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  • 1.
    Abelson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Genetic Risk Factors for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: From Candidate Genes to Functional Variants2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis has been to identify genetic variants that increase the susceptibility for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease caused by a complex interplay between various genetic and environmental factors.

    Five different candidate genes were selected through different strategies, and were analysed for association with SLE in an attempt to distinguish some of the underlying mechanisms of this disease. Two of these genes, PD-L1 and PD-L2, appeared not to contain any major risk factors for SLE in the analysed European and Latin American populations. In two other genes, CD24 and STAT4, there appeared to be population-specific effects. The A57V amino acid substitution in the CD24 gene, previously implicated with multiple sclerosis, was associated in a Spanish cohort, with a weak trend in German samples, and no association in Swedish. The previously reported and highly convincing association of the STAT4 transcription factor gene was confirmed in all our cohorts. Interestingly, the results indicate the presence of at least two independent risk variants: the first, represented by a previously reported SNP, was the strongest in individuals of Northern European ancestry, and the second was more pronounced in individuals from Southern Europe and Latin America. We also report the identification of a novel susceptibility gene. The BANK1 gene, encoding a scaffold protein involved in B-cell activation, contains functional variants affecting important domains, which are associated in all investigated cohorts from Europe and Latin America.

    These results confirm the existence of replicable associations between genetic variants and SLE, which are common and present in many populations. The results also illustrate a certain degree of heterogeneity, where some risk factors could have variable effect in different populations.

    List of papers
    1. No evidence of association between genetic variants of the PDCD1 ligands and SLE
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>No evidence of association between genetic variants of the PDCD1 ligands and SLE
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    2007 (English)In: Genes and Immunity, ISSN 1466-4879, E-ISSN 1476-5470, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PDCD1, an immunoreceptor involved in peripheral tolerance has previously been shown to be genetically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PDCD1 has two ligands whose genes are located in close proximity on chromosome 9p24. Our attention was drawn to these ligands after finding suggestive linkage to a marker (gata62f03, Z=2.27) located close to their genes in a genome scan of Icelandic families multiplex for SLE. Here, we analyse Swedish trios (N=149) for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of the PDCD1 ligands. Initially, indication of association to eight SNPs was observed, and these SNPs were therefore also analysed in Mexican trios (N=90), as well as independent sets of patients and controls from Sweden (152 patients, 448 controls) and Argentina (288 patients, 288 controls). We do not find support for genetic association to SLE. This is the first genetic study of SLE and the PDCD1 ligands and the lack of association in several cohorts implies that these genes are not major risk factors for SLE.

    Keywords
    systemic lupus erythematosus, genetic association, linkage disequilibrium, autoimmunity, PD-L1, PD-L2
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97760 (URN)10.1038/sj.gene.6364360 (DOI)000243783500009 ()17136123 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Association of a CD24 Gene Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of a CD24 Gene Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 3080-3086Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To determine the potential role of the CD24 A57V gene polymorphism in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Methods. We studied 3 cohorts of Caucasian patients and controls. The Spanish cohort included 696 SLE patients and 539 controls, the German cohort included 257 SLE patients and 317 controls, and the Swedish cohort included 310 SLE patients and 247 controls. The CD24 A57V polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction, using a predeveloped TaqMan allele discrimination assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.

    Results. In the Spanish cohort there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of the CD24 V allele between SLE patients and controls (OR 3.6 [95% CI 2.13-6.16], P < 0.0001). In addition, frequency of the CD24 V/V genotype was increased in SLE patients compared with controls (OR 3.7 [95% CI 2.16-6.34], P < 0.00001). We sought to replicate this association with SLE in a German population and a Swedish population. A similar trend was found in the German group. The CD24 V/V genotype and the CD24 V allele were more frequent in SLE patients than in controls, although this difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in the Swedish group. A meta-analysis of the Spanish and German cohorts demonstrated that the CD24 V allele has a risk effect in SLE patients (pooled OR 1.25 [95% Cl 1.08-1.46], P = 0.003). In addition, homozygosity for the CD24 V risk allele significantly increased the effect (pooled OR 2.1,9 [95% Cl 1.50-3.22], P = 0.00007).

    Conclusion. These findings suggest that the CD24 A57V polymorphism plays a role in susceptibility to SLE in a Spanish population.

