solid scientific ground. 

  • 11.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Fantazzini, Dean
    Moscow School of Economics.
    Angelantoni, André
    Post Peak Living.
    Snowden, Simon
    Liverpool University.
    Hydrocarbon liquefaction: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy2014In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 372, no 2006, p. 20120319-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current world capacity of hydrocarbon liquefaction is around 400,000 barrels per day (kb/d), providing a marginal share of the global liquid fuel supply. This study performs a broad review of technical, economic, environmental, and supply chains issues related to coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). We find three issues predominate. First, significant amounts of coal and gas would be required to obtain anything more than a marginal production of liquids. Second, the economics of CTL plants are clearly prohibitive, but are better for GTL. Nevertheless, large scale GTL plants still require very high upfront costs, and for three real world GTL plants out of four, the final cost has been so far approximately three times that initially budgeted. Small scale GTL holds potential for associated gas. Third, CTL and GTL both incur significant environmental impacts, ranging from increased greenhouse gas emissions (in the case of CTL) to water contamination. Environmental concerns may significantly affect growth of these projects until adequate solutions are found.

  • 12.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Li, Junchen
    China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
    Johansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Snowden, Simon
    University of Liverpool.
    Growth rates of global energy systems and future outlooks2012In: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid "oil boom"-development - i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events - their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  • 13.
    Iverfelt, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Släckvattenpartiklars spridning i mark och grundvatten: En studie av brandgenererade partiklars egenskaper och påverkan på föroreningsspridning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A fire can generate large amounts of toxic compounds and particles. When a fire is extinguished with water these compounds and particles can be transferred to the water, generating contaminated fire-extinguishing water. To understand and predict contamination transport from fire-extinguishing water in soil and groundwater the effect of fire generated particles on contamination transport needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of particles in fire-extinguishing water and to examine how these properties effect contamination transport in soil and groundwater. The study was conducted as a case study where fire-extinguishing water from a single fire was examined.

    Considering particle properties, particle transport in soil and groundwater is regulated by two main mechanisms: physicochemical particle-surface interactions and straining. How the mechanisms effect the transport is controlled by, among other things, the surface charge of the particles and the size of the particles. To understand particle properties analysis of the size distribution and zeta potential were conducted. To understand how the particles influenced contamination transport concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metal were measured. Column experiments were then conducted with the characterized particles.

    The results showed that the particles zeta potential was negative. The fire-extinguishing water contained high concentrations of metals and PAH. When the particles were filtrated into two sizes, larger and smaller than 11 um, the highest concentration PAH and metals were found on the larger particles. In the column experiment particles ≤ 11 µm were transported through the sand while larger particles were immobilized.

    The measurements and the transport experiments indicate that particles ≤ 11 µm, in soil with similar properties as in the column experiment, could be transported without influence of physicochemical particle-surface interactions. The main mechanism for particle transport for particles with a diameter ≤ 11 µm would then be straining. That means that the transport of particles and therefore contamination transport would depend on particle size and soil pore size. The transport experiment with particles > 11 µm indicated that physicochemical particle-surface interactions and/or straining immobilized larger particles. If larger particles are immobilized the contamination spreading would be limited. To fully understand what mechanism controls the transport of particles in fire-extinguishing water, and therefore the contamination transport, more studies need to be conducted. 

  • 14.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mikrobiell riskanalys för ökat ytvattenintag åt Håbo kommun2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Håbo kommun har tillstånd att ta ut 5 500 kubikmeter vatten från Mälaren per dag som medeltal över ett år. Då befolkningsmängden i Håbo kommun förväntas stiga kommer staden snart behöva ett nytt, utökat tillstånd att ta mer vatten från Mälaren. I och med den rådande klimatförändringen förutspås den mikrobiella belastningen på vattenverk öka, vilket gör det intressant att identifiera essentiella reningssteg för att kunna garantera rent och säkert dricksvatten, i enlighet med Svenska livsmedelsverkets föreskrifter 2001:30.

    I projektet användes ett mikrobiellt riskanalysverktyg (MRA), framtaget av Svenskt Vatten 2009, för att studera de patogenrelaterade risker som ett ökat ytvattenintag från Mälaren kan innebära i dagens klimat samt i kommande klimat. Projektet syftade även till att studera Håbo kommuns vattenverks reningskapacitet under olika driftscenarion för att identifiera svagheter och styrkor med vattenverket.

    På grund av dyra och komplicerade patogenanalyser i samband med mycket begränsad information om relevanta patogener i vattenverkets råvatten, baserades den genomförda riskanalysen på patogenhalter sammanställda av Svenskt Vatten. Från dessa kunde vattenverkets reningsprocesser utvärderas och smittorisken för vattenkonsumenter i Håbo kommun studeras.

    Från modellen erhölls att vattenverket har tre mikrobiella barriärer: (1) dosering av flockningsmedel följt av snabbfilter, (2) UV-desinficering samt (3) tillsats av natriumhypoklorit. I normaldrift varierade reduktionen mellan 10,1 och 10,4 log10 enheter för bakterier, 4,5 och 8 log10 enheter för virus samt cirka 5,9 log10 enheter för protozoer. Vattenverkets viktigaste reducerande steg visade sig vara UV-ljus som reducerade bakterier med 5,3 log10 enheter, virus med 2,1 till 5,5 log10 enheter och protozoer med 3 log10 enheter.

    World Health Organization har definierat en acceptabel risk att 1 på 10 000 årligen insjuknar i patogenrelaterade smittor kopplat till vattenkonsumtion. MRA-modellen visade att Håbo vattenverk i normaldrift överskrider de accepterade riskerna för Cryptosporidium, Adenovirus och Rotavirus som istället hade en årlig risk på 5,72/10 000, 140/10 000 samt 1,47/10 000.

    Ett ökat råvattenintag från Mälaren skulle innebära en ökad mikrobiell risk för vattenverket eftersom effektiviteten av UV-desinficeringen och kloreringen försämras till följd av ett utökat intag av råvatten. Enligt modellen kan den negativa effekten från det ökade intaget motverkas genom att anpassa UV-intensiteten och mängden tillsatt natriumhypoklorit efter det nya vattenflödet. Dock antar modellen att inget organiskt material förekommer i reningen vilket skulle kunna minska patogenreduktionen i samtliga steg.

    Modellkörningar med ett antaget ökande patogeninnehåll mellan 2009 och 2100 visade ökade risker på 30-60 % beroende på patogen. Resultat baseras dock på grova antaganden så som att ingen ökning av organiskt material förekommer samt att patogenökningen följer nederbördsökningen framtagen av SMHI. Detta i kombination med att modellen är under utveckling gör att resultatet bör ses mer som indicier på områden där problem kan uppstå.

  • 15.
    Joodaki, Saba
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    The effect of designing parameter of WAG injection on enhancement of CO2trapping in heterogeneous formations: A numerical study2017In: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2152-3878, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 1008-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution and residual trapping of CO2 injected in saline aquifers can be influenced by injection strategies applied. In this study, we focus on the water-alternating-gas (WAG) strategy and investigate the importance of parameters needed to design an effective WAG injection sequence, including (i) CO2 and water injection rates, (ii) WAG ratio, and (iii) number of cycles. Using TOUGH2-ECO2N, we perform 3D numerical simulations of sequences of CO2 and water injection into a heterogeneous formation. Hysteresis in relative permeability and capillary pressure functions is considered based on the Land trapping model. Results show that to design a WAG injection in a high permeable formation, the WAG ratio and number of injection cycles are more important parameters than the CO2 and water injection rates. Increasing the total amount of water injection (i.e., decreasing the WAG ratio for given total amount of injected CO2) improves the CO2 dissolution and residual trapping. It is also shown that increasing the number of injection cycles has a negative effect on both residual and dissolution trapping as measured at the end of the injection sequence, because both the free-phase and the dissolved CO2 plumes in the one-cycle injection scenario reach farther distances and occupy larger reservoir volumes than in the multi-cycle injection. This result means that while water injection following the CO2 injection improves trapping in comparison with the CO2-only injection strategy, the WAG scheme with multiple cycles should not be chosen to enhance trapping for the scenario considered in this study. 