    Keywords
    Antigens; CD24/*genetics, Cohort Studies, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Lupus Erythematosus; Systemic/*genetics, Male, Polymorphism; Genetic
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97761 (URN)10.1002/art.22871 (DOI)000249832600030 ()17763438 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Functional Variants in the B-Cell Gene BANK1 are Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional Variants in the B-Cell Gene BANK1 are Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
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    2008 (English)In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 211-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical autoimmune disease characterized by production of autoantibodies and complex genetic inheritance(1-3). In a genome-wide scan using 85,042 SNPs, we identified an association between SLE and a nonsynonymous substitution (rs10516487, R61H) in the B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats gene, BANK1. We replicated the association in four independent case-control sets (combined P = 3.7 x 10(-10); OR = 1.38). We analyzed BANK1 cDNA and found two isoforms, one full-length and the other alternatively spliced and lacking exon 2 (Delta 2), encoding a protein without a putative IP3R-binding domain. The transcripts were differentially expressed depending on a branch point-site SNP, rs17266594, in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs10516487. A third associated variant was found in the ankyrin domain (rs3733197, A383T). Our findings implicate BANK1 as a susceptibility gene for SLE, with variants affecting regulatory sites and key functional domains. The disease-associated variants could contribute to sustained B cell-receptor signaling and B-cell hyperactivity characteristic of this disease.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97762 (URN)10.1038/ng.79 (DOI)000252732900020 ()
    Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. STAT4 Associates with SLE through two independent effects that correlate with gene expression and act additively with IRF5 to increase risk
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>STAT4 Associates with SLE through two independent effects that correlate with gene expression and act additively with IRF5 to increase risk
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    2009 (English)In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 68, no 11, p. 1746-1753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. METHODS: 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5'-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-102290 (URN)10.1136/ard.2008.097642 (DOI)000270700900016 ()19019891 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Adams, Hieab H. H.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hibar, Derrek P.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Chouraki, Vincent
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.;Univ Lille, RID AGE Risk Factors & Mol Determinants Aging Rel, CHU Lille, Inserm,Inst Pasteur Lille, Lille, France.;Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA USA..
    Stein, Jason L.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC USA.;Univ N Carolina, UNC Neurosci Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Nyquist, Paul A.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Neurol, Dept Anesthesia Crit Care Med, Dept Neurosurg, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Renteria, Miguel E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Trompet, Stella
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.;Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA USA..
    Desrivieres, Sylvane
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, MRC SGDP Ctr, London, England..
    Beecham, Ashley H.
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Human Genet, Dr John T Macdonald Fdn, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, John P Hussman Inst Human Gen, Miami, FL 33136 USA..
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Wittfeld, Katharine
    German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis DZNE Rostock Greifs, Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat, Greifswald, Germany..
    Van der Lee, Sven J.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Abramovic, Lucija
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Alhusaini, Saud
    McGill Univ, Montreal Neurol Inst, Dept Neurol & Neurosurg, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Amin, Najaf
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Andersson, Micael
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden..
    Arfanakis, Konstantinos
    IIT, Dept Biomed Engn, Chicago, IL 60616 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Diagnost Radiol & Nucl Med, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Aribisala, Benjamin S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Lagos State Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Lagos, Nigeria.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Neuroimaging Sci, Scottish Imaging Network, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Armstrong, Nicola J.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Murdoch Univ, Math & Stat, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Athanasiu, Lavinia
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway..
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Beiser, Alexa
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.;Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA USA.;Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA..
    Bernard, Manon
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA..
    Blanken, Laura M. E.
    Erasmus MC, Generat R Study Grp, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hosp, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Blanton, Susan H.
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Human Genet, Dr John T Macdonald Fdn, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, John P Hussman Inst Human Gen, Miami, FL 33136 USA..
    Bohlken, Marc M.
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Boks, Marco P.
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Bralten, Janita
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Brickman, Adam M.
    Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, Taub Inst Res Alzheimers Dis & Aging Brain, New York, NY USA.;Columbia Univ, GH Sergievsky Ctr, Med Ctr, New York, NY USA.;Columbia Univ, Dept Neurol, Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Carmichael, Owen
    Pennington Biomed Res Ctr, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 USA..
    Chakravarty, M. Mallar
    Douglas Mental Hlth Univ Inst, Cerebral Imaging Ctr, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;McGill Univ, Dept Psychiat & Biomed Engn, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Chauhan, Ganesh
    Univ Bordeaux, INSERM Unit U1219, Bordeaux, France..
    Chen, Qiang
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Sch Med, Interdept Neurosci Grad Program, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Den Braber, Anouk
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Biol Psychol, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway..
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Tech Univ Dresden, Fac Med, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Dresden, Germany.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Martinos Ctr Biomed Imaging, Charlestown, MA USA..
    Filippi, Irina
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Descartes, NSERM Unit Neuroimaging & Psychiat 1000, Paris, France.;Hosp Cochin, AP HP, Maison Solenn Adolescent Psychopathol & Med Dept, Paris, France..
    Ge, Tian
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Martinos Ctr Biomed Imaging, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Human Genet Res, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Boston, MA USA..
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr Psychosis Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, Dr Einar Martens Res Grp Biol Psychiat, Bergen, Norway..
    Goldman, Aaron L.
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Gottesman, Rebecca F.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    Greven, Corina U.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Karakter Child & Adolescent Psychiat Univ Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Kings Coll London, Med Res Council Social, Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, Inst Psychol Psychiat & Neurosci, London, England..
    Grimm, Oliver
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Mannheim, Germany..
    Griswold, Michael E.
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Ctr Biostat & Bioinformat, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Guadalupe, Tulio
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Language & Genet Dept, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Int Max Planck Res Sch Language Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Hass, Johanna
    Tech Univ Dresden, Fac Med, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dresden, Germany..
    Haukvik, Unn K.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Diakonhjemmet Hosp, Dept Res & Dev, Oslo, Norway..
    Hilal, Saima
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Pharmacol, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Mem Aging & Cognit Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Hofer, Edith
    Med Univ Graz, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Dept Neurol, Graz, Austria.;Med Univ Graz, Inst Med Informat Stat & Documentat, Graz, Austria..
    Hoehn, David
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Dept Translat Res Psychiat, Munich, Germany..
    Holmes, Avram J.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Psychol, New Haven, CT USA..
    Hoogman, Martine
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Janowitz, Deborah
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat, Greifswald, Germany..
    Jia, Tianye
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, MRC SGDP Ctr, London, England..
    Kasperaviciute, Dalia
    UCL, Inst Neurol, London, England.;Epilepsy Soc, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, England.;Imperial Coll London, Dept Med, London, England..
    Kim, Sungeun
    Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Computat Biol & Bioinformat, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN USA..
    Klein, Marieke
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kraemer, Bernd
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Gen Psychiat, Sect Expt Psychopathol & Neuroimaging, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lee, Phil H.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Human Genet Res, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Boston, MA USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Lurie Ctr Autism, Lexington, MA USA..
    Liao, Jiemin
    Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Liewald, David C. M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Lopez, Lorna M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Luciano, Michelle
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Macare, Christine
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, MRC SGDP Ctr, London, England..
    Marquand, Andre
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Ctr Cognit Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Matarin, Mar
    UCL, Inst Neurol, London, England.;Epilepsy Soc, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England..
    Mather, Karen A.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biomed, Aarhus, Denmark.;iPSYCH, Lundbeck Fdn Initiat Integrat Psychiat Res, Aarhus, Denmark.;iPSYCH, Lundbeck Fdn Initiat Integrat Psychiat Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Aarhus Univ, iSEQ, Ctr Integrated Sequencing, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Mazoyer, Bernard
    UMR5296 Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, Bordeaux, France..
    Mckay, David R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Olin Neuropsychiat Res Ctr, Hartford, CT USA..
    McWhirter, Rebekah
    Univ Tasmania, Menzies Inst Med Res, Hobart, Tas, Australia..
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    VU Univ Med Ctr GGZ Geest, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Univ Med Ctr GGZ Geest, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Dept Translat Res Psychiat, Munich, Germany..
    Muetzel, Ryan L.
    Erasmus MC, Generat R Study Grp, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hosp, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Maniega, Susana Munoz
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Neuroimaging Sci, Scottish Imaging Network, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Nho, Kwangsik
    Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Computat Biol & Bioinformat, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN USA..
    Nugent, Allison C.
    NIMH, Exp Therapeut & Pathophysiol Branch, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Clin Neuropsychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Papmeyer, Martina
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Bern, Univ Hosp Psychiat, Translat Res Ctr, Div Syst Neurosci Psychopathol, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Pappa, Irene
    Erasmus MC, Generat R Study Grp, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Sch Pedag & Educ Sci, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Pirpamer, Lukas
    Med Univ Graz, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Dept Neurol, Graz, Austria..
    Pudas, Sara
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden..
    Puetz, Benno
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Dept Translat Res Psychiat, Munich, Germany..
    Rajan, Kumar B.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Inst Healthy Aging, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Ramasamy, Adaikalavan
    UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Dept Med & Mol Genet, London, England.;Univ Oxford, Jenner Inst Labs, Oxford, England..
    Richards, Jennifer S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Karakter Child & Adolescent Psychiat Univ Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Risacher, Shannon L.
    Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN USA..
    Roiz-Santianez, Roberto
    Univ Cantabria IDIVAL, Sch Med, Dept Med & Psychiat, Univ Hosp Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain.;CIBERSAM Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Med, Santander, Spain..
    Rommelse, Nanda
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Karakter Child & Adolescent Psychiat Univ Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Rose, Emma J.
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Psychosis Res Grp, Dept Psychiat, Dublin, Ireland.;Trinity Coll Dublin, Trinity Translat Med Inst, Dublin, Ireland..
    Royle, Natalie A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Neuroimaging Sci, Scottish Imaging Network, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Rundek, Tatjana
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Sci, Miami, FL 33136 USA..
    Saemann, Philipp G.
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Dept Translat Res Psychiat, Munich, Germany..
    Satizabal, Claudia L.
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.;Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA USA..
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Orygen, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Ctr Youth Mental Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schork, Andrew J.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Neurosci, Multimodal Imaging Lab, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Cognit Sci, San Diego, CA 92103 USA..
    Shen, Li
    Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Computat Biol & Bioinformat, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN USA..
    Shin, Jean
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Shumskaya, Elena
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Ctr Cognit Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Smith, Albert V.
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Sprooten, Emma
    Yale Univ, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Olin Neuropsychiat Res Ctr, Hartford, CT USA.;Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Strike, Lachlan T.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Teumer, Alexander
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Thomson, Russell
    Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana
    CIBERSAM Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Med, Santander, Spain.;Valdecilla Biomed Res Inst IDIVAL, Neuroimaging Unit, Technol Facil, Santander, Cantabria, Spain..
    Toro, Roberto
    Inst Pasteur, Paris, France..
    Trabzuni, Daniah
    UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England.;King Faisal Specialist Hosp & Res Ctr, Dept Genet, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Vaidya, Dhananjay
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, GeneSTAR Res Ctr, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    Van der Grond, Jeroen
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Radiol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    van der Meer, Dennis
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Van Eijk, Kristel R.
    UMC Utrecht, Human Neurogenet Unit, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Van Erp, Theo G. M.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Psychiat & Human Behav, Irvine, CA 92717 USA..
    Van Rooij, Daan
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Walton, Esther
    Tech Univ Dresden, Fac Med, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dresden, Germany..
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway..
    Whelan, Christopher D.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.;Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Windham, Beverly G.
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Med, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Winkler, Anderson M.
    Yale Univ, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Univ Oxford, FMRIB Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Woldehawariat, Girma
    NIMH, Exp Therapeut & Pathophysiol Branch, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Wolf, Christiane
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Psychiat Psychosomat & Psychotherapy, Wurzburg, Germany..
    Wolfers, Thomas
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Xu, Bing
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, MRC SGDP Ctr, London, England..
    Yanek, Lisa R.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, GeneSTAR Res Ctr, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    Yang, Jingyun
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Zijdenbos, Alex
    Biospect Inc, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Zwiers, Marcel P.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Ctr Cognit Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Diakonhjemmet Hosp, Dept Res & Dev, Oslo, Norway.;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Aggarwal, Neelum T.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Inst Healthy Aging, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Almasy, Laura
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, San Antonio, TX USA.;Univ Penn, Dept Genet, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Dept Biomed & Hlth Informat, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Ames, David
    Royal Melbourne Hosp, Natl Ageing Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Acad Unit Psychiat Old Age, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Univ Lille, RID AGE Risk Factors & Mol Determinants Aging Rel, CHU Lille, Inserm,Inst Pasteur Lille, Lille, France..
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway..
    Arepalli, Sampath
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Assareh, Amelia A.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Barral, Sandra
    Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, Taub Inst Res Alzheimers Dis & Aging Brain, New York, NY USA..
    Bastin, Mark E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Neuroimaging Sci, Scottish Imaging Network, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Becker, Diane M.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, GeneSTAR Res Ctr, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    Becker, James T.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Psychiat, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Neurol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Psychol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA..
    Bennett, David A.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Blangero, John
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    van Bokhoven, Hans
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Biol Psychol, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Brodaty, Henry
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;UNSW, Dementia Collaborat Res Ctr Assessment & Better, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Brouwer, Rachel M.
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Brunner, Han G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Genet, Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, Ctr Brain Sci, 33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Buitelaar, Jan K.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Karakter Child & Adolescent Psychiat Univ Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Bulayeva, Kazima B.
    Dagestan State Univ, Dept Evolut & Genet, Makhachkala, Dagestan, Russia..
    Cahn, Wiepke
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Calhoun, Vince D.
    Mind Res Network, Albuquerque, NM USA.;LBERI, Albuquerque, NM USA.;Univ New Mexico, Dept ECE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Cannon, Dara M.
    NIMH, Exp Therapeut & Pathophysiol Branch, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Ctr Neuroimaging & Cognit Genom NICOG, NCBES Galway Neurosci Ctr, Coll Med Nursing & Hlth Sci,Clin Neuroimaging Lab, Galway, Ireland..
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Chen, Christopher
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Pharmacol, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Mem Aging & Cognit Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Cheng, Ching -Yu
    Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.;Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Acad Med Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Ophthalmol, Singapore, Singapore..
    Cichon, Sven
    Univ Basel, Dept Biomed, Div Med Genet, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Bonn, Inst Human Genet, Bonn, Germany.;Res Ctr Julich, Inst Neurosci & Med INM1, Julich, Germany..
    Cookson, Mark R.
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Corvin, Aiden
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Psychosis Res Grp, Dept Psychiat, Dublin, Ireland.;Trinity Coll Dublin, Trinity Translat Med Inst, Dublin, Ireland..
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Univ Cantabria IDIVAL, Sch Med, Dept Med & Psychiat, Univ Hosp Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain.;CIBERSAM Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Med, Santander, Spain..
    Curran, Joanne E.
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Czisch, Michael
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Dept Translat Res Psychiat, Munich, Germany..
    Dale, Anders M.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Multimodal Imaging & Genet, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Neurosci, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Radiol, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Cognit Sci, San Diego, CA 92103 USA..
    Davies, Gareth E.
    Avera Inst Human Genet, Sioux Falls, SD USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Neurol, Program Translat NeuroPsychiat Gen, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Psychiat, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Broad Inst, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA..
    De Geus, Eco J. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Biol Psychol, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    De Jager, Philip L.
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Broad Inst, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA.;Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA USA..
    de Zubicaray, Greig I.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Fac Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Delanty, Norman
    Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland.;Beaumont Hosp, Div Neurol, Dublin 9, Ireland..
    Depondt, Chantal
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Hop Erasme, Dept Neurol, Brussels, Belgium..
    DeStefano, Anita L.
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA USA.;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, Dr Einar Martens Res Grp Biol Psychiat, Bergen, Norway..
    Dillman, Allissa
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr Psychosis Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Med Genet, Oslo, Norway..
    Donohoe, Gary
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Cognit Genet & Cognit Therapy Grp, Neuroimaging Cognit & Genom Ctr NICOG, Galway, Ireland.;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, NCBES Galway Neurosci Ctr, Sch Psychol, Galway, Ireland.;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Discipline Biochem, Galway, Ireland.;Trinity Coll Dublin, Dept Psychiat, Neuropsychiat Genet Res Grp, Dublin 8, Ireland.;Trinity Coll Dublin, Inst Psychiat, Dublin 8, Ireland..
    Drevets, Wayne C.
    NIMH, Exp Therapeut & Pathophysiol Branch, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.;Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ USA..
    Duggirala, Ravi
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Dyer, Thomas D.
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Erk, Susanne
    Charite, CCM, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany..
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway..
    Evans, Denis A.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Inst Healthy Aging, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Fedko, Iryna
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Biol Psychol, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Fernandez, Guillen
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    NIA, Intramural Res Program, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Language & Genet Dept, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Fleischman, Debra A.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Behav Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Ford, Ian
    Univ Glasgow, Robertson Ctr Biostat, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Foroud, Tatiana M.
    Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Computat Biol & Bioinformat, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Med & Mol Genet, Indianapolis, IN USA..
    Fox, Peter T.
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA..
    Francks, Clyde
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Language & Genet Dept, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Fukunaga, Masaki
    Natl Inst Physiol Sci, Div Cerebral Integrat, Aichi, Japan..
    Gibbs, J. Raphael
    UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England.;NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Glahn, David C.
    Yale Univ, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Olin Neuropsychiat Res Ctr, Hartford, CT USA..
    Gollub, Randy L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Martinos Ctr Biomed Imaging, Charlestown, MA USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Goring, Harald H. H.
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, Edinburg, TX USA.;Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, South Texas Diabet & Obes Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat, Greifswald, Germany..
    Green, Robert C.
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Genet, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Gruber, Oliver
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Gen Psychiat, Sect Expt Psychopathol & Neuroimaging, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Guelfi, Sebastian
    UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England..
    Hansell, Narelle K.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Hardy, John
    UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England..
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hashimoto, Ryota
    Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Osaka, Japan.;Osaka Univ, United Grad Sch Child Dev, Mol Res Ctr Childrens Mental Dev, Osaka, Japan..
    Hegenscheid, Katrin
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Diagnost Radiol & Neuroradiol, Greifswald, Germany..
    Heinz, Andreas
    Charite, CCM, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany..
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr Psychosis Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, Dr Einar Martens Res Grp Biol Psychiat, Bergen, Norway..
    Hernandez, Dena G.
    UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England.;NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.;German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis DZNE, Tubingen, Germany..
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ho, Beng-Choon
    Univ Iowa, Dept Psychiat, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hoffmann, Wolfgang
    German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis DZNE Rostock Greifs, Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Holsboer, Florian
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Dept Translat Res Psychiat, Munich, Germany.;HMNC Brain Hlth, Munich, Germany..
    Homuth, Georg
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Gen, Greifswald, Germany..
    Hosten, Norbert
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Diagnost Radiol & Neuroradiol, Greifswald, Germany..
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Biol Psychol, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Ikeda, Masashi
    Fujita Hlth Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan..
    Ikram, M. Kamran
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Pharmacol, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Mem Aging & Cognit Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.;Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.;Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Acad Med Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Radiol, Rochester, MN USA..
    Jenldnson, Mark
    Univ Oxford, FMRIB Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Johnson, Robert
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, NICHD Brain & Tissue Bank Dev Disorders, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Jonsson, Erik G.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oxford, FMRIB Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Kahn, Rene S.
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Kanai, Ryota
    Univ Sussex, Sch Psychol, Brighton, E Sussex, England.;UCL, Inst Cognit Neurosci, London, England.;Araya Brain Imaging, Dept Neuroinformat, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kloszewska, Iwona
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Knopman, David S.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Neurol, Rochester, MN USA..
    Kochunov, Peter
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Maryland Psychiat Res Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Kwok, John B.
    Neurosci Res Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;UNSW, Sch Med Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Lawrie, Stephen M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Lemaitre, Herve
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Descartes, NSERM Unit Neuroimaging & Psychiat 1000, Paris, France.;Hosp Cochin, AP HP, Maison Solenn Adolescent Psychopathol & Med Dept, Paris, France..
    Liu, Xinmin
    NIMH, Exp Therapeut & Pathophysiol Branch, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.;Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Longo, Dan L.
    NIA, Genet Lab, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Longstreth, W. T., Jr.
    Univ Washington, Dept Neurol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lopez, Oscar L.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Neurol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Psychiat, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Lovestone, Simon
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.;Kings Coll London, NIHR Dementia Biomed Res Unit, London, England..
    Martinez, Oliver
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Neurol, Imaging Dementia & Aging IDeA Lab, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA.;Univ Calif Davis, Ctr Neurosci, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA..
    Martinot, Jean-Luc
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Descartes, NSERM Unit Neuroimaging & Psychiat 1000, Paris, France.;Hosp Cochin, AP HP, Maison Solenn Adolescent Psychopathol & Med Dept, Paris, France..
    Mattay, Venkata S.
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Radiol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    McDonald, Colm
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Ctr Neuroimaging & Cognit Genom NICOG, NCBES Galway Neurosci Ctr, Coll Med Nursing & Hlth Sci,Clin Neuroimaging Lab, Galway, Ireland..
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    McMahon, Katie L.
    Univ Queensland, Ctr Adv Imaging, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    McMahon, Francis J.
    NIMH, Exp Therapeut & Pathophysiol Branch, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mecocci, Patrizia
    Univ Perugia, Dept Med, Sect Gerontol & Geriatr, Perugia, Italy..
    Melle, Ingrid
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr, Oslo, Norway..
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Mannheim, Germany..
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    Charite, CCM, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany..
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Morris, Derek W.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Cognit Genet & Cognit Therapy Grp, Neuroimaging Cognit & Genom Ctr NICOG, Galway, Ireland.;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, NCBES Galway Neurosci Ctr, Sch Psychol, Galway, Ireland.;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Discipline Biochem, Galway, Ireland.;Trinity Coll Dublin, Dept Psychiat, Neuropsychiat Genet Res Grp, Dublin 8, Ireland.;Trinity Coll Dublin, Inst Psychiat, Dublin 8, Ireland..
    Mosley, Thomas H.
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Med, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Muhleisen, Thomas W.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Ctr Neuroimaging & Cognit Genom NICOG, NCBES Galway Neurosci Ctr, Coll Med Nursing & Hlth Sci,Clin Neuroimaging Lab, Galway, Ireland.;Res Ctr Julich, Inst Neurosci & Med INM1, Julich, Germany..
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Dept Translat Res Psychiat, Munich, Germany.;Munich Cluster Syst Neurol SyNergy, Munich, Germany.;Univ Liverpool, Inst Translat Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Nalls, Michael A.
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Nauck, Matthias
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Clin Chem & Lab Med, Greifswald, Germany.;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res DZHK eV, Partner Site Greifswald, Berlin, Germany..
    Nichols, Thomas E.
    Univ Oxford, FMRIB Ctr, Oxford, England.;Univ Warwick, Dept Stat, Coventry, W Midlands, England.;Univ Warwick, Warwick Mfg Grp, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Niessen, Wiro J.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Med Informat, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Fac Sci Appl, Delft, Netherlands..
    Noethen, Markus M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Human Genet, Bonn, Germany.;Univ Bonn, Life & Brain Ctr, Dept Genom, Bonn, Germany..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden..
    Ohi, Kazutaka
    Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Osaka, Japan..
    Olvera, Rene L.
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA..
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Pandolfo, Massimo
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Hop Erasme, Dept Neurol, Brussels, Belgium..
    Paus, Tomas
    Univ Toronto, Rotman Res Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Psychol, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Psychiat, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada.;Child Mind Inst, New York, NY USA..
    Pausova, Zdenka
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Nutr Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Pike, G. Bruce
    Univ Calgary, Dept Radiol, Calgary, AB, Canada.;Univ Calgary, Dept Clin Neurosci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Potkin, Steven G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Psychiat & Human Behav, Irvine, CA 92717 USA..
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Hlth Serv, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Grp Hlth Res Inst, Grp Hlth, Seattle, WA USA..
    Reppermund, Simone
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;UNSW Med, Sch Psychiat, Dept Dev Disabil Neuropsychiat, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Rietschel, Marcella
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Mannheim, Germany..
    Roffman, Joshua L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Charite, CCM, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany..
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Med Ctr, Ilnst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst & Pediat Harbor, Torrance, CA 90509 USA..
    Ryten, Mina
    UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England.;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Dept Med & Mol Genet, London, England..
    Sacco, Ralph L.
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, John P Hussman Inst Human Gen, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Sci, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Evelyn F McKnight Brain Inst, Miami, FL 33136 USA..
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Prince Wales Hosp, Neuropsychiat Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Saykin, Andrew J.
    Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Med & Mol Genet, Indianapolis, IN USA..
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Med Univ Graz, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Dept Neurol, Graz, Austria..
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Neurosci Res Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;UNSW, Sch Med Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland..
    Simmons, Andy
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Dept Neuroimaging, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Biomed Res Ctr Mental Hlth, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Biomed Res Unit Dementia, London, England..
    Singleton, Andrew
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Sisodiya, Sanjay M.
    UCL, Inst Neurol, London, England.;Epilepsy Soc, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, England..
    Smith, Colin
    Univ Edinburgh, Acad Dept Neuropathol, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, MRC Edinburgh Brain Bank, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Human Genet Res, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Boston, MA USA..
    Soininen, Hindu.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neuroctr Neurol, Kuopio, Finland..
    Srikanth, Velandai
    Peninsula Hlth & Monash Univ, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT KG Jebsen Ctr Psychosis Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, Dr Einar Martens Res Grp Biol Psychiat, Bergen, Norway..
    Stott, David J.
    Univ Glasgow, Fac Med, Inst Cardiovasc & Med Sci, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Sussmann, Jessika E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hosp, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Toga, Arthur W.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Inst Neuroimaging & Informat, Lab Neuro Imaging, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Traynor, Bryan J.
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Troncoso, Juan
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Brain Resource Ctr, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Turner, Jessica A.
    Georgia State Univ, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA..
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Univ Bordeaux, Institute Neurodegenerat Disorders, CEA, CNRS,UMR 5293, Bordeaux, France..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Internal Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Neuroimaging Sci, Scottish Imaging Network, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Van der Brug, Marcel
    Genentech Inc, San Francisco, CA 94080 USA..
    Van der Lugt, Aad
    Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Leiden Inst Brain & Cognit, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.
    UMC Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Van't Ent, Dennis
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Biol Psychol, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Van Tol, Marie Jose
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Neuroimaging Ctr, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Vardarajan, Badri N.
    Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, Taub Inst Res Alzheimers Dis & Aging Brain, New York, NY USA..
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelzke, Henry
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Walter, Henrik
    Charite, CCM, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany..
    Wardlaw, Joanna M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Neuroimaging Sci, Scottish Imaging Network, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Wassink, Thomas H.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Psychiat, Carver Coll Med, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Weale, Michael E.
    Kings Coll London, Dept Med & Mol Genet, London, England..
    Weinberger, Daniel R.
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Inst Med Genet, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Weiner, Michael W.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco VA Med Ctr, Ctr Imaging Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Wen, Wei
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Psychiat, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Westman, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, Tonya
    Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hosp, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Wong, Tien Y.
    Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.;Dagestan State Univ, Dept Evolut & Genet, Makhachkala, Dagestan, Russia.;Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Ophthalmol, Singapore, Singapore..
    Wright, Clinton B.
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Sci, Miami, FL 33136 USA.;Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Evelyn F McKnight Brain Inst, Miami, FL 33136 USA..
    Zielke, H. Ronald
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, NICHD Brain & Tissue Bank Dev Disorders, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Zonderman, Alan B.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    DeCarli, Charles
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Neurol, Imaging Dementia & Aging IDeA Lab, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA.;Univ Calif Davis, Ctr Neurosci, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA..
    Schmidt, Helena
    Med Univ Graz, Inst Mol Biol & Biochem, Graz, Austria..
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    De Craen, Anton J. M.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Gerontol & Geriatr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Wright, Margaret J.
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Ctr Adv Imaging, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Launer, Lenore J.
    NIA, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Schumann, Gunter
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, MRC SGDP Ctr, London, England..
    Fornage, Myriam
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Inst Mol Med & Human Genet Ctr, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Franke, Barbara
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Debette, Stephanie
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.;Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA.;Bordeaux Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Bordeaux, France..
    Medland, Sarah E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Neurol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.;Univ Western Sydney, Sch Comp Engn & Math, Parramatta, NSW, Australia..
    Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association2016In: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 1569-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.