  • 16.
    Jordan, Gyözö
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Landscape Dynamics.
    Terrain Modelling with GIS for Tectonic Geomorphology: Numerical Methods and Applications2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of digital elevation models (DEMs) by means of geomorphometry provides means of recognising fractures and characterising the morphotectonics of an area in a quantitative way. The objective of the thesis is to develop numerical methods and a consistent GIS methodology for tectonic geomorphology and apply it to test sites. Based on the study of landforms related to faults, geomorphological characteristics are translated into mathematical and numerical algorithms. The methodology is based on general geomorphometry. In this study, the basic geometric attributes (elevation, slope, aspect and curvatures) are complemented with the automatic extraction of ridge and valley lines and surface specific points. Evan’s univariate and bivariate methodology of general geomorphometry is extended with texture (spatial) analysis methods such as trend, autocorrelation, spectral, wavelet and network analysis. Digital terrain modelling is carried out by means of (1) general geomorphometry, (2) digital drainage network analysis, (3) digital image processing, (4) lineament extraction and analysis, (5) spatial and statistical analysis and (6) DEM specific digital methods such as shaded relief models, digital cross-sections and 3D surface modelling. Geological data of various sources and scales are integrated in a GIS database. Interpretation of multi-source information confirmed the findings of digital morphotectonic investigation. A simple shear model with principal displacement zone in the NE-SW direction can explain most of the morphotectonic features associated with structures identified by geological and digital morphotectonic investigations in the Kali Basin. Comparison of the results of the DTA with the known geology from NW Greece indicated that the major faults correspond to clear lineaments. Thus, DTA of an area in the proposed way forms a useful tool to identify major and minor structures covering large areas. In this thesis, numerical methods for drainage network extraction and aspect analysis have been developed and applied to tectonic geomorphology.

  • 17.
    Kocur, Chris
    et al.
    University of Western Ontario.
    Chowdhury, A
    University of Western Ontario.
    Sakulchaicharoen, N
    University of Western Ontario.
    Boparai, H
    University of Western Ontario.
    Weber, K
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Civil and Environmental Engineering, Western University, 1151 Richmond Rd. London, Ontario, N6A 5B8, Canada ‡ Civil Enginee.
    Krol, M
    Austrins, L
    Peace, C
    Sleep, B
    O'Carroll, Denis
    University of Western Ontario.
    Characterization of nZVI mobility in a field scale test2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 2862-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) particles were injected into a contaminated sandy subsurface area in Sarnia, Ontario. The nZVI was synthesized on site, creating a slurry of 1 g/L nanoparticles using the chemical precipitation method with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the reductant in the presence of 0.8% wt. sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) polymer to form a stable suspension. Individual nZVI particles formed during synthesis had a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) quantified particle size of 86.0 nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) quantified hydrodynamic diameter for the CMC and nZVI of 624.8 nm. The nZVI was delivered to the subsurface via gravity injection. Peak normalized total Fe breakthrough of 71% was observed 1m from the injection well and remained above 50% for the 24 hour injection period. Samples collected from a monitoring well 1 m from the injection contained nanoparticles with TEM-measured particle diameter of 80.2 nm and hydrodynamic diameter of 562.9 nm. No morphological changes were discernible between the injected nanoparticles and nanoparticles recovered from the monitoring well. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm the elemental composition of the iron nanoparticles sampled from the downstream monitoring well, verifying the successful transport of nZVI particles. This study suggests that CMC stabilized nZVI can be transported at least 1 m to the contaminated source zone at significant Fe0 concentrations for reaction with target contaminants.

  • 18.
    Kumar, Sunil
    et al.
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Magotra, Verjesh Kumar
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Jeon, H. C.
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Kang, T. W.
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Inamdar, Akbar I.
    Dongguk Univ, Div Phys & Semicond Sci, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Aqueel, Abu Talha
    Dongguk Univ, Div Phys & Semicond Sci, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Im, Hyunsik
    Dongguk Univ, Div Phys & Semicond Sci, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Multifunctional ammonium fuel cell using compost as a novel electro-catalyst2018In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 402, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to acute ammonium toxicity, it is always desirable to find a cheaper and abundant electro-catalyst other than platinum, iridium oxide, boron diamond etc with a high selectivity and negligible de-activation for its oxidation. Also ammonium is not known for electricity generation except biological nitrification process. So this paper elucidates the studies of compost as a novel electro-catalyst in a ammonium fuel cell configuration. These studies are done by varying type of electrodes & compost as well as ammonium concentration. Bi-polar cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence, cyclic stability and chronoamperometry techniques are used to study compost. Cow dung based compost is found to show the best electro-catalytic activity. IV measurements are conducted to study power generation in tune with the electro-catalytic activity. Finally, polarization and sustainability measurements are done on a comparatively larger fuel cell to check the size scalability. The results shows that the maximum power density is 108 mW/m(2) and this multifunctional device can be fueled after every 12 h for continuous operation and with negligible de-activation of electro-catalyst. These studies opens a window for doing further advanced research in compost triggered electro-catalysis to make multifunctional fuel cell devices for solving environmental and energy issues together.

  • 19.
    Larsson, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Fantazzini, Dean
    Moscow School of Economics.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Kullander, Sven
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Reviewing electricity production cost assessments2013In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 30, p. 170-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough review of twelve recent studies of production costs from different power generating technologies was conducted and a wide range in cost estimates was found. The reviewed studies show differences in their methodologies and assumptions, making the stated cost figures not directly comparable and unsuitable to be generalized to represent the costs for entire technologies. Moreover, current levelized costs of electricity methodologies focus only on the producer's costs, while additional costs viewed from a consumer perspective and on external costs with impact on society should be included if these results are to be used for planning. Although this type of electricity production cost assessments can be useful, the habit of generalizing electricity production cost figures for entire technologies is problematic. Cost escalations tend to occur rapidly with time, the impact of economies of scale is significant, costs are in many cases site-specific, and country-specific circumstances affect production costs. Assumptions on the cost-influencing factors such as discount rates, fuel prices and heat credits fluctuate considerably and have a significant impact on production cost results. Electricity production costs assessments similar to the studies reviewed in this work disregard many important cost factors, making them inadequate for decision and policy making, and should only be used to provide rough ballpark estimates with respect to a given system boundary. Caution when using electricity production cost estimates are recommended, and further studies investigating cost under different circumstances, both for producers and society as a whole are called for. Also, policy makers should be aware of the potentially widely different results coming from electricity production cost estimates under different assumptions.

  • 20.
    Lebrun, Delphine Misao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Photonic crystals and photocatalysis: Study of titania inverse opals2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increase of human activity, an increase health risk has emerged from the presence of pollutants in the environment. In the transition to renewable and sustainable life style, treatment of pollutants could support the shifting societies. A motivation behind material research for environmental applications is to maximize the efficiency of the materials to alleviate environmental pollution.

    In the case of titania, an increase of ultra-violet light absorption is needed to overcome its bandgap to produce reactive radicals, which is the basis for photocatalysis. It has been hypothesized that photonic crystal can enhance titania photocatalysis. They are structures made of at least two dielectrics with a high refractive index contrast, ordered in a periodic fashion. For a strong contrast, photonic band gaps emerge. The effect of the photonic band gap is to force complete reflection of the incoming light within its range and multiple internal reflections at its edges. By combining photonic and electronic band gap positions, it is possible to increase the absorption at the photonic band gap edges.

    In this thesis, fabrication method and structural analysis of titania and alumina/titania photonic structures were presented. A thorough optical analysis was performed at all steps of fabrication – beyond what previously has been reported. The photocatalytic activity was measured with two setups. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy combined with arc lamps and bandpass filters was used to monitor the degradation of stearic acid in ambient air. A home-built setup was used to degrade methylene blue in solution with ultra-violet illumination.

    The results in this thesis show in general no correlation of the photocatalytic activity to the photonic band gap position, even though absorbance data displayed an increase absorption in this energy range. A more controlled environment might show the effect of the structure, as seen in some of the experiments.

  • 21.
    Leena, Grandell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 11818-11837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  • 22.
    Liapodimitris, Dimitrios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    VESSEL FLEET OPTIMISATION FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER MAINTENANCE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power has been a leading energy source in the renewable energy sector. The offshore wind power industry is rapidly growing, having the advantages of great wind resources, with minimum impact on residential areas; however, the high O&M costs add significantly to the LCOE, and present a challenge to the project developers and operators. The objective of this Thesis is to develop an optimisation method aiming to optimise the O&M vessel fleet in terms of its size and mix, and implement it into a spreadsheet-based tool. At first, a review on the available literature was conducted, in order to establish the theoretical background on the topics of maintenance, optimisation and O&M vessels, and identify the O&M strategies used in offshore wind power. The optimisation method developed focuses on the implementation of different O&M strategies,and is mainly based on the vessel contracts strategy, which aims to acquire lease contracts of various vessel types, including helicopters, available in the market to support the maintenance activities of an offshore wind farm. The model developed consists of calculation modules and introduces a 5-stage weather data filtering process for the estimation of the operational weather window, a WT components' failures forecast method, and a 2-stage optimisation process. The model was applied on a case study of a fictitious offshore wind farm, by using measured and realistic input data, in order to examine its efficacy. The model's outputs generated presented the optimal O&M vessel fleet for three different scenarios (mean, best case, and worst case), together with the optimal allocation of the failure repairs to each O&M vessel, and the corresponding O&M costs.

  • 23.
    Lind, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Är det möjligt att använda SCR-rening av rökgaserna vid inblandning av avfall i biobränslet?2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Waste appears to be a low-cost fuel compared to biofuel. This Masters thesis was conducted for Vattenfall Utveckling AB and deals with how waste in the fuel affects the performance of a SCR-catalyst. Different mechanisms of deactivation were surveyed, focusing on the poisoning mechanism. A literature study was carried out, which was used as a reference when analysing the results.

    Small samples (9x2x2 cm, 64 pieces) cut out from a full-scale unused honeycomb catalyst were exposed up to 1500h in two different combustion plants, Johannes in Gävle (co-combustion) and Högdalen in Stockholm (waste-combustion). The activity was measured mainly at 300°C but also at 250, 350, 375 and 400°C. SEM/EDS-analysis (about 20 samples) and wet chemical analysis (about 20 samples + 2 fly-ash samples) was then performed on the samples. A sample from each boiler was sent for BETanalysis.

    The results from the analysis above were compared to earlier studies conducted on bio-fuel plants in order to investigate what might have deactivated the catalyst samples. Also a small multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was performed. The results from the study show that the catalyst samples exposed in Johannes have slightly less than 60 % of the activity left after 1500h, for Högdalen only 20 % of the activity remains after 1500h. For Johannes when only firing biofuel the corresponding figure is 74 % and in a coal-fired boiler just over 80 % of the activity remains after 1500h. For catalysts with a higher initial activity the deactivation rate is slower. The main mechanism of deactivation is poisoning from alkali metals. In Johannes the poisoning is mainly due to water-soluble potassium. In Högdalen water-soluble potassium, sodium and acid soluble lead causes the deactivation. Potassium stands for just over half of the poisoning effect, sodium just over 1/3 and lead for less than 1/6. SEM/EDS-analysis shows that the potassium content is about 3 times higher the first centimetre from the inlet, than the rest of the sample. The difference in potassiumconcentration between the surface and the walls of the catalyst is rather small. The concentration of lead on the other hand was found to be constant along the catalyst, but the concentration on the surface is much higher than in the walls. Erosion, sintering and plugging have not been studied in detail. Erosion tends to be a bigger problem in Johannes than in Högdalen, probably due to the texture of the fly ash. It does not seem to be any risk of sintering where the test-bench was exposed. For Johannes plugging was estimated to affect around 25 % of the channels in the samples after 1000h of exposure. Solely exposure for fly ash wasn’t found to affect the activity significantly.

  • 24.
    Lönn, Pernilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Utvärdering av effektstyrningssystemet EnergiDirigent® ur ett miljöperspektiv2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Director is a control and measuring system for energy consumption and is part of the product portfolio of E.ON AG for more efficient use of energy, offered to business customers. As of today, the system has only one parameter of control, namely power, and the objective of this essay has been to investigate whether other ones could be added. The emphasis is on the environmental perspective, which is why carbon dioxide has served as an example for this parameter in question.

    Parallel with the study of Energy Director electricity on the margin, calculations of carbon dioxide equivalents and also the Swedish trade of electricity have all been highlighted. Results indicate that when reductions in energy are made it is endorsed to omit from electricity on the margin rather than some mean distributed electricity, under certain conditions, and in addition the calculations of the reductions should be modified regarding the efficiency of the power stations fuelled by lignite and bituminous coal. Sweden practices trade with the Nordic countries as well as Poland and Germany. Import and export represents essential factors in the discussion of electricity on the margin but they can nonetheless today be included in calculations concerning savings in emission of carbon dioxide.

    The development of Energy Director is suggested to follow a model that includes the total emissions of carbon dioxide at each installation. Contributions are descended from local sources at the site, which are continuously measured, and from the energy that is obtained, where the equivalent amount of carbon dioxide has to be theoretically estimated. The total carbon dioxide limit control is then accomplished by means of controlling the obtained energy.

  • 25.
    Marklund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Flygplansavisningens miljöpåverkan vid svenska flygplatser2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to answer a number of questions about the environmental consequences of aircraft de-icing. A further aim was to suggest how the environmental consequences due to the release of de-icing fluids can be measured and reduced.

    The main impact of the aircraft de-icing on the environment is due to the large oxygen demand for the degradation of glycol based de-icing fluids which are released in the environment. The effect of the increase in oxygen demand depends on where the degradation occurs in the ecosystem. In a sensitive ecosystem, the large demand of oxygen could provide an anaerobic environment which would be harmful for many types of organisms.

    In order to reduce the negative effects of the applied de-icing fluid, there is some type of collection system at every regular airport in Sweden. The methods of collection can be divided into two general groups, hydrological isolation or vacuum sweeper trucks. When the area used for hydrological isolation is relatively small it is called a central de-icing pad. This thesis investigates which methods are being used at 16 of the Swedish airports with the most intense de-icing activity. Of all of these airports, only one does not use vacuum sweeper trucks. Six of the airports use central de-icing pads and five use hydrological isolation of a larger area. The investigation of the efficiency of each method showed no significant differences. This is due to the lack of accurate measurements and that different measurement methods are employed at different airports.