  • 3. Adoue, Veronique
    et al.
    Schiavi, Alicia
    Light, Nicholas
    Carlsson Almlöf, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lundmark, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ge, Bing
    Kwan, Tony
    Caron, Maxime
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Wang, Chuan
    Chen, Shu-Huang
    Goodall, Alison H
    Cambien, Francois
    Deloukas, Panos
    Ouwehand, Willem H
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pastinen, Tomi
    Allelic expression mapping across cellular lineages to establish impact of non-coding SNPs2014In: Molecular Systems Biology, ISSN 1744-4292, E-ISSN 1744-4292, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 754-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most complex disease-associated genetic variants are located in non-coding regions and are therefore thought to be regulatory in nature. Association mapping of differential allelic expression (AE) is a powerful method to identify SNPs with direct cis-regulatory impact (cis-rSNPs). We used AE mapping to identify cis-rSNPs regulating gene expression in 55 and 63 HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines from a Caucasian and an African population, respectively, 70 fibroblast cell lines, and 188 purified monocyte samples and found 40-60% of these cis-rSNPs to be shared across cell types. We uncover a new class of cis-rSNPs, which disrupt footprint-derived de novo motifs that are predominantly bound by repressive factors and are implicated in disease susceptibility through overlaps with GWAS SNPs. Finally, we provide the proof-of-principle for a new approach for genome-wide functional validation of transcription factor-SNP interactions. By perturbing NFκB action in lymphoblasts, we identified 489 cis-regulated transcripts with altered AE after NFκB perturbation. Altogether, we perform a comprehensive analysis of cis-variation in four cell populations and provide new tools for the identification of functional variants associated to complex diseases.

  • 4.
    Afrakhte, Mozhgan
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Growth control mechanisms in normal and neoplastic mammalian cells1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main theme of the studies presented in this thesis is, the growth control mechanisms whose loss in normal cells predispose to or cause cancer. The balance between growth inhibitory and stimulatory mechanisms is crucial for the development and maintenance of a normal animal.

    PDGF, a growth factor for cells of mesenchymal origin, is implicated in normal developmental processes as well as neoplasia. The alternative splicing of exon 6 in PDGF-A gene transcripts gives rise to two different proteins with different compartmentalization properties. The PDGF-A chain homodimers, PDGF-AAL, encoded PDGF A-splice variant remain associated with the cell membrane. Studies of a human fibrosarcoma cell line, U-2197, revealed a high expression level of the cell associated PDGF-AAL which upon release increased autophosphorylation of the endogenous PDGF receptors, suggesting an autocrine loop. PDGF-A gene and PDGFR-α gene found to be co-amplified in the U-2197, indicating an optimised system for growth in these cells, i.e. amplified growth factor receptor as well as a local autocrine supply of the mitogen.

    Members of TGFβ superfamily are potent regulators of the growth and differentiation of a wide range of cell types. Intracellular mediators of TGF-β signalling, SMADs, transduce signals from serine/threonine kinase receptors to the nucleus where they affect transcription of target genes. A new class of SMAD proteins has been identified whose members, the inhibitory SMADS, antagonise TGF-β signals by interfering with agonistic SMADs activity. Smad6 and Smad7 are two closely related TGF-β antagonists identified in mammalian cells. Overexpression of Smad7 inhibited the cellular response to TGF-β whereas expression of an anti-sense Smad7 construct showed an enhancing effect on this response. The inhibitory SMADs may act in a negative feedback loop, as their expression is induced by the same ligands whose action they antagonise.

    Density dependent growth inhibition is a growth control mechanism often lost in transformed and malignant cells. Cells in dense culture are refractory to the mitogen stimulation although, the mitogenic signals were shown to be processed to some extent. The expression of immediate-early genes in dense culture stimulated with mitogen was induced. The activity of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), the pivotal kinases in G1/S transition, showed to be density dependent and decreased by increasing cell density. pRb, a tumour suppressor and growth regulatory protein, remained unphosphorylated in mitogen treated dense culture. The cessation of CDKs kinase activity in dense cultures was shown to be accompanied with increasing expression of inhibitory proteins of these kinases, CKIs. The impaired expression of a positive regulator of CDKs, Cdc25A phosphatase, was another feature of dense cultures.

  • 5.
    Agarwal, Prasoon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Collier, Paul
    Fritz, Markus Hsi-Yang
    Benes, Vladimir
    Wiklund, Helena Jernberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Westermark, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Singh, Umashankar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    CGGBP1 mitigates cytosine methylation at repetitive DNA sequences2015In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 16, article id 390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: CGGBP1 is a repetitive DNA-binding transcription regulator with target sites at CpG-rich sequences such as CGG repeats and Alu-SINEs and L1-LINEs. The role of CGGBP1 as a possible mediator of CpG methylation however remains unknown. At CpG-rich sequences cytosine methylation is a major mechanism of transcriptional repression. Concordantly, gene-rich regions typically carry lower levels of CpG methylation than the repetitive elements. It is well known that at interspersed repeats Alu-SINEs and L1-LINEs high levels of CpG methylation constitute a transcriptional silencing and retrotransposon inactivating mechanism. Results: Here, we have studied genome-wide CpG methylation with or without CGGBP1-depletion. By high throughput sequencing of bisulfite-treated genomic DNA we have identified CGGBP1 to be a negative regulator of CpG methylation at repetitive DNA sequences. In addition, we have studied CpG methylation alterations on Alu and L1 retrotransposons in CGGBP1-depleted cells using a novel bisulfite-treatment and high throughput sequencing approach. Conclusions: The results clearly show that CGGBP1 is a possible bidirectional regulator of CpG methylation at Alus, and acts as a repressor of methylation at L1 retrotransposons.