    This thesis also examines which methods for measuring the efficiency are being used, their weaknesses and what alternatives methods are available. Suggestions are also given to minimize the environmental consequences of aircraft de-icing, taken into account both leakage of the de-icing fluid and its judicious use.

    The case study of Stockholm-Bromma Airport includes a more detailed investigation of the de-icing activities and a rough mass balance is established. The aim of establisheing the mass balance is to determine the extent of collection of the de-icing fluids, their runoff to the storm water system or arrival at a diffuse sink. The results show that even if the collection is low, only a small part of the de-icing fluids reaches the storm water system. A relatively large part goes to the diffuse sinks where the de-icing fluids degrade on the soil surface or percolate into the soil. In the case study there is also an investigation of the probable impacts on the surrounding environment due to aircraft de-icing at Stockholm-Bromma Airport and suggestions are made how to reduce the impact.

  • 26.
    Martens, Sonja
    et al.
    GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Potsdam.
    Hangx, Suzanne
    Univ Utrecht, Earth Sci, Utrecht.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Kuehn, Michael
    GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Potsdam.
    Kempka, Thomas
    GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Potsdam.
    Energy, Resources and the Environment: Meeting the challenges of the future2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 125, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Geosciences Union (EGU) brings together geoscientists from all over the world covering all disciplines of the Earth, planetary and space sciences. This geoscientific interdisciplinarity is needed to tackle the challenges of the future. One major challenge for humankind is to provide adequate and reliable supplies of affordable energy and other resources in efficient and environmentally sustainable ways. This Energy Procedia issue provides an overview of the contributions of the Division on Energy, Resources & the Environment (ERE) at the EGU General Assembly 2017.

  • 27.
    Moberg, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    The water footprint of coffee production in Miraflor, Nicaragua2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A water footprint is a tool for assessing the impacts of freshwater use by mapping the water use of the production of a good or a service, a process in a production chain, a business or even of a whole country. One of the most commonly used methods for calculating the water footprint was developed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN). The objective of this study was to account for the water footprint of the production of coffee in the area of Miraflor, Nicaragua, using the WFN method. The study aimed to highlight where improvements can be made regarding water resources management, both with respect to the quantity of the water appropriated in the different process steps, as well as concerning the treatment of residues of the coffee production.

    The results of the study show a water footprint of 20 049 m3 per ton of harvested coffee in Miraflor. This equals a consumption of more than 6 000 000 m3 of water when considering the overall production of the harvest of 2015/2016. The results pinpoint the growing phase as crucial with 98.1 % of the total water footprint. Nicaragua and the region where Miraflor is located are having increasing problems with water scarcity due to drought and contamination of water resources. Together with these circumstances, the results of the study show that the current management should be improved in order to minimize the impacts on local water resources and the environment. It is mainly the application of pesticides and fertilizers in the cultivation of the coffee that give rise to the large water footprint. Furthermore, the current management violates the law restricting the discharge of effluent waters from coffee processing plants. Another important factor contributing to the water footprint yields in the consumption of rainwater via evapotranspiration by the crops in field.

    In order to reduce the water footprint there should be a more conscious use of pesticides and fertilizers as well as a development in the treatment of the effluent water. The latter factor can be elaborated by considering new installations where even smaller ones probably could make a considerable change. Other management practices to decrease the water footprint consist of generating a higher yield per hectare of land. 

  • 28.
    Morén, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Lerlagers tätande förmåga och inverkan på transporten av klorerade lösningsmedel i förorenade områden.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete syftade till att undersöka om lera kan förhindra en spridning av klorerade lösningsmedel ned till grundvattnet samt vid vilka hydrogeologiska förhållanden som lera har störst potential att vara tätande. Det övergripande målet med arbetet var dock att bidra till att tydliggöra definitionen av och förbättra kunskapsläget om tätande jordlager på Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU).

    Sju förorenade områden där klorerade lösningsmedel påvisats i jord och/eller grundvatten valdes ut till en jämförande fallstudie. Samtliga områden var belägna inom 750 m från något av SGUs lokalkarterade grundvattenmagasin och lera överlagrade helt eller delvis grundvattenmagasinet på platsen. Resultatdata i form av jord- och grundvattenprov från tidigare undersökningar av områdena lagrades in i databaser på SGU. Spridningen av klorerade lösningsmedel på varje område analyserades sedan genom att titta på var i området olika koncentrationer uppmätts och hur koncentrationerna förändrats med djupet. Spridningen jämfördes även med lerförekomsten på varje område både med avseende på lermäktighet och på placeringen av leran i området. Områdena jämfördes sedan med varandra för att se om det fanns ett samband mellan lerförekomst och spridningsbild samt för att tydliggöra hur förhållandena på platsen bör se ut för att ett lerlager ska vara tätande.

    Resultaten stämmer väl överens med de tidigare studier som visat att lera kan ha en uppbromsande effekt vid spridningen av klorerade lösningsmedel. Däremot kan lera inte sägas vara tätande utan att tidsaspekten tas med i definitionen. Även storleken på utsläppet har betydelse för hur länge ett lerlager kan hålla tillbaka spridningen. Studien tyder också på att så kallade svallsediment kan öka jordlagrens potential att vara tätande genom att bromsa upp och sedan avleda den vertikala spridningen av klorerade lösningsmedel samt att lera har en större potential att vara tätande ifall lerlagret är beläget några meter ned i jorden och leran är vattenmättad. Det är däremot svårt att dra några slutsatser kring vilken mäktighet ett lerlager måste ha för att vara tätande. Endast i ett av de utvalda områdena hade det undre grundvattnet skyddats mot spridningen av klorerade lösningsmedel förmodligen tack vare en kombination av ett mycket mäktigt lerlager, ett övre grundvattenmagasin i svallsedimentet och en uppåtgående strömning av grundvatten från det nedre till det övre grundvattenmagasinet. Slutligen visar examensarbetet att i områden med punktutsläpp av klorerade lösningsmedel har de lokala förutsättningarna för stor påverkan för att en viss lermäktighet ska kunna sägas vara tätande och försiktighet bör tas vid användning av begreppet tätande jordlager i generella sammanhang.

  • 29.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    A Markov-chain probability distribution mixture approach to the clear-sky index2018In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 170, p. 174-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Markov-chain probability distribution mixture approach to the clear-sky index (CSI). The main assumption is that the temporal variability of the state of clear and the state of cloudy can be described by a two-state Markov-chain, and the variability within each state can be approximated by a probability distribution, unique for each state. Measurables such as the mean clear-sky index, fraction of bright sunshine, expected duration of clearness and expected duration of cloudiness events are shown to be related to the parameters of the method. Additionally, the Ångström equation, which relates mean normalized solar irradiance to the fraction of bright sunshine, is shown to arise as the expectation of the method. In order to numerically verify the method, a simulation model is constructed based on data sets for two different climatic regions: Norrköping, Sweden and Oahu, Hawaii, USA. Results from the simulation model based on training data shows good agreement with testing data, and when comparing the results to existing models in the literature it is comparable to the state of the art. It is shown that the simulation model generates a non-trivial, generally non-zero, autocorrelation function. Finally, challenges with the method and open problems are discussed.

  • 30.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Correlation modeling of instantaneous solar irradiance with applications to solar engineering2016In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 133, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating solar irradiance, in particular its variability, on Earth's surface is paramount for solar engineering and for improving the utilization of solar energy. This paper presents a novel approach to statistical modeling of instantaneous solar irradiance by using a multivariate probability distribution-a copula-to describe the dependency between beam and diffuse indices. This approach significantly simplifies certain calculations for solar energy engineering, which is shown with simulated outputs for photovoltaic (PV) systems for different orientations. The PV power generation is expressed as probability distributions, which is directly applicable for power system operation and design. It is also shown that an Angstrom-type equation, which is historically useful in relating time of bright sunshine to average solar radiation, is the statistical expectation of solar irradiance in this model.

  • 31.
    Nejdmo, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Undersökning av deponerat ferrokromstoft: Utvärdering av ny behandlingsmetod2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The production of ferrochromium alloys at Vargön Alloys AB contributes to formation of unwanted ferrochromium dust, which contains toxic Cr(VI). The dust is since summer 2005 treated with an iron-sulphate solution to reduce Cr(VI) to the non-toxic Cr(III). A year later the treatment technique was improved and disposal occurs in cells on the landfill. The cells can be up to 300 m3 and the edges can be made out of fro example concrete. Tests are conducted on the treated dust when it is disposed. The analyses show low contents of Cr(VI), which indicates that the reduction is successful. Analyses of leakage water from a small scale cell however showed an increasing content of Cr(VI) and pH under the first two months.

    This thesis has evaluated the new treatment method. An investigation was conducted to determine if the same changes have occurred in the full scale cells. Half of the 18 collected samples from the disposed dust showed high or very high contents of Cr(VI). The other half had a almost no detectable content. pH was over 12. No correlation between Cr(VI)-content and pH, conductivity, age or water content in the disposed dust could be shown.

    An experiment was also performed in small scale to reduce the number of influencing parameters. The results showed that if the dust has access to oxygen the Cr(VI) content increases during the first days from a few mg/kg dry substance to over 20 mg/kg dry substance, a level which was maintained during the rest of the experiment period. The content of Cr(VI) was almost constant at 4 mg/kg dry substance when oxygen was eliminated during the whole experiment period. When the water content was below 5 %, the content of chromium did not increase more.

    Since almost all newly created Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) by the addition of ferrous sulphate, recreation of Cr(VI) occurs. Today there is now possibility to follow the changes in the dust from untreated to after disposed. The addition of iron-sulphate is based upon an average Cr(VI) content in the dust and the variation of disposal occasions can be significant. To determine if the increase in Cr(VI) is caused of an incorrect addition of solution a smaller disposal cell can be constructed. The initial content of Cr(VI) can be controlled and the dust can be examined during the time it ages. If the dosage could be improved the addition can be optimized. It is also important to minimize the infiltration and accelerate the drying of the slurry since the Cr(VI) content can increase the as long as the water content is high the Cr(VI) content can increase.

  • 32.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Karaktärisering av avfallsbränslen2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All products will eventually end up as waste, which in a sustainable society has to be handled in an efficient and environment friendly way. This report focuses on waste fractions meant for combustion, often difficult to characterize. However, more homogeneous fractions that are treated biologically are also discussed.

    The study concerns the region of Borås, Sweden, where the waste plant Sobacken has provided a good starting point. On this site, fuel to the Energy-from-Waste plant of Borås Energi is prepared and the biological waste is treated through anaerobic digestion.

    One important part of the study has been to collect experience-based knowledge from the technical staff at Sobacken and Borås Energi. This information was compiled into an overview of wanted and unwanted fractions to the preparation plant and the boilers respectively. The purpose of this overview is to complement existing delivery terms and thereby facilitate an increased quality of the fuel from the suppliers.

    A significant element of the analysis has been to characterize the content of the industrial waste sent to Sobacken for combustion. Chemical analyses of the prepared fuel as well as the conducted waste component analysis indicate a heterogeneous composition of the waste. A heterogeneous fuel often results in an uneven combustion, leading to higher emissions and an unwanted variation in the energy production.

    Through the waste component analysis, a comprehensive picture of the waste composition was attained. Materials non-valid for delivery mostly consisted of wet domestic waste (biodegradable materials), but some hazardous waste was also found. The results of the waste component analysis were communicated to the involved suppliers and this has already resulted in a considerable reduction of the amount of biodegradable waste in the deliveries of industrial waste.

  • 33.
    Persson, Ida Maria Linnéa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Designing a Sustainable System for Water Supply and Sanitation in Rural Peru2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given the tremendous importance of water supply and sanitation (WSS) on health and welfare, the purpose of this thesis was to suggest a design of a sustainable WSS system for a rural village in the sub-Andean Amazon of Northern Peru. WSS planning and intervention in the developing world have traditionally been characterized by large failures, and to understand the related problems, this work was initiated with a literature review on the topic. The review resulted in the development of a planning support, containing eight stages ranging from project identification to project realization. Within this thesis, the first four stages were implemented, including an in-field WSS situation assessment and a screening of suitable technical options.

    The in-field assessment contained a general fact collection, an inventory where about a fifth of the households in the village was visited and interviewed, and a water quality analysis. An analysis of the assessment findings resulted in the identification of the WSS components requiring intervention. Thereafter followed a screening of suitable technologies, and based on the results from the analysis, a selection of interesting options was done. Selected options were reviewed and evaluated according to a set of sustainability criteria.

    A majority of the households in the village had standpipes on their premises, delivering untreated water from an unprotected creek outside the village. Apart from surface water, rainwater and water from an open spring were also used in the village. The water analysis revealed that surface water contained elevated levels of bacteria, whereas the spring water was clean. Contaminated water remained contaminated after household treatment (boiling), indicative of poor handling. Water treatment with solar disinfection (SODIS) proved to be effective. The sanitary situation was not satisfactory; almost all households had unimproved pit latrines that could not ensure a hygienic separation of excreta, and open defecation was also practiced. Greywater, resulting from showering and cloth-washing under the standpipe, was at best diverted away from the premises by small drains, but often not managed at all. Stormwater created unhygienic conditions on both private premises and in communal areas during the rainy season; the management situation was similar to that of greywater. Solid waste was not officially managed and even though many of the households had designated a collection site, waste was commonly seen all over the premises.

    The selected technologies were mainly inexpensive such that could be constructed, operated and managed by the community itself. From the assessment it also became clear that the WSS situation could be considerably improved by behavior change. Following the developed planning support; with the finalization of this thesis, the next step would be to present the results from the screening and evaluation of technologies to the villagers, for them to decide which options to proceed with.

  • 34.
    Poulsen, Tjalfe
    et al.
    Aalborg University.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Apparent porous media gas dispersion in response to rapid pressure fluctuations2011In: Soil science, ISSN 0038-075X, E-ISSN 1538-9243, Vol. 176, no 12, p. 635-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of rapid pressure fluctuations (frequency >0.02 min−1) on gas transport in two filter sands with different gas permeability (kg) was investigated. Pressure fluctuation–induced gas transport characterized as a dispersion process governed by a pressure fluctuation–induced dispersion coefficient (Dp) was measured using a column containing the sand, connected to a membrane pump for generating pressure fluctuations. Measurements ofDp in both sands were carried out for different combinations of pressure-fluctuation amplitude (A) and frequency (f). To assess if Dp is affected by the presence of a background steady gas flux in addition to the gas movement induced by the pressure fluctuations, Dpmeasurements were carried out for different constant pore gas velocities (u). Measurements of Dp corresponding to a total of 102 combinations of uAf, and kg were carried out. The results showed that the value of Dp increases with increasing Af, and kg but is independent of u. Relations between Dp and Af, and kg were generally strong.