  • 6.
    Ahlford, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Applications of Four-Colour Fluorescent Primer Extension Technology for SNP Analysis and Discovery2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on genetic variation can reveal effects on traits and disease, both in humans and in model organisms. Good technology for the analysis of DNA sequence variations is critical. Currently the development towards assays for large-scale and parallel DNA sequencing and genotyping is progressing rapidly. Single base primer extension (SBE) is a robust reaction principle based on four-colour fluorescent terminating nucleotides to interrogate all four DNA nucleotides in a single reaction. In this thesis, SBE methods were applied to the analysis and discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and in humans.

    The tag-array minisequencing system in a microarray format is convenient for intermediate sized genotyping projects. The system is scalable and flexible to adapt to specialized and novel applications. In Study I of the thesis a tool was established to automate quality control of clustered genotype data. By calculating “Silhouette scores”, the SNP genotype assignment can be evaluated by a single numeric measure. Silhouette scores were then applied in Study I to compare the performance of four DNA polymerases and in Study III to evaluate freeze-dried reagents in the tag-array minisequencing system.

    The characteristics of the tag-array minisequencing system makes it suitable for inexpensive genome-wide gene mapping in the fruit fly. In Study II a high-resolution SNP map, and 293 genotyping assays, were established across the X, 2nd and 3rd chromosomes to distinguish commonly used Drosophila strains. A database of the SNP markers and a program for automatic allele calling and identification of map positions of mutants was also developed. The utility of the system was demonstrated by rapid mapping of 14 genes that disrupt embryonic muscle patterning.

    In Study III the tag-array minisequencing system was adapted to a lab-on-a-chip format for diagnostic testing for mutations in the TP53 gene. Freeze-drying was evaluated for storing reagents, including thermo-sensitive enzymes, on the microchip to reduce the complexity of the integrated test. Correct genotyping results were obtained using freeze-dried reagents in each reaction step of the genotyping protocol, both in test tubes and in single polymer test chambers. The results showed the potential of the approach to be implemented in fully integrated systems.

    The four-colour chemistry of SBE has been developed further to allow massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of short DNA fragments as in the Genome Analyzer system (Solexa/Illumina). In Study IV MPS was used to compare Nimblegen arrays and the SureSelect solution-based system for targeted enrichment of 56 continuous human candidate-gene regions totalling 3.1 Mb in size. Both methods detected known SNPs and discovered novel SNPs in the target regions, demonstrating the feasibility for complexity reduction of sequencing libraries by hybridization methods.

    List of papers
    1.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    2. High-resolution, high-throughput SNP mapping in Drosophila melanogaster
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-resolution, high-throughput SNP mapping in Drosophila melanogaster
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    2008 (English)In: Nature Methods, ISSN 1548-7091, E-ISSN 1548-7105, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 323-329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for genetic mapping experiments in model organisms. Here we report the establishment of a high-density SNP map and high-throughput genotyping assays for Drosophila melanogaster. Our map comprises 27,367 SNPs in common laboratory Drosophila stocks. These SNPs were clustered within 2,238 amplifiable markers at an average density of 1 marker every 50.3 kb, or 6.3 genes. We have also constructed a set of 62 Drosophila stocks, each of which facilitates the generation of recombinants within a defined genetic interval of 1-2 Mb. For flexible, high-throughput SNP genotyping, we used fluorescent tag-array mini-sequencing (TAMS) assays. We designed and validated TAMS assays for 293 SNPs at an average resolution of 391.3 kb, and demonstrated the utility of these tools by rapidly mapping 14 mutations that disrupt embryonic muscle patterning. These resources enable high-resolution high-throughput genetic mapping in Drosophila.

    Keywords
    Animals, Chromosome Mapping, Drosophila melanogaster/embryology/*genetics, Genome; Insect, Muscle Development/*genetics, Mutation, Polymorphism; Single Nucleotide
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-16561 (URN)10.1038/nmeth.1191 (DOI)000254559400019 ()18327265 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-05-28 Created: 2008-05-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Positional cloning by fast-track SNP-mapping in Drosophila melanogaster
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positional cloning by fast-track SNP-mapping in Drosophila melanogaster
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    2008 (English)In: Nature Protocols, ISSN 1754-2189, E-ISSN 1750-2799, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 1751-1765Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Positional cloning of chemically induced mutations is the rate-limiting step in forward genetic screens in Drosophila. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers to locate a mutated region in the genome. Here, we provide a protocol for high-throughput, high-resolution SNP mapping that enables rapid and cost-effective positional cloning in Drosophila. In stage 1 of the protocol, we use highly multiplexed tag-array mini-sequencing assays to map mutations to an interval of 1-2 Mb. In these assays, SNPs are genotyped by primer extension using fluorescently labeled dideoxy-nucleotides. Fluorescent primers are captured and detected on a microarray. In stage 2, we selectively isolate recombinants within the identified 1-2 Mb interval for fine mapping of mutations to about 50 kb. We have previously demonstrated the applicability of this protocol by mapping 14 muscle morphogenesis mutants within 4 months, which represents a significant acceleration compared with other commonly used mapping strategies that may take years.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98390 (URN)10.1038/nprot.2008.175 (DOI)000265781600008 ()18948975 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-20 Created: 2009-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Dried reagents for multiplex genotyping by tag-array minisequencing to be used in microfluidic devices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dried reagents for multiplex genotyping by tag-array minisequencing to be used in microfluidic devices
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    2010 (English)In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 135, no 9, p. 2377-2385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present an optimized procedure for freeze-drying and storing reagents for multiplex PCR followed by genotyping using a tag-array minisequencing assay with four color fluorescence detection which is suitable for microfluidic assay formats. A test panel was established for five cancer mutations in three codons (175, 248 and 273) of the tumor protein gene (TP53) and for 13 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TP53 gene. The activity of DNA polymerase was preserved for six months of storage after freeze-drying, and the half-life of activities of exonuclease I and shrimp alkaline phosphatase were estimated to 55 and 200 days, respectively. We conducted a systematic genotyping comparison using freeze-dried and liquid reagents. The accuracy of successful genotyping was 99.1% using freeze-dried reagents compared to liquid reagents. As a proof of concept, the genotyping protocol was carried out with freeze-dried reagents stored in reaction chambers fabricated by micromilling in a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate. The results reported in this study are a key step towards the development of an integrated microfluidic device for point-of-care DNA-based diagnostics.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-129216 (URN)10.1039/c0an00321b (DOI)000281007300027 ()20668755 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-08-09 Created: 2010-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5.
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  • 7.
    Alemi, Mansour
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Molecular biological techniques as a tool in diagnostic pathology: Applications in B-cell lymphoproliferative disease, medullary thyroid carcinoma and cervical carcinoma2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification of malignancy associated with mutations in gene sequences requires detection ofas little as a single base difference. A powerful technique in mutation detection is polymerasechain reaction (PCR) followed by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) andsequencing.

    The present investigation is focused on improving tests for the following diagnostic questions:(i) clonality in malignancy of lymphoid origin by developing simple laboratory methodsbased on PCR in which the monoclonal B-cell lineage can be distinguished from thepolyclonal, (ii) presence of mutations in RET proto-oncogene involved in sporadic medullarythyroid carcinoma (MTC), and (iii) development of a simple test which can distinguishbetween prototype human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) and variant HPV16 containing a pointmutation at codon 83 of the E6 gene.

    The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene can be used as a marker of B-celllineage and clonality. By using PCR with specific primers corresponding to the variable and joining regions, it is possible to detect the rearrangement of a small amount of clonal B-cells ina polyclonal background. This study has shown that the SSCP analysis of PCR fragmentsincreases the sensitivity and the specificity of the test.

    Oncogenic activation of the RET related to somatic missense mutations has been shown insporadic MTC. These mutations are believed to play an important role in the tumorigenesis ofMTC. By combining microdissection of tumor cells followed by PCR-SSCP, fragment sizeanalysis and sequencing, a small proportion of cells with mutation in a subpopulation of cellswithin a tumor can be detected. A variant of HPV 16 has previously been shown to be moreprevalent in invasive cervical carcinoma than in preinvasive lesions. In the present study asimple, rapid PCR-SSCP assay has been developed to identify women who are at increasedrisk of progression to invasive cervical carcinoma.

  • 8.
    Algady, Walid
    et al.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Genet & Genome Biol, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Louzada, Sandra
    Wellcome Sanger Inst, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England.
    Carpenter, Danielle
    Univ Leicester, Dept Genet & Genome Biol, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Brajer, Paulina
    Univ Leicester, Dept Genet & Genome Biol, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Farnert, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Div Infect Dis, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rooth, Ingegerd
    Natl Inst Med Res, Nyamisati Malaria Res, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Ngasala, Billy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dept Parasitol & Med Entomol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Yang, Fengtang
    Wellcome Sanger Inst, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England.
    Shaw, Marie-Anne
    Univ Leeds, Leeds Inst Med Res St Jamess, Leeds LS9 7TF, W Yorkshire, England.
    Hollox, Edward J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Genet & Genome Biol, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    The Malaria-Protective Human Glycophorin Structural Variant DUP4 Shows Somatic Mosaicism and Association with Hemoglobin Levels2018In: American Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 0002-9297, E-ISSN 1537-6605, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 769-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycophorin A and glycophorin B are red blood cell surface proteins and are both receptors for the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which is the principal cause of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. DUP4 is a complex structural genomic variant that carries extra copies of a glycophorin A-glycophorin B fusion gene and has a dramatic effect on malaria risk by reducing the risk of severe malaria by up to 40%. Using fiber-FISH and Illumina sequencing, we validate the structural arrangement of the glycophorin locus in the DUP4 variant and reveal somatic variation in copy number of the glycophorin B-glycophorin A fusion gene. By developing a simple, specific, PCR-based assay for DUP4, we show that the DUP4 variant reaches a frequency of 13% in the population of a malaria-endemic village in southeastern Tanzania. We genotype a substantial proportion of that village and demonstrate an association of DUP4 genotype with hemoglobin levels, a phenotype related to malaria, using a family-based association test. Taken together, we show that DUP4 is a complex structural variant that may be susceptible to somatic variation and show that DUP4 is associated with a malarial-related phenotype in a longitudinally followed population.

  • 9.
    Ali, Muhammad Akhtar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Understanding Cancer Mutations by Genome Editing2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutational analyses of cancer genomes have identified novel candidate cancer genes with hitherto unknown function in cancer. To enable phenotyping of mutations in such genes, we have developed a scalable technology for gene knock-in and knock-out in human somatic cells based on recombination-mediated construct generation and a computational tool to design gene targeting constructs. Using this technology, we have generated somatic cell knock-outs of the putative cancer genes ZBED6 and DIP2C in human colorectal cancer cells. In ZBED6-/- cells complete loss of functional ZBED6 was validated and loss of ZBED6 induced the expression of IGF2. Whole transcriptome and ChIP-seq analyses revealed relative enrichment of ZBED6 binding sites at upregulated genes as compared to downregulated genes. The functional annotation of differentially expressed genes revealed enrichment of genes related to cell cycle and cell proliferation and the transcriptional modulator ZBED6 affected the cell growth and cell cycle of human colorectal cancer cells. In DIP2C-/-cells, transcriptome sequencing revealed 780 differentially expressed genes as compared to their parental cells including the tumour suppressor gene CDKN2A. The DIP2C regulated genes belonged to several cancer related processes such as angiogenesis, cell structure and motility. The DIP2C-/-cells were enlarged and grew slower than their parental cells. To be able to directly compare the phenotypes of mutant KRAS and BRAF in colorectal cancers, we have introduced a KRASG13D allele in RKO BRAFV600E/-/-/ cells. The expression of the mutant KRAS allele was confirmed and anchorage independent growth was restored in KRASG13D cells. The differentially expressed genes both in BRAF and KRAS mutant cells included ERBB, TGFB and histone modification pathways. Together, the isogenic model systems presented here can provide insights to known and novel cancer pathways and can be used for drug discovery.