  • 35.
    Pratt, Robbie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    A COMPARISON OF THE OBSERVED WAKE EFFECT WITH SEVERAL WAKE MODELS USING BOTH ANALYTIC AND CFD SIMULATION METHODS - FOR THE CASE OF BLOCK ISLAND OFFSHORE WIND FARM2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to analyze the observed wake effect at Block Island Wind Farm. A comparison is made between several wake simulation methods and the observed data at Block Island using analytic and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling methods.  The observed wake results at Block Island show a similar trend evident in earlier papers- a large power deficit found between the first two Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs) in the row followed by a slight variation in power along the row for the remainder of the WTGs. A noticeable difference is seen between the last two WTGs in the row where an increase in power is found. This increase in power is thought to be due to the alignment of the wind farm. Nevertheless, when the observed data is compared with the modeled results, the observed data seem to underestimate the wake effect due to misalignment issue with the nacelle wind direction measurement. A sensitivity analysis is conducted on the Wake Decay Constant (WDC) and Turbulence Intensity (TI) values. The results show a maximum power variation of ≈30% between a WDC value of 0.07 and 0.04 and ≈18% for TI values between 8% and 14%. The findings show that a value in the higher range of the examined WDC (0.06 and 0.07) and TI (12% and 14%) values represent a better comparison to the observed data. Nevertheless, it is not recommended to alter these parameters to fit the observed data. Furthermore, due to high uncertainty in the data measurements, and hence observed results, a clear conclusion indicating which wake model best represents the wake effect at Block Island cannot be stated.

  • 36.
    Rahm, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Återvinningsstationer på Lidingö: attityder och lokalisering2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the producers’ responsibility for packaging was introduced in Sweden in 1994 the industry set up public recycling stations to facilitate the collection of the waste material. In order to establish recycling stations at suitable locations the municipalities assist the industry’s service organization for operation of the recycling stations, the Package and Newspaper Collection Service (Förpacknings- och tidningsinsamlingen, FTI). The objectives of this thesis are to improve the service of the public recycling stations within Lidingö town and to increase the accessibility to these stations for the inhabitants of Lidingö. The Municipal authority of Lidingö in consultations with the FTI will use the collected information on the attitudes of the inhabitants in order to bring the recycling system into line with the opinions of the inhabitants.

    The information on the attitudes of the inhabitants towards the public recycling stations has been collected through an opinion poll. About half of those asked are living in blocks of flats while half are living in self-contained houses. In order to secure the differences in attitudes between different forms of living, sex, and age, hypotheses tests were conducted on selected parts of the collected material. New locations for public recycling stations have been suggested and assessed on the basis of accessibility, the risk of littering, the level of noise, the traffic situation, existing hard surfaces and property ownership.

    The inhabitants of Lidingö want the public recycling stations to be located near their homes, near main roads or near shops in order to be accessible. Car is the main means of transport to the recycling stations. Women and people living in blocks of flats walk to the recycling station to a greater extent than men and those living in self-contained houses. The recycling stations ought to be asphalted and well-lit in order to decrease the risk of littering.

    Many inhabitants of Lidingö, living in areas where the population density is high, lack access to public recycling stations within walking distance. New recycling stations should preferably be located in these housing areas. Ten new suggested locations will, if they are adopted, increase the number of inhabitants living within walking distance of a recycling station.

  • 37.
    Sandqvist, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Modellering av vattenflöden samt kväve- och fosforkoncentrationer från Krycklans avrinningsområde med HYPE-modellen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The HYPE-model was developed as an aid of achieving the goal of all Swedish watercourses should have reached at least well ecological status by the year of 2015, according to the EU Water Framework Directive. In the HYPE model, the catchment is divided into soil classes which are a combination of soil and land use. In the model, there are many parameters. Some of them are general for a larger area or can be obtained from previous research, while others must be calibrated for each catchment. The parameters to be calibrated depend in the most cases either on soil or land uses.

    The aim of this study was to calibrate and evaluate the HYPE model for a small catchment. The investigated catchment is called Krycklan and is located in the municipality of Vindeln in the province Västerbotten. The catchment consists mostly of forest, but there are also some agriculture and mire. The calibration was made in two steps, first on a small sub-basin and then to the entire basin.

    Two runoff calibrations were made for the smaller sub-basin. Calibration A was performed with the approach to obtain as high fit as possible, on the basis of the statistical measure NSE, which is the quadrate of the residuals divided in the quadrate of the total quadrate sum. Calibration B was made after consultation with SMHI (The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) of the adequate size of the parameter values. For the entire basin only one calibration was performed. An attempt at modelling of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in runoff was also made.

    The results showed that it was possible to get the model to follow the measured flow well, even at the micro scale. The difference between calibration A and calibration B was that the first one was better to catch the measured flow peaks, but resulted in too high base flow. For both wet and dry years it was possible to obtain a high fit, but the model generally got better for the wet years. There was much more difficult for the model to capture variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, but the connection between the model and the measurements could still be seen.

  • 38.
    Sarmast, Sasan
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, DTU Wind Energy, Bldg 101A, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.;Royal Inst Technol, KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, Swedish E Sci Res Ctr SeRC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Segalini, Antonio
    Royal Inst Technol, KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, Swedish E Sci Res Ctr SeRC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mikkelsen, Robert F.
    Tech Univ Denmark, DTU Wind Energy, Bldg 101A, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Royal Inst Technol, KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, Swedish E Sci Res Ctr SeRC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Comparison of the near-wake between actuator-line simulations and a simplified vortex model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine2016In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 471-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow around an isolated horizontal-axis wind turbine is estimated by means of a new vortex code based on the Biot-Savart law with constant circulation along the blades. The results have been compared with numerical simulations where the wind turbine blades are replaced with actuator lines. Two different wind turbines have been simulated: one with constant circulation along the blades, to replicate the vortex method approximations, and the other with a realistic circulation distribution, to compare the outcomes of the vortex model with real operative wind-turbine conditions (Tjaereborg wind turbine). The vortex model matched the numerical simulation of the turbine with constant blade circulation in terms of the near-wake structure and local forces along the blade. The results from the Tjaereborg turbine case showed some discrepancies between the two approaches, but overall, the agreement is qualitatively good, validating the analytical method for more general conditions. The present results show that a simple vortex code is able to provide an estimation of the flow around the wind turbine similar to the actuator-line approach but with a negligible computational effort.

  • 39.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Abdou, Hesham
    Dep. of Soils and Water, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia, EgyptWashington State University.
    Flury, Markus
    Washington State University.
    Effect of the Lower Boundary Condition and Flotation on Colloid Mobilization in Unsaturated Sandy Sediments2008In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 930-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsaturated soil or sediment columns pose challenges for colloid mobilization studies because the boundary condition imposed at the column outlet may cause experimental artifacts. Our objective was to study in situ colloid mobilization during transient, unsaturated flow as affected by the boundary condition imposed at the column outflow, and to elucidate the mechanisms of colloid mobilization. We conducted colloid mobilization experiments by infiltrating unsaturated, packed sandy sediment columns under two different bottom boundary conditions: a seepage and a suction control. Different flow rates and ionic strengths were used for the column experiments. The mechanisms of colloid mobilization were investigated theoretically using force calculations (adhesive and interfacial forces), complemented with “flotation” experiments, where colloids in the bulk fluid and at the liquid-gas interface were measured separately. More colloids were mobilized under seepage than under suction-controlled boundary conditions. The shape of the colloid breakthrough curves also differed: for the seepage boundary, the maximum of the colloid concentration occurred right at the beginning of the column outflow, but for the suction-controlled boundary, colloid concentrations in the outflow increased gradually before reaching a maximum. Colloid mobilization increased with flow rate and decreased with ionic strength for both boundary conditions; however, colloids were mobilized even at ionic strength exceeding the critical coagulation concentration (CCC). Flotation experiments showed that colloids were located both in the bulk fluid and at the liquid-gas interface at electrolyte concentrations less than the CCC, but only at the liquid-gas interface when the CCC was exceeded. Theoretical considerations confirmed that interfacial forces at the liquid-gas interface exceeded adhesive forces at all ionic strengths used in our experiments. Both experiments and theory showed that the liquid-gas interface had a dominant effect on colloid mobilization. As the movement and configuration of the liquid-gas interface is controlled by the lower boundary condition in column experiments, so is colloid mobilization.

  • 40.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    et al.
    Washington State University.
    Flury, Markus
    Washington State University.
    Mattson, Earl
    Idaho National Laboratory.
    Studying colloid transport in porous media using a geocentrifuge2008In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 44, no W07407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement of colloids in the subsurface is a concern because mobile colloids mayenhance the transport of contaminants. The excessive time required to conduct flow andtransport experiments in porous media led to the use of centrifuges to evaluate subsurfacetransport processes. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability ofcentrifuges to study colloid transport in saturated porous media. We used a geocentrifugeto run colloid transport experiments under different centrifugal accelerations up to 20 g.Colloids of different densities were used: polystyrene (1.05 g/cm3), silica (2 g/cm3), andhematite (5.26 g/cm3). Deposition coefficients were obtained from the colloidbreakthrough curves. We used filtration theory and a theory based on sedimentationdiffusionto derive functional relationships between centrifugal acceleration and colloidand porous media properties, which allow us to predict the effect of acceleration on colloidtransport. Comparison of experimental deposition coefficients with predictions based onfiltration theory showed that filtration theory accurately predicted the behavior ofpolystyrene at higher accelerations but underpredicted colloid deposition for silica andhematite at accelerations higher than 10 g. The sedimentation-diffusion theory allows usto determine whether a system is dominated by sedimentation or diffusion, or is in atransitional state. Theoretical predictions of colloid deposition in a porous medium agreedwell with experiments, suggesting that the theory can be used to delineate whencentrifugal acceleration will alter colloid transport in flow through column studiesconducted in a centrifuge. Common subsurface colloids, such as iron oxides andaluminosilicates, can be affected at accelerations that are used in geocentrifuge transportstudies (5 to 300 g). Even colloids with low specific densities, such as polystyrene, will beaffected by centrifugal accelerations if their size is large.

  • 41.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    et al.
    Aalborg University.
    Flury, Markus
    Washington State University.
    Zhou, Jun
    Washington State University.
    Detachment of colloids from a solid surface by a moving air–water interface2008In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 326, no 1, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloid attachment to liquid–gas interfaces is an important process used in industrial applications toseparate suspended colloids from the fluid phase. Moving gas bubbles can also be used to removecolloidal dust from surfaces. Similarly, moving liquid–gas interfaces lead to colloid mobilization in thenatural subsurface environment, such as in soils and sediments. The objective of this study was toquantify the effect of moving air–water interfaces on the detachment of colloids deposited on an airdriedglass surface, as a function of colloidal properties and interface velocity. We selected four typesof polystyrene colloids (positive and negative surface charge, hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The colloidswere deposited on clean microscope glass slides using a flow-through deposition chamber. Air–waterinterfaces were passed over the colloid-deposited glass slides, and we varied the number of passagesand the interface velocity. The amounts of colloids deposited on the glass slides were visualized usingconfocal laser scanning microscopy and quantified by image analysis. Our results showed that colloidsattached under unfavorable conditions were removed in significantly greater amounts than those attachedunder favorable conditions. Hydrophobic colloids were detached more than hydrophilic colloids. Theeffect of the air–water interface on colloid removal was most pronounced for the first two passagesof the air–water interface. Subsequent passages of air–water interfaces over the colloid-deposited glassslides did not cause significant additional colloid removal. Increasing interface velocity led to decreasedcolloid removal. The force balances, calculated from theory, supported the experimental findings, andhighlight the dominance of detachment forces (surface tension forces) over the attachment forces (DLVOforces).

  • 42.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    et al.
    Section for Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg.
    Mitra, Anurabha
    Aquacultural Engineering Section, Agricultural & Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.
    Integrated aquaculture-hydroponics system with paddy nursery on aquaculture pond2008In: Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, ISSN 1875-8568, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large areas of land remain uncultivated after the rainy season due to lack of irrigation facilities in manycountries. There are also low lying areas, which remain waterlogged for the major part of the year. The returns fromthese areas in terms of agricultural crops and revenues are very poor. Adoption of integrated farming technology byincorporating aquacultural ponds in these areas has been found to increase the total yield and fetch higher financialreturn. Through aquacultural-hydroponic system, by using floating nurseries on aquacultural ponds, many benefitscan be obtained, e.g., double use of pond water, control of erosion of the dykes due to wind action, fishes get shadeduring hot summer days, reduces labour cost, minimizes the loss of pond water due to evaporation, control poachingof fishes, etc. In this study, floating structures of different sizes for the aquacultural tanks were designed and fabricatedand used for paddy nursery. The designed outer diameter of PVC hollow pipes (material used for making the floatingstructures) was found to be 3.0 cm and 4.5 cm for 0.15 m2 and 0.3 m2 of floating structures respectively. Theoptimum area of the floating structures and the number of fish in the tank were 40% and 42 fish/m2 respectively aftermaintaining 5.38 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish and rice plant were found togrow well in the same tank and the total profit in integrated farming was $15,000 per ha of surface area of the pondper year.

  • 43.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Poulsen, Tjalfe
    Aalborg University.
    Gas dispersion and immobile gas volume in solid and porous particle biofilter materials at low air flow velocities2010In: Journal of the air & waste management association, ISSN 1047-3289, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 830-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas-phase dispersion in granular biofilter materials with awide range of particle sizes was investigated using atmosphericair and nitrogen as tracer gases. Two types ofmaterials were used: (1) light extended clay aggregates(LECA), consisting of highly porous particles, and (2)gravel, consisting of solid particles. LECA is a commercialmaterial that is used for insulation, as a soil conditioner,and as a carrier material in biofilters for air cleaning. Thesetwo materials were selected to have approximately thesame particle shape. Column gas transport experimentswere conducted for both materials using different meanparticle diameters, different particle size ranges, and differentgas flow velocities. Measured breakthrough curveswere modeled using the advection-dispersion equationmodified for mass transfer between mobile and immobilegas phases. The results showed that gas dispersivity increasedwith increasing mean particle diameter for LECAbut was independent of mean particle diameter for gravel.Gas dispersivity also increased with increasing particlesize range for both media. Dispersivities in LECA weregenerally higher than for gravel. The mobile gas contentin both materials increased with increasing gas flow velocitybut it did not show any strong dependency onmean particle diameter or particle size range. The relativefraction of mobile gas compared with total porosity washighest for gravel and lowest for LECA likely because of itshigh internal porosity.