    List of papers
    1. Computational and molecular tools for scalable rAAV mediated genome editing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational and molecular tools for scalable rAAV mediated genome editing
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid discovery of potential driver mutations through large scale mutational analyses of human cancers generates a need to characterize their cellular phenotypes. Among the techniques for genome editing, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) mediated gene targeting is particularly suited to knock-in of single nucleotide substitutions. However, the generation of gene targeting constructs and the targeting process is time consuming and labor-intense. To facilitate rAAV mediated gene targeting, we developed the first software and complementary automation friendly vector tools to generate optimized targeting constructs for editing human protein encoding genes. By computational approaches, rAAV constructs for editing ~72% of bases in protein-coding exons were designed. Similarly, ~81% of genes were predicted to be targetable by rAAV mediated knock-out. A Gateway based cloning system for facile generation of rAAV constructs suitable for robotic automation was developed and used in successful generation of targeting constructs. Together, these tools enable automated rAAV targeting construct design, generation as well as enrichment and expansion of targeted cells with desired integrations.

    National Category
    Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235563 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-11-05 Created: 2014-11-05 Last updated: 2018-01-11
    2. The transcriptional modulator ZBED6 regulates cell cycle and growth of human colorectal cancer cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The transcriptional modulator ZBED6 regulates cell cycle and growth of human colorectal cancer cells
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transcription factor ZBED6 is a repressor of IGF2 whose action impacts development, cell proliferation and growth in placental mammals. In human colorectal cancers, IGF2 overexpression is mutually exclusive with somatic mutations in PI3K signaling components, providing genetic evidence for a role in the PI3K pathway. To understand the role of ZBED6 in tumorigenesis, we engineered and validated somatic cell ZBED6 knock-outs in the human colorectal cancer cell lines RKO and HCT116. Transcriptome analyses revealed enrichment of cell cycle-related processes among differentially expressed genes in both cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analyses displayed enrichment of ZBED6 binding at genes upregulated in ZBED6-/- knockout clones. Ten differentially expressed genes were identified as putative direct gene targets and their downregulation by ZBED6 was experimentally validated. Eight of these genes were linked to the Wnt, Hippo, TGF-b, EGFR or PI3K pathways, all involved in colorectal cancer development. Ablation of ZBED6 affected the cell cycle and led to increased growth rate of ZBED6-/- RKO cells. These observations support a role for transcriptional modulation by ZBED6 in cell cycle regulation and growth of colorectal cancers.

    National Category
    Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235564 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-11-05 Created: 2014-11-05 Last updated: 2018-01-11
    3. DIP2C regulates expression of the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>DIP2C regulates expression of the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The disco-interacting protein 2 homolog C (DIP2C) gene is an uncharacterized candidate

    breast and lung cancer gene. The gene contains a DMAP1 binding domain, pointing to

    potential involvement in DNMT1-dependent methylation. To study the role of DIP2C in

    tumor development, we engineered human DIP2C knockout cell systems by rAAV-mediated

    gene targeting. Homo- and heterozygous RKO DIP2C knockout cells displayed enlarged cells

    and growth retardation. This phenotype was most pronounced in DIP2C-/- knockouts, and

    these cells also displayed a significant decrease in DIP2C mRNA levels. RNA sequencing

    revealed 780 genes affected by the loss of DIP2C, including the cellular senescence marker

    P16INK4a. Functional annotation of the regulated genes shows enrichment of genes involved

    with cell death processes, cell structure and motility. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis

    shows association of 19 genes with pathways in cancer. In conclusion, the phenotypic data

    and expression changes induced by loss of DIP2C indicate that the gene function may be

    important for several biological processes implicated in cancer, and that loss of gene function

    may be a trigger of cellular senescence.

    National Category
    Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235565 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-11-05 Created: 2014-11-05 Last updated: 2018-01-11
    4. Core Ras Pathway Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancers Revealed by Isogenic Modeling of NF1, KRAS and BRAF Mutations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core Ras Pathway Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancers Revealed by Isogenic Modeling of NF1, KRAS and BRAF Mutations
    2012 (English)In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 48, no Suppl.5, p. S118-S118Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194476 (URN)10.1016/S0959-8049(12)71162-0 (DOI)000313036501006 ()
    Conference
    22nd Biennial Congress of the European-Association-for-Cancer-Research, JUL 07-10, 2012, Barcelona, SPAIN
    Available from: 2013-02-15 Created: 2013-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Ali, Muhammad Akhtar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Younis, Shady
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Wallerman, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Gupta, Rajesh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Tobias Sjöblom, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    The transcriptional modulator ZBED6 regulates cell cycle and growth of human colorectal cancer cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transcription factor ZBED6 is a repressor of IGF2 whose action impacts development, cell proliferation and growth in placental mammals. In human colorectal cancers, IGF2 overexpression is mutually exclusive with somatic mutations in PI3K signaling components, providing genetic evidence for a role in the PI3K pathway. To understand the role of ZBED6 in tumorigenesis, we engineered and validated somatic cell ZBED6 knock-outs in the human colorectal cancer cell lines RKO and HCT116. Transcriptome analyses revealed enrichment of cell cycle-related processes among differentially expressed genes in both cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analyses displayed enrichment of ZBED6 binding at genes upregulated in ZBED6-/- knockout clones. Ten differentially expressed genes were identified as putative direct gene targets and their downregulation by ZBED6 was experimentally validated. Eight of these genes were linked to the Wnt, Hippo, TGF-b, EGFR or PI3K pathways, all involved in colorectal cancer development. Ablation of ZBED6 affected the cell cycle and led to increased growth rate of ZBED6-/- RKO cells. These observations support a role for transcriptional modulation by ZBED6 in cell cycle regulation and growth of colorectal cancers.

  • 11.
    Ali, Zafar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), PIEAS, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Zulfiqar, Shumaila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Klar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Ullah, Farid
    Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), PIEAS, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Khan, Ayaz
    Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), PIEAS, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Abdullah, Uzma
    Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), PIEAS, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Baig, Shahid
    Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), PIEAS, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Homozygous GRID2 missense mutation predicts a shift in the D-serine binding domain of GluD2 in a case with generalized brain atrophy and unusual clinical features2017In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias comprise a large and heterogeneous group of disorders that may present with isolated ataxia, or ataxia in combination with other neurologic or non-neurologic symptoms. Monoallelic or biallelic GRID2 mutations were recently reported in rare cases with cerebellar syndrome and variable degree of ataxia, ocular symptoms, hypotonia and developmental delay.

    CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a consanguineous family with autosomal recessive childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and delayed psychomotor development in three siblings. MRI of an adult and affected family member revealed slightly widened cerebral and cerebellar sulci, suggesting generalized brain atrophy, and mild cerebellar atrophy. Using whole exome sequencing we identified a novel homozygous missense variant [c.2128C > T, p.(Arg710Trp)] in GRID2 that segregates with the disease. The missense variant is located in a conserved region encoding the extracellular serine-binding domain of the GluD2 protein and predicts a change in conformation of the protein.

    CONCLUSION: The widespread supratentorial brain abnormalities, absence of oculomotor symptoms, increased peripheral muscle tone and the novel missense mutation add to the clinical and genetic variability in GRID2 associated cerebellar syndrome. The neuroradiological findings in our family indicate a generalized neurodegenerative process to be taken into account in other families segregating complex clinical features and GRID2 mutations.

  • 12.
    Almén, Markus Sällman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kalnina, Ineta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Klovins, Janis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Genome-wide analysis reveals DNA methylation markers that vary with both age and obesity2014In: Gene, ISSN 0378-1119, E-ISSN 1879-0038, Vol. 548, no 1, p. 61-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of the obesity epidemic and an aging population presents growing challenges for the healthcare system. Obesity and aging are major risk factors for a diverse number of diseases and it is of importance to understand their interaction and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Herein the authors examined the methylation levels of 27578 CpG sites in 46 samples from adult peripheral blood. The effect of obesity and aging was ascertained with general linear models. More than one hundred probes were correlated to aging, nine of which belonged to the KEGG group map04080. Additionally, 10 CpG sites had diverse methylation profiles in obese and lean individuals, one of which was the telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT). In eight of ten cases the methylation change was reverted between obese and lean individuals. One region proved to be differentially methylated with obesity (LINC00304) independent of age. This study provides evidence that obesity influences age driven epigenetic changes, which provides a molecular link between aging and obesity. This link and the identified markers may prove to be valuable biomarkers for the understanding of the molecular basis of aging, obesity and associated diseases.

  • 13.
    Ameur, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Bunikis, Ignas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    CanvasDB: a local database infrastructure for analysis of targeted- and whole genome re-sequencing projects2014In: Database: The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, ISSN 1758-0463, E-ISSN 1758-0463, p. bau098-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CanvasDB is an infrastructure for management and analysis of genetic variants from massively parallel sequencing (MPS) projects. The system stores SNP and indel calls in a local database, designed to handle very large datasets, to allow for rapid analysis using simple commands in R. Functional annotations are included in the system, making it suitable for direct identification of disease-causing mutations in human exome-(WES) or whole-genome sequencing (WGS) projects. The system has a built-in filtering function implemented to simultaneously take into account variant calls from all individual samples. This enables advanced comparative analysis of variant distribution between groups of samples, including detection of candidate causative mutations within family structures and genome-wide association by sequencing. In most cases, these analyses are executed within just a matter of seconds, even when there are several hundreds of samples and millions of variants in the database. We demonstrate the scalability of canvasDB by importing the individual variant calls from all 1092 individuals present in the 1000 Genomes Project into the system, over 4.4 billion SNPs and indels in total. Our results show that canvasDB makes it possible to perform advanced analyses of large-scale WGS projects on a local server.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Ann-Catrin
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Studies on Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) with Special Focus on ERV32002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent approximately 7% of the human genome. This investigation was focused on one particular HERV, ERV3, with the main purpose of characterising its gene expression patterns and genomic distribution of ERV3-like sequences. Furthermore, this careful expression study should provide insights into the biological role of HERVs. The impact of HERVs in health and disease is not yet clarified. ERV3 is expressed as three envelope (env) transcripts, of which two also contain a cellular gene, H-plk (human proviral linked Krüppel). ERV3 env expression was mainly investigated at the RNA level. The gene expression of two other HERVs, HERV-K and HERV-E was analysed and compared with ERV3 activity.

    Real-time PCRs were developed and in combination with in situ hybridisation, it was found that ERV3 is expressed in a tissue- and cell-specific way. High levels of ERV3 mRNA (up to six times over Histone3.3) were demonstrated in placenta, sebaceous glands, foetal and adult adrenal glands, brown adipose tissue, corpus luteum, pituitary gland, thymus and testis. In monocytic cells including both normal monocytes and malignant U-937 cells, elevated mRNA levels were observed after retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation. ERV3-encoded Env protein was detected in selected cases, one following RA-treatment. In addition, several new ERV3-like sequences were discovered in the human genome.

    ERV3 was found to have conserved open reading frames in contrast to other ERV3-like sequences in the human genome. This suggests that ERV3 may be involved in important cellular processes such as differentiation, cell fusion, immunomodulation and protection against infectious retroviruses. The developed techniques and obtained results will allow further studies of HERV expression to better correlate HERV activity to both normal development and disease.

    List of papers
    1. Elevated levels of the human endogenous retrovirus ERV3 in human sebaceous glands
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated levels of the human endogenous retrovirus ERV3 in human sebaceous glands
    Show others...
    1996 (English)In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN 0022-202X, E-ISSN 1523-1747, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 125-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ERV3 (HERV-R) is a complete human endogenous retrovirus located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Long terminal repeat-envelope (env) gene spliced mRNAs of 9 and 3.5 kb are widely expressed in human tissues and cells, but gag-pol mRNAs have not been found. Furthermore, the env gp70 gene contains an open reading frame throughout its length. The highest expression of ERV3 mRNA detected so far is in placenta and the lowest in choriocarcinoma cell lines. We have previously shown that the human monoblastic cell line U-937 and some normal and neoplastic tissues also express high levels of ERV3 env message by Northern blot analysis; however, this method does not distinguish between mRNA expression in different cell types in tissues. In this report, we have studied the ERV3 mRNA expression in specific cell types of human skin by in situ hybridization. We found high levels expression of ERV3 env mRNA in human sebaceous glands in normal skin and dermoid cysts of the ovary. In all glands, the expression is maximal in the periphery of the lobule and ceases towards the center in the region of characteristic holocrine secretion. Since it is known that the regulation of sebaceous glands is primarily via steroid hormones, particularly androgens, it is possible that expression of ERV3 is hormone dependent.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89897 (URN)10.1111/1523-1747.ep12329612 (DOI)8592062 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2002-05-10 Created: 2002-05-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Expression of the endogenous retrovirus ERV3 (HERV-R) during induced monocytic differentiation in the U-937 cell line
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of the endogenous retrovirus ERV3 (HERV-R) during induced monocytic differentiation in the U-937 cell line
    Show others...
    1996 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 451-456Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ERV3 (HERV-R) is a complete human endogenous retrovirus located on the long arm of chromosome 7. LTR-env-gene-spliced mRNA of 9 and 3.5 Kb is widely expressed in human tissues and cells, but gag-pol mRNA has not been found. Further, the env gp70 gene contains an open reading frame throughout its length and its expression has recently been detected as a full-length protein. The highest expression of ERV3 detected so far is in placenta and the lowest in cytotrophoblasts and choriocarcinoma cell lines. In this report we have studied ERV3 mRNA and protein expression in the human monoblastic cell line U-937 during differentiation into monocytes/macrophages. Differentiation of U-937 cells was induced by 1,25a-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitD3), retinoic acid (RA), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA-TPA). The expression of ERV3 env mRNA was found to be differentiation-associated, with high expression detected in the late stages of monocytic development. Using TPA, the expression of ERV3 env was detected as 9- and 3.5-kb transcripts by Northern blotting, as mRNA by in situ hybridization and as a cytoplasmic 65-kDa protein by immunofluorescence and Western blots. Low levels of basal expression were found, with up-regulation of both message and protein at 24 to 48 hr after addition of TPA. Induction with vitD3, IFN-gamma and RA produced higher levels of mRNA at earlier time points. It is concluded that the U-937 cell line represents an excellent model system for further studies to study the relationship between ERV3 expression and cellular differentiation.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89898 (URN)10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19960729)67:3<451::AID-IJC23>3.0.CO;2-9 (DOI)8707424 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2002-05-10 Created: 2002-05-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Developmnental expression of HERV-R (ERV3) and HERV-K in human tissue
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmnental expression of HERV-R (ERV3) and HERV-K in human tissue
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    2002 (English)In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 297, no 2, p. 220-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), ERV3 (HERV-R) and HERV-K, are both known to be transcriptionally active in human placenta. In the case of ERV3 there is also indirect evidence for its participation in cellular differentiation. In this study we examined the expression of ERV3 (HERV-R) and HERV-K in human normal fetal tissues by in situ hybridization. The highest level of ERV3 env expression was detected in primitive adrenal cortex. Elevated levels of expression were also found in the following developing tissues: kidneys (tubules), tongue, heart, liver, and central nervous system. Tissue-specific expression was found for HERV-K rec (former cORF) but not for pol/int transcripts. The highest rec expression was found in placenta and levels slightly higher than sense control were found in the rest of the tissues examined. Pol/Int was not possible to quantitate. It appears that ERV3 is expressed in an organ-specific way during embryogenesis and might suggest a possible role in the development and differentiation of human tissues.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89899 (URN)10.1006/viro.2002.1428 (DOI)12083821 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2002-05-10 Created: 2002-05-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. ERV3 and related sequences in humans; studies of RNA expression by real-time PCR and in situ hybridisation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ERV3 and related sequences in humans; studies of RNA expression by real-time PCR and in situ hybridisation
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89900 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-05-10 Created: 2002-05-10 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
    5. ERV3 in relation to cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic monocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ERV3 in relation to cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic monocytes
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89901 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-05-10 Created: 2002-05-10 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX USA..
    Domestic animals as models for biomedical research2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 1-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic animals are unique models for biomedical research due to their long history (thousands of years) of strong phenotypic selection. This process has enriched for novel mutations that have contributed to phenotype evolution in domestic animals. The characterization of such mutations provides insights in gene function and biological mechanisms. This review summarizes genetic dissection of about 50 genetic variants affecting pigmentation, behaviour, metabolic regulation, and the pattern of locomotion. The variants are controlled by mutations in about 30 different genes, and for 10 of these our group was the first to report an association between the gene and a phenotype. Almost half of the reported mutations occur in non-coding sequences, suggesting that this is the most common type of polymorphism underlying phenotypic variation since this is a biased list where the proportion of coding mutations are inflated as they are easier to find. The review documents that structural changes (duplications, deletions, and inversions) have contributed significantly to the evolution of phenotypic diversity in domestic animals. Finally, we describe five examples of evolution of alleles, which means that alleles have evolved by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations affecting the function of the same gene.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden;Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Fisher's quantitative genetic model and the molecular genetics of multifactorial traits2018In: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, ISSN 0931-2668, E-ISSN 1439-0388, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 391-392Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Andersson, S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Differences in the genetic basis of leaf dissectin between two populations of Crepis tectorum (Asteraceae).1995In: Heredity, Vol. 75, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Andersson, S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Quantitative genetics of leaf morphology in Crepis tectorum ssp. pumila (Asteraceae).1999In: J Hered, Vol. 90, p. 556-561Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Andrae, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    Gouveia, Maria Leonor Seguardo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    He, Liqun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Characterization of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A Expression in Mouse Tissues Using a lacZ Knock-In Approach2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, p. e105477-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene (Pdgfa) occurs widely in the developing mouse, where it is mainly localized to various epithelial and neuronal structures. Until now, in situ mRNA hybridization (ISH) has been the only reliable method to identify Pdgfa expression in tissue sections or whole mount preparations. Validated protocols for in situ detection of PDGF-A protein by immunohistochemistry is lacking. In particular, this has hampered understanding of Pdgfa expression pattern in adult tissues, where ISH is technically challenging. Here, we report a gene targeted mouse Pdgfa allele, Pdgfa(ex4COIN), which is a combined conditional knockout and reporter allele. Cre-mediated inversion of the COIN cassette inactivates Pdgfa coding while simultaneously activating a beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter under endogenous Pdgfa transcription control. The generated Pdgfa(ex4COIN-INV-lacZ) allele can next be used to identify cells carrying a Pdgfa null allele, as well as to map endogenous Pdgfa expression. We evaluated the Pdgfa(ex4COIN-INV-lacZ) allele as a reporter for endogenous Pdgfa expression patterns in mouse embryos and adults. We conclude that the expression pattern of Pdgfa(ex4COIN-INV-lacZ) recapitulates known expression patterns of Pdgfa. We also report on novel embryonic and adult Pdgfa expression patterns in the mouse and discuss their implications for Pdgfa physiology.

  • 20.
    Andræ, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    PDGF in cerebellar development and tumorigenesis2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant cerebellar childhood tumor. As in many other brain tumors, expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors has been shown in medulloblastoma. To reveal the importance of this growth factor in cerebellar development and tumorigenesis, analyses were performed on human medulloblastoma cell lines and on tissue from normal mouse brain at different stages of development. The in vivo effect of a forced expression of PDGF-B in the cerebellar primordium was examined in transgenic mice.

    In the normal mouse embryo, we found PDGF receptor-α-positive cells in the early neuroepithelium and on neuronal precursors. In the postnatal cerebellum, cells in the external germinal layer and Purkinje cells expressed the receptor. In the medulloblastoma cells, expression of all the three PDGF isoforms and PDGF receptors was seen and correlated to neuronal differentiation. Endogenously activated, i.e. tyrosine phosphorylated, PDGF receptors were identified. To reveal the role of PDGF in normal cerebellar development, we established transgenic mice where a PDGF-B cDNA was introduced via homologous recombination into the engrailed-1 gene. Engrailed-1 is specifically expressed at the mid-/hindbrain boundary of the early neural tube, i.e. in an area from which the cerebellar primordium develops. The ectopic expression of PDGF-B caused a disturbance of cerebellar development. Midline fusion of the cerebellar primordium did not occur properly, which resulted in cerebellar dysplasia in the adult mouse.

    In a parallel study, the expression pattern of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-lacZ transgene was followed in the embryonic mouse central nervous system. It was shown that the human GFAP promoter was already active by embryonic day 9.5 and as development proceeded, expression occured in different, independent cell populations. Among these cell populations were the radial glial cells in the neocortex.

  • 21.
    Andréasson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Sensitive Forensic DNA Analysis: Application of Pyrosequencing and Real-time PCR Quantification2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of forensic genetics is growing fast and the development and optimisation of more sensitive, faster and more discriminating forensic DNA analysis methods is highly important. In this thesis, an evaluation of the use of novel DNA technologies and the development of specific applications for use in forensic casework investigations are presented.

    In order to maximise the use of valuable limited DNA samples, a fast and user-friendly Real-time PCR quantification assay, of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA copies, was developed. The system is based on the 5’ exonuclease detection assay and was evaluated and successfully used for quantification of a number of different evidence material types commonly found on crime scenes. Furthermore, a system is described that allows both nuclear DNA quantification and sex determination in limited samples, based on intercalation of the SYBR Green dye to double stranded DNA.

    To enable highly sensitive DNA analysis, Pyrosequencing of short stretches of mitochondrial DNA was developed. The system covers both control region and coding region variation, thus providing increased discrimination power for mitochondrial DNA analysis. Finally, due to the lack of optimal assays for quantification of mitochondrial DNA mixture, an alternative use of the Pyrosequencing system was developed. This assay allows precise ratio quantification of mitochondrial DNA in samples showing contribution from more than one individual.

    In conclusion, the development of optimised forensic DNA analysis methods in this thesis provides several novel quantification assays and increased knowledge of typical DNA amounts in various forensic samples. The new, fast and sensitive mitochondrial DNA Pyrosequencing assay was developed and has the potential for increased discrimination power.

    List of papers
    1.
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    2. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA quantification of various forensic materials
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA quantification of various forensic materials
    2006 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 56-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the different types and quality of forensic evidence materials, their DNA content can vary substantially, and particularly low quantities can impact the results in an identification analysis. In this study, the quantity of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA was determined in a variety of materials using a previously described real-time PCR method. DNA quantification in the roots and distal sections of plucked and shed head hairs revealed large variations in DNA content particularly between the root and the shaft of plucked hairs. Also large intra- and inter-individual variations were found among hairs. In additions DNA content was estimated in samples collected from fingerprints and accessories. The quantification of DNA on various items also displayed large variations, with some materials containing large amounts of nuclear DNA while no detectable nuclear DNA and only limited amounts of mitochondrial DNA were seen in others. Using this sensitive real-time PCR quantification assay, a better understanding was obtained regarding DNA content and variation in commonly analysed forensic evidence materials and this may guide the forensic scientist as to the best molecular biology approach for analysing various forensic evidence materials.

    Keywords
    quantification, real-time PCR, forensic materials, hair, nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92985 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.11.024 (DOI)000242666700006 ()16427750 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Rapid quantification and sex determination of forensic evidence materials
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid quantification and sex determination of forensic evidence materials
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 1280-1287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    DNA quantification of forensic evidence is very valuable for an optimal use of the available biological material. Moreover, sex determination is of great importance as additional information in criminal investigations as well as in identification of missing persons, no suspect cases, and ancient DNA studies. While routine forensic DNA analysis based on short tandem repeat markers includes a marker for sex determination, analysis of samples containing scarce amounts of DNA is often based on mitochondrial DNA, and sex determination is not performed. In order to allow quantification and simultaneous sex determination on minute amounts of DNA, an assay based on real-time PCR analysis of a marker within the human amelogenin gene has been developed. The sex determination is based on melting curve analysis, while an externally standardized kinetic analysis allows quantification of the nuclear DNA copy number in the sample. This real-time DNA quantification assay has proven to be highly sensitive, enabling quantification of single DNA copies. Although certain limitations were apparent, the system is a rapid, cost-effective, and flexible assay for analysis of forensic casework samples.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92986 (URN)14640271 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Mitochondrial sequence analysis for forensic identification using Pyrosequencing technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitochondrial sequence analysis for forensic identification using Pyrosequencing technology
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    2002 (English)In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 124-6, 128, 130-3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent years, requests for mtDNA analysis in the field of forensic medicine have notably increased, and the results of such analyses have proved to be very useful in forensic cases where nuclear DNA analysis cannot be performed. Traditionally, mtDNA has been analyzed by DNA sequencing of the two hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, in the D-loop. DNA sequence analysis using the conventional Sanger sequencing is very robust but time consuming and labor intensive. By contrast, mtDNA analysis based on the pyrosequencing technology provides fast and accurate results from the human mtDNA present in many types of evidence materials in forensic casework. The assay has been developed to determine polymorphic sites in the mitochondrial D-loop as well as the coding region to further increase the discrimination power of mtDNA analysis. The pyrosequencing technology for analysis of mtDNA polymorphisms has been tested with regard to sensitivity, reproducibility, and success rate when applied to control samples and actual casework materials. The results show that the method is very accurate and sensitive; the results are easily interpreted and provide a high success rate on casework samples. The panel of pyrosequencing reactions for the mtDNA polymorphisms were chosen to result in an optimal discrimination power in relation to the number of bases determined.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92987 (URN)11808686 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Coding mtDNA analysis for increased forensic discrimination power using Pyrosequencing technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coding mtDNA analysis for increased forensic discrimination power using Pyrosequencing technology
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92988 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Quantification of mtDNA mixtures in forensic evidence material using pyrosequencing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of mtDNA mixtures in forensic evidence material using pyrosequencing
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of mtDNA variation using Sanger sequencing does not allow accurate quantification of the components of mtDNA mixtures. An alternative method to determine the specific mixture ratios in samples displaying heteroplasmy, consisting of DNA contributions from several individuals, or containing contamination would therefore be valuable. A novel quantification system for mtDNA mixture analysis has been developed based on pyrosequencing technology, in which the linear relationship between incorporated nucleotides and released light allows quantification of the components of a sample. Within five polymerase chain reaction fragments, seven variable positions in the mtDNA control and coding region were evaluated using this quantification analysis. For all single nucleotide polymorphisms quantified in this study, a linear relationship was observed between the measured and expected mixture ratios. This mtDNA quantification assay is an easy to use, fast and accurate quantification system, with the ability to resolve and interpret major and minor mtDNA components in forensic mixture samples.

    Keywords
    mixtures, mitochondrial DNA, pyrosequencing, quantification, forensic material
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92989 (URN)10.1007/s00414-005-0072-8 (DOI)000241522300013 ()16453148 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 22.
    Antson, Dan-Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Genotyping RNA and DNA using padlock probes2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel techniques are needed to investigate the genetic variation revealed in the first draft of the human genome sequence. Padlock probes are recently developed reagents, suitable for detecting single-nucleotide variations of DNA and RNA in situ or in solution. The probes are oligonucleotides of about 70-140 nucleotides that can be circularized by ligation in the presence of a correct target sequence. Standard chemical synthesis of padlock probes is difficult due to the requirement for intact 5' and 3' ends of these long oligonucleotides.

    A novel PCR-based method is presented in this thesis, whereby longer, densely labeled padlock probes can be made as compared to conventional chemical synthesis. PCR-generated padlock probes produced a stronger signal and a more resolved staining pattern, compared to chemically synthesized probes in fluorescence in situ analysis of an alpha-satellite sequence variant present in human chromosomes 13 and 21. Padlock probes used for in situ analysis of metaphase chromosomes had an optimal length of 140 nucleotides. They were used to identify individual chromosomes 7 and 15, and to follow the transmission of chromosome homologues for two consecutive generations. The specificity of the padlock probes to detect single copy genes in genomic DNA samples was demonstrated by detecting a single-nucleotide mutation in the ATP7B gene.

    It has not previously been known if T4 DNA ligase can be used for RNA sequence analysis. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that T4 DNA ligase can be used for distinguishing single-nucleotide RNA sequence variants. Reaction conditions were defined where most mismatches could be discriminated by a factor of 80 and all mismatches by a factor of at least 20. Under these conditions padlock probes could detect and distinguish RNA sequence variants with ligation efficiency almost as high as on the corresponding DNA sequence.

    A detailed study of the parameters influencing RNA-templated DNA ligation revealed that DNA ligation on RNA templates proceeds at a much slower rate compared to the same reaction on DNA, and that a molar excess of enzyme is required. Furthermore, the ligation reaction is inhibited by high concentrations of the cofactor ATP and NaCl.

    The work presented in this thesis demonstrates that PCR-generated padlock probes can detect and distinguish single-nucleotide variation in both RNA and DNA.

  • 23.
    Artemenko, Konstantin A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Lind, Sara Bergström
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Elfineh, Lioudmila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Mayrhofer, Corina
    Zubarev, Roman A.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Optimization of immunoaffinity enrichment and detection: toward a comprehensive characterization of the phosphotyrosine proteome of K562 cells by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry2011In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 136, no 9, p. 1971-1978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues regulates many cell functions and has also been proved to be involved in oncogenesis. Thus, the identification of the phosphotyrosine (pTyr) proteome of cells is a very important task. Since tyrosine phosphorylation represents only around 1% of the total human phosphoproteome, the study of pTyr proteins is rather challenging. Here we report the optimization study of the phosphotyrosine proteome using K562 cells as a model system. A substantial segment of the phosphotyrosine proteome of K562 cells was characterized by immunoaffinity enrichment with 4G10 and PYKD1 antibodies followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. 480 non-redundant pTyr peptides corresponding to 342 pTyr proteins were found. 141 pTyr peptides were not described elsewhere. The mass spectrometry approach involving high-resolving FTMS analysis of precursor ions and subsequent detection of CID fragments in a linear ion trap was considered as optimal. For detection of low abundant pTyr peptides pooling of individual immunoaffinity enrichments for one LC-MS/MS analysis was crucial. The enrichment properties of the monoclonal PYKD1 antibody were presented for the first time, also in comparison to the 4G10 antibody. PYKD1 was found to be more effective for protein enrichment (1.2 and 5% efficiency at peptide and protein level correspondingly), while 4G10 showed better results when peptide enrichment was performed (15% efficiency versus 3.6% at protein level). Substantially different subsets of the phosphoproteome were enriched by these antibodies. This finding together with previous studies demonstrates that comprehensive pTyr proteome characterization by immunoprecipitation requires multiple antibodies to be used for the affinity enrichment.

  • 24.
    Aspegren, Anders
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Nuclear Organization of Gene Expression in Adenovirus Infected Cells2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenovirus infected cells provide a good model system for studying nuclear organization during RNA production and transport. This thesis is focused on the dynamic organization of splicing factors during the late phase of Adenovirus infection in HeLa cells, the nuclear localization of viral RNA, and the pathway used for viral RNA transport to the cytoplasm.

    Splicing factors are relocalized from interchromatin granule clusters to sites of transcription in Adenovirus infected cells at intermediate times of infection. Later, splicing factors and viral RNA accumulate posttranscriptionally in interchromatin granule clusters. The release of the splicing factors from transcription sites was energy dependent or preceded by energy requiring mechanisms. Our data indicated that phosphorylation events inhibited by staurosporine, and 3' cleavage of the transcript are two possible mechanisms involved prior to the release of the RNP complex from transcription sites.

    A viral protein derived from orf6 of early region 4, 34K, is important for the nuclear stability and transport of late viral mRNA derived from the major late transcription unit. A viral mutant lacking this region is defective for posttranscriptional accumulation of viral mRNA in interchromatin granule clusters, and for the accumulation of viral RNA in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that posttranscriptional accumulation of viral RNA in interchromatin granule clusters may contribute to the maturation of the RNP complex or sorting of RNAs and proteins, to prepare the final RNP complex for transport to the cytoplasm.

    A previous model suggested that adenoviral late mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm by utilizing the CRM-1 pathway. This pathway can be blocked by the drug leptomycin B. The data presented in paper IV suggests that this model might not be applicable, since leptomycin B did not inhibit adenoviral late gene expression.

  • 25.
    Ata, Ahmad Khaled
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Expression of TGF- isoforms, their receptors and related SMAD proteins in brain pathology: Immunohistochemical studies focusing on infarcts, abscesses and malignant gliomas1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the immunohistochemical expression of transforming growth factor beta(TGFβ) isoforms, their receptors and TGF-β-related SMAD proteins in brain pathology, chiefly in-farcts. One key question was whether the expressions of these compounds are altered within glial cells, endothelial cells of microvessels and other cell types in the vicinity of infarcts. Studies on human and animal brain infarcts were made. Immunoreactivities to TGF-β isoforms -β1, -β2 and -β3, and TGF-βreceptor (TβR) type I were seen in astrocytes, macrophages, neurons, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells of human brain infarcts. Similar observations were made in an experimental model of rat brain infarct at day 1 and 3 following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Increased expression of Smad2, -3, -4, -6 and -7 was seen already at 6 h after MCA occlusion in neurons, microvascular endothelial cells, astroglial cells and inflammatory cells. Later on, immunopositive macrophages were present in the infarcts. The changes persisted even at day 7 after MCA occlusion.

    Several alterations thus occur during the evolution of brain infarcts with regard to the immuno­histochemical expression of TGF-β, its receptors and related SMAD proteins. Such changes are, however, not unique to brain infarcts. Thus, patterns of high expression for TGF-β- isoforms -β1, -β2 -β3, and TβR-I in cases of brain abscess (human), and of Smad2, -3, -4, -6 and -7 in tumor cells and neoplastic blood vessels of malignant gliomas (human) were also observed.

    In addition, immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) andits receptors was investigated since this growth factor is involved in angiogenesis and edemaformation, two cardinal features of brain infarcts. Increased immunoreactivities, seen particularly in the edges of infarcts, were observed already at day 1 after MCA occlusion.

    In conclusion, the various TGF-β isoforms, receptors and related SMAD proteins, together with other factors, seem to be involved in the very complicated and important changes taking place in the vicinity of brain infarcts.

  • 26. Ayoglu, Burcu
    et al.
    Chaouch, Amina
    Lochmueller, Hanns
    Politano, Luisa
    Bertini, Enrico
    Spitali, Pietro
    Hiller, Monika
    Niks, Eric H.
    Gualandi, Francesca
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bushby, Kate
    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke
    Schwartz, Elena
    Le Priol, Yannick
    Straub, Volker
    Uhlen, Mathias
    Cirak, Sebahattin
    't Hoen, Peter A. C.
    Muntoni, Francesco
    Ferlini, Alessandra
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili
    Affinity proteomics within rare diseases: a BIO-NMD study for blood biomarkers of muscular dystrophies2014In: EMBO Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1757-4676, E-ISSN 1757-4684, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 918-936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the recent progress in the broad-scaled analysis of proteins in body fluids, there is still a lack in protein profiling approaches for biomarkers of rare diseases. Scarcity of samples is the main obstacle hindering attempts to apply discovery driven protein profiling in rare diseases. We addressed this challenge by combining samples collected within the BIO-NMD consortium from four geographically dispersed clinical sites to identify protein markers associated with muscular dystrophy using an antibody bead array platform with 384 antibodies. Based on concordance in statistical significance and confirmatory results obtained from analysis of both serum and plasma, we identified eleven proteins associated with muscular dystrophy, among which four proteins were elevated in blood from muscular dystrophy patients: carbonic anhydrase III (CA3) and myosin light chain 3 (MYL3), both specifically expressed in slow-twitch muscle fibers and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) and electron transfer flavo-protein A (ETFA). Using age-matched sub-cohorts, 9 protein profiles correlating with disease progression and severity were identified, which hold promise for the development of new clinical tools for management of dystrophinopathies.

  • 27.
    Badhai, Jitendra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Ribosomal Proteins in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia: Insights into Failure of Ribosome Function2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a severe congenital anemia characterized by a defect in red blood cell production. The disease is associated with growth retardation, malformations, a predisposition for malignant disease and heterozygous mutations in either of the ribosomal protein (RP) genes RPS7, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, RPL5, RPL11 and RPL35a.

    In a cellular model for DBA, siRNA knock-down of RPS19 results in a relative decrease of other ribosomal (r) proteins belonging to the small subunit (RPS20, RPS21, RPS24) when compared to r-proteins from the large ribosomal subunit (RPL3, RPL9, RPL30, RPL38). RPS19 mutant cells from DBA patients show a similar and coordinated down-regulation of small subunit proteins. The mRNA levels of the small subunit r-proteins remain relatively unchanged. We also show that RPS19 has an extensive number of transcriptional start sites resulting in mRNAs of variable 5’UTR length. The short variants are translated more efficiently. Structural sequence variations in the 5’UTR of RPS19 found in DBA patients show a 20%-30% reduced translational activity when compared to normal transcripts.

    Primary fibroblast from DBA patients with truncating mutations in RPS19 or RPS24 showed specific cell cycle defects. RPS19 mutant fibroblasts accumulate in the G1 phase whereas the RPS24 mutant cells show a defect in G2/M phase. The G1 phase arrest is associated with a reduced level of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, cyclin E and cdk2 whereas the G2/M phase defect is associated with increased levels of p21, cyclin E, cdk4 and cdk6.

    RPS19 interacts with PIM-1 kinase. We investigated the effects of targeted disruptions of both Rps19 and Pim-1 in mice. Double mutant (Rps19+/-, Pim-1-/-) mice have increased peripheral white- and red blood cell counts when compared to the wild-type mice (Rps19+/+, Pim-1+/+). Bone marrow cells in Rps19+/-, Pim-1-/- mice showed up-regulated levels of c-Myc and the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 and reduced levels of the apoptotic factors Bak and Caspase 3 as well as the cell cycle regulator p21.

    In summary, this thesis clarifies several mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DBA. Mutations in RPS19 results in coordinated down-regulation of several small subunit r-proteins causing haploinsufficiency for the small ribosomal subunit. RPS19 have multiple transcriptional start sites and mutations in the RPS19 5’UTR found in DBA patients result in reduced translational activity. At the cellular level, mutations in RPS19 and RPS24 cause distinct cell cycle defects and reduced cell proliferation. Finally, PIM-1 kinase and RPS19 cooperates in the proliferation of myeloid cells.

    List of papers
    1. Posttranscriptional down-regulation of small ribosomal subunit proteinscorrelates with reduction of 18S rRNA in RPS19 deficiency
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Posttranscriptional down-regulation of small ribosomal subunit proteinscorrelates with reduction of 18S rRNA in RPS19 deficiency
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 583, no 12, p. 2049-2053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19) is mutated in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). We hypothesized that decreased levels of RPS19 lead to a coordinated down-regulation of other ribosomal (r-)proteins at the subunit level. We show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knock-down of RPS19 results in a relative decrease of small subunit (SSU) r-proteins (S20, S21 and S24) when compared to large subunit (LSU) r-proteins (L3, L9, L30 and L38). This correlates with a relative decrease in 18S rRNA with respect to 28S rRNA. The r-protein mRNA levels remain relatively unchanged indicating a post transcriptional regulation of r-proteins at the level of subunit formation.

    Keywords
    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), Ribosomal protein 19, antibody, Haploinsufficiency, ribosome biogenesis
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108108 (URN)10.1016/j.febslet.2009.05.023 (DOI)000267797800038 ()19454283 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Differential expression of RPS19 5’UTR variants implicated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential expression of RPS19 5’UTR variants implicated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia
    Show others...
    2012 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) In press
    Abstract [en]

    Heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein (RP) S19 gene RPS19 are found in about 25% of patients with the congenital erythroblastopenia Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). The RPS19 gene encodes a single RPS19 isoform from three known transcriptional start sites (TSS) with different 5’ untranslated region (UTR). The regulation of RPS19 expression is poorly understood as well as the significance of different 5’UTRs. A few rare sequence variants within the 5’UTR have also been reported in patients with DBA. We determined the transcriptional start sites (TSS) and the tissue distribution of variant 5’UTRs of RPS19. Twenty-nine novel TSS in K562 cells and testis were identified. We then analyzed the relative proportion of three selected 5’UTRs of different length on a panel of primary tissues. The shorter 5’UTR were most abundant in all tissues but with large variations in relative levels of shorter versus longer transcripts. To clarify the effect of different RPS19 5’UTRs on translation we designed and expressed constructs using three 5’UTRs of different length. The short 5’UTR(+35nt.) translate 4-6 folds more efficiently than the two longer variants with 5’UTRs of 382nt. and 467nt., respectively We also introduced DBA associated insertion (c.-149_-148insGCCA, c.-149_-148insAGCC ) and deletion (c.-144_-141delTTTC) variants in the 5’UTR. . Interestingly, the DBA associated 5’UTR sequence variants showed a 20-30% reduction in RPS19 levels when compared to the corresponding w.t. constructs. Our results indicate that the RPS19 gene has a broad range of TSS with tissue specific variations. We also show that sequence variants in the 5’UTR in some DBA patients reduce RPS19 expression with implications for the pathophysiology of the disease.

    Keywords
    Diamond-Blackfan anemai, 5'UTR, translation, RPS19, haploinsufficiency
    National Category
    Medical Genetics
    Research subject
    Clinical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-110063 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Cooperative effect of ribosomal protein s19 and Pim-1 kinase on murine c-Myc expression and myeloid/erythroid cellularity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative effect of ribosomal protein s19 and Pim-1 kinase on murine c-Myc expression and myeloid/erythroid cellularity
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 0946-2716, E-ISSN 1432-1440, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome associated with heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19) gene in a subgroup of patients. One of the interacting partners with RPS19 is the oncoprotein PIM-1 kinase. We intercrossed Rps19+/- and Pim-1-/- mice strains to study the effect from the disruption of both genes. The double mutant (Rps19+/-Pim-1-/-) mice display normal growth with increased peripheral white- and red blood cell counts when compared to the w.t. mice (Rps19+/+Pim-1+/+). Molecular analysis of bone marrow cells in Rps19+/-Pim-1-/- mice revealed up-regulated levels of c-Myc and the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl2, BclXL and Mcl-1. This is associated with a reduction of the apoptotic factors Bak and Caspase 3 as well as the cell cycle regulator p21. Our findings suggest that combined Rps19 insufficiency and Pim-1 deficiency promote murine myeloid cell growth through a deregulation of c-Myc and a simultaneous up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl proteins.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2010
    Keywords
    ribosomal protein, Pim-1, RPS19, c-Myc
    National Category
    Medical Genetics
    Research subject
    Clinical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-110069 (URN)10.1007/s00109-009-0558-9 (DOI)000273668400006 ()19898770 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Ribosomal protein S19 and S24 insufficiency cause distinct cell cycle defects in Diamond-Blackfan anemia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ribosomal protein S19 and S24 insufficiency cause distinct cell cycle defects in Diamond-Blackfan anemia
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, ISSN 0006-3002, E-ISSN 1878-2434, Vol. 1792, no 10, p. 1036-1042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a severe congenital anemia characterized by a specific decrease of erythroid precursors. The disease is also associated with growth retardation, congenital malformations, a predisposition for malignant disease and heterozygous mutations in either of the ribosomal protein (RP) genes RPS7, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, RPL5, RPL11 and RPL35a. We show herein that primary fibroblasts from DBA patients with truncating mutations in RPS19 or in RPS24 have a marked reduction in proliferative capacity. Mutant fibroblasts are associated with extended cell cycles and normal levels of p53 when compared to w.t. cells. RPS19 mutant fibroblasts accumulate in the G1 phase, whereas the RPS24 mutant cells show an altered progression in the S phase resulting in reduced levels in the G2/M phase. RPS19 deficient cells exhibit reduced levels of Cyclin-E, CDK2 and retinoblastoma (Rb) protein supporting a cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In contrast, RPS24 deficient cells show increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and a seemingly opposing increase in Cyclin-E, CDK4 and CDK6. In combination, our results show that RPS19 and RPS24 insufficient fibroblasts have an impaired growth caused by distinct blockages in the cell cycle. We suggest this proliferative constraint to be an important contributing mechanism for the complex extra-hematological features observed in DBA.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-110062 (URN)10.1016/j.bbadis.2009.08.002 (DOI)000271071600012 ()19689926 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-11-02 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 28.
    Badhai, Jitendra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Fröjmark, Anne-Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Gidlöf, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Schuster, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Differential expression of RPS19 5’UTR variants implicated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia2012Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein (RP) S19 gene RPS19 are found in about 25% of patients with the congenital erythroblastopenia Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). The RPS19 gene encodes a single RPS19 isoform from three known transcriptional start sites (TSS) with different 5’ untranslated region (UTR). The regulation of RPS19 expression is poorly understood as well as the significance of different 5’UTRs. A few rare sequence variants within the 5’UTR have also been reported in patients with DBA. We determined the transcriptional start sites (TSS) and the tissue distribution of variant 5’UTRs of RPS19. Twenty-nine novel TSS in K562 cells and testis were identified. We then analyzed the relative proportion of three selected 5’UTRs of different length on a panel of primary tissues. The shorter 5’UTR were most abundant in all tissues but with large variations in relative levels of shorter versus longer transcripts. To clarify the effect of different RPS19 5’UTRs on translation we designed and expressed constructs using three 5’UTRs of different length. The short 5’UTR(+35nt.) translate 4-6 folds more efficiently than the two longer variants with 5’UTRs of 382nt. and 467nt., respectively We also introduced DBA associated insertion (c.-149_-148insGCCA, c.-149_-148insAGCC ) and deletion (c.-144_-141delTTTC) variants in the 5’UTR. . Interestingly, the DBA associated 5’UTR sequence variants showed a 20-30% reduction in RPS19 levels when compared to the corresponding w.t. constructs. Our results indicate that the RPS19 gene has a broad range of TSS with tissue specific variations. We also show that sequence variants in the 5’UTR in some DBA patients reduce RPS19 expression with implications for the pathophysiology of the disease.

  • 29. Bahl, Aileen
    et al.
    Pöllänen, Eija
    Ismail, Khadeeja
    Sipilä, Sarianna
    Mikkola, Tuija M
    Berglund, Eva C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lindqvist, Carl Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rantanen, Taina
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Kovanen, Vuokko
    Ollikainen, Miina
    Hormone Replacement Therapy Associated White Blood Cell DNA Methylation and Gene Expression are Associated With Within-Pair Differences of Body Adiposity and Bone Mass2015In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 647-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of estrogen during menopause causes changes in the female body, with wide-ranging effects on health. Estrogen-containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) leads to a relief of typical menopausal symptoms, benefits bone and muscle health, and is associated with tissue-specific gene expression profiles. As gene expression is controlled by epigenetic factors (including DNA methylation), many of which are environmentally sensitive, it is plausible that at least part of the HRT-associated gene expression is due to changes in DNA methylation profile. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of white blood cells (WBCs) and their associations with body composition, including muscle and bone measures of monozygotic (MZ) female twin pairs discordant for HRT. We identified 7,855 nominally significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with 4,044 genes. Of the genes with DMRs, five (ACBA1, CCL5, FASLG, PPP2R2B, and UHRF1) were also differentially expressed. All have been previously associated with HRT or estrogenic regulation, but not with HRT-associated DNA methylation. All five genes were associated with bone mineral content (BMC), and ABCA1, FASLG, and UHRF1 were also associated with body adiposity. Our study is the first to show that HRT associates with genome-wide DNA methylation alterations in WBCs. Moreover, we show that five differentially expressed genes with DMRs associate with clinical measures, including body fat percentage, lean body mass, bone mass, and blood lipids. Our results indicate that at least part of the known beneficial HRT effects on body composition and bone mass may be regulated by DNA methylation associated alterations in gene expression in circulating WBCs.

  • 30.
    Bahram, Fuad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    VEGF-mediated signal transduction in lymphatic endothelial cells2010In: Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology / ISP, ISSN 0928-4680, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 253-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VEGF family of angiogenic ligands consists of VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD and placenta growth factor, PlGF. These growth factors bind in an overlapping pattern to three receptor tyrosine kinases, denoted VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3. Originally, VEGFA (the prototype VEGF) was described as a master regulator of vascular endothelial cell biology in vitro and in vivo, transducing its effect through VEGFR2. VEGFA, VEGFB and PlGF bind to VEGFR1, which is a negative regulator of endothelial cell function at least during embryogenesis. VEGFC and VEGFD were identified as lymphatic endothelial factors, acting via VEGFR3. With time, the very clear distinction between the roles of the VEGF ligands in angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis has given way for a more complex pattern. It seems that the biology of the different VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 ligands overlaps quite extensively and that both receptor types contribute to angiogenesis as well as lymphangiogenesis. This paradigm shift in our understanding is due to the access to more sophisticated reagents and techniques revealing dynamic and plastic expression of ligands and receptors in different physiological and pathological conditions. Moreover, knowledge on the important role of VEGF coreceptors, the neuropilins, in regulating the responsiveness to VEGF has changed our perception on the mechanism of VEGF signal transduction. This review will primarily focus on the properties of VEGR3, its signal transduction and the resulting biology.

  • 31.
    Bakall, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Analysis of the Gene and Protein Causing Best Macular Dystrophy2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Best macular dystrophy (BMD) is an autosomal dominant inherited eye disease with a juvenile onset. Accumulation of the pigment lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium can later cause macular degeneration and loss of vision. BMD have histopathologic similarities with age-related macular degeneration, the most common cause of blindness among elderly. BMD diagnosis is made with fundus examination and electrophysiology. The VMD2 gene, causing BMD, has previously been localized to 11q13 using linkage and recombination of a 12 generation family with BMD.

    In this study the genetic region has been further narrowed using polymorphic markers in the BMD family. A human homolog for a C. elegans protein family, expressed in retina, was identified as the VMD2 gene. It has a 1755 bp open reading frame with 11 exons and encodes a 585 amino acid protein called bestrophin. Mutation analysis of the VMD2 gene in BMD families from Sweden, Denmark and Netherlands revealed 15 missense mutations, altering single amino acids in bestrophin, accumulating in the N-terminal half of the protein. VMD2 expression analysis with in situ hybridization revealed specific localization in the retinal pigment epithelium and Northern blot showed expression in retina and brain. Clinical and genetic analysis of a BMD family with generally late onset revealed a novel bestrophin mutation.

    Analysis of mouse Vmd2 and bestrophin during development showed presence of mouse bestrophin in retinal pigment epithelium at postnatal day 10 and in photoreceptor outer segments during the entire postnatal period. Vmd2 expression levels were highest around birth.

    List of papers
    1. Identification of the gene responsible for Best macular dystrophy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of the gene responsible for Best macular dystrophy
    Show others...
    1998 In: Nat Genet, Vol. 19, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90081 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-12-17 Created: 2002-12-17Bibliographically approved
    2. The mutation spectrum of