  • 44.
    Shepero, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    A generative hidden Markov model of the clear-sky index2019In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 11, article id 043703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clear-sky index (CSI) generative models are of paramount importance in, e.g., studying the integration of solar power in the electricity grid. Several models have recently been proposed with methodologies that are related to hidden Markov models (HMMs). In this paper, we formally employ HMMs, with Gaussian distributions, to generate CSI time-series. The authors propose two different methodologies. The first is a completely data-driven approach, where an HMM with Gaussian observation distributions is proposed. In the second, the means of these Gaussian observation distributions were predefined based on the fraction of time of bright sunshine from the site. Finally, the authors also propose a novel method to improve the autocorrelation function (ACF) of HMMs in general. The two methods were tested on two datasets representing two different climate regions. The performance of the two methodologies varied between the two datasets and among the compared performance metrics. Moreover, both the proposed methods underperformed in reproducing the ACF as compared to state-of-the-art models. However, the method proposed to improve the ACF was able to reduce the mean absolute error (MAE) of the ACF by up to 19%. In summary, the proposed models were able to achieve a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test score as low as 0.042 and MAE of the ACF as low as 0.012. These results are comparable with the state-of-the-art models. Moreover, the proposed models were fast to train. HMMs are shown to be viable CSI generative models. The code for the model and the simulations performed in this paper can be found in the GitHub repository:HMM-CSI-generativeModel.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-08-01 10:37
  • 45.
    Svensson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hygienisering av torkat bioavfall2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main project Dry preservation of food waste from households includes a new technique concerning drying and storage of dried biowaste as well as a study of the sorting of household waste and further usage of the dried biowaste. A question asked in the project is, can the dried biowaste be used as a soil amendment? If organic waste is used as a soil amendment, precaution concerning hygienic safety risks has to be accounted for. The objective of this M. Sc. Thesis Work was to first find a suitable method to attain hygienic safety through a literature study, to test and evaluate the method and to test if a method changes the composition or structure of the material. An existing recipe for food waste was developed and used throughout the work.

    Heating of the dried biowaste is probably the most suitable method to reach and attain a hygienically safe product. Three time-temperature proportions were tested, 55, 70 and 80°C. The results show that a raise in temperature lead to a change in the composition of the dried biowaste, most distinctively for the highest temperature. Nitrogen losses of 21% of the total nitrogen content were noticed. A composting experiment showed that the biowaste heated to the highest temperature was decomposed to a higher degree. It does not, however, seem like a heating process will decrease the possibility to use dried biowaste as a soil improvement.

  • 46.
    Sällh, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Future North Sea oil production and its implications for Swedish oil supply regarding the transport sector: -A study on energy security and sustainability of future strategic resources2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, it has been negative to be dependent on only one resource, in the current situation this resource represents oil. The oil dependence is primarily in the transport sector. From a Swedish perspective oil is an energy resource mainly used in the transport sector. Much of the oil that Sweden imports has its origin in the North Sea. The oil production in the North Sea has however begun to decline, which highlights that oil is a finite resource. This also means that Sweden has to start importing oil from other countries, which may affect the Swedish energy security as these countries may be geographical further away and also be more political instable. It also implies that a transition from oil to renewable fuel within the transport sector is essential.

    The aim of this thesis is to study how Swedish energy security is affected by the oil production volumes in The North Sea. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part consists of updating historical data from recent analyses on North Sea oil production (i.e. Höök and Aleklett, 2008 and Höök et al., 2009a), and also create updated forecasts of future oil production for both Denmark and Norway. The second part investigates how production declines in the North Sea affect the Swedish oil imports. The final section examines how a shift to renewable fuels within the transport sector is possible, with a focus on natural resources. Finally some recommendations are presented on how Sweden could increase their energy security regarding the transport sector by introducing renewable fuels.

  • 47.
    Takeda, Kengo
    et al.
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Purevsuren, Norovsambuu
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Tokimatsu, Koji
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Ikegami, Masako
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    The Import Structure of LNG from Russia to Japan by Cognitive Map and Text Analysis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese energy policy was shifted to natural gas use due to drastic situation domestic and international energy situation, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Accordingly, this study analyzes the structure of natural gas development project and trading between Japan and Russia, as Russia is increasingly becoming an important major supplier of natural gas, which is reflected in the bilateral trade. This study will analyze the two LNG projects as a representative case of the multinational development project of natural gas from the perspective of energy security, economy, technology, and politics. The method of this analysis is “cognitive map” and “text analysis” to quantify the qualitative data collected from four major Japanese newspapers during the period of 1991-2017. One of the findings of this study is that, the Russian government has strengthened exporting LNG to East Asia as a state project since the first Putin administration especially after the US Shale revolution and the Ukrainian crisis, while the Japanese side is driven by major private corporations such as the construction of infrastructure which is little affected from international politics.

  • 48.
    Thunberg, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Energieffektivisering av luftningssteget på Käppalaverket, Lidingö2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis in energy optimization was made during the autumn of 2006 at Käppala wastewater treatment plant in Lidingö, Stockholm. A preceding thesis, where all electricity consumption was mapped, showed that the aeration in the biological treatment is the single largest consumer in the plant, and it is therefore of interest to reduce this cost. The oxygen control strategy used at Käppala WWTP is working well from a nutrient removal point of view, but not from an economic one. The last aerobic zones have a very low oxygen consumption during low loading periods which give rise to enhanced dissolved oxygen concentrations with excessive costs and reduced denitrification as a result. But also during periods of normal loading unnecessary high oxygen concentration are sometimes given.

    By modifying the aeration control strategy three full-scale experiments have been made, with the intention to reduce the air consumption. The experiments were carried out during week 37-50 in the autumn of 2006 and showed that savings could be made.

    The regular oxygen control at Käppala WWTP controls the oxygen level in the aerobic compartment with two DO-setpoints; one in the first aerobic zone and one in the last. The zones in between are controlled by an airflow fractionation depending on the oxygen level in the first and last zone. In the first strategy to be evaluated, all four zones in the aerated part were individually controlled with its own setpoint. Two different setpoint combinations were tested. By using the fact that the efficiency in the oxygen transfer rate was higher at low airflows, savings of approximately 16 % were achieved. In the second strategy tested, an ammonia-feedback control combined with a DO-feedback controlled the DO-set point in the first aerobic zone. This strategy adjusted the DO- set points to the loading variations, and this gave a decreased airflow of approximately 9 %. Finally the two strategies were combined. All zones were then controlled individually with DO-set points set by an ammonium-feedback and a DO-feedback. The strategy gave savings in the airflow of approximately 18 %. In all three trials the aerated zones were more efficiently used, and the estimated savings are 550 000 SEK/year, and with a preserved nutrient removal efficiency.

  • 49.
    van Duren, Stephan
    et al.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn Meitner Pl 1, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Just, Justus
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn Meitner Pl 1, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    Unold, Thomas
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn Meitner Pl 1, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    Raman spectroscopy study on in-situ monitoring of Cu2ZnSnS4 synthesis2015In: 2015 IEEE 42ND PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALIST CONFERENCE (PVSC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of Raman spectroscopy as an in-situ monitoring tool for the synthesis of the solar cell material Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) by annealing a stacked precursor ZnS/Cu2SnS3 on a Mo-coated glass substrate. Temperature dependent behaviour of Raman scattering for ZnS and Cu2SnS3 is studied. Both phases can still be detected at respectively 450 degrees C and 550 degrees C. Annealing of Mo/CTS/ZnS precursor stacks resulted in in-situ observation of kesterite CZTS formation with Raman spectroscopy. This is a step towards in-situ optical process control desired in kesterite fabrication.

  • 50.
    Vikström, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Lithium availability and future production outlooks2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 110, no 10, p. 252-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports.

12 1 - 50 of 56
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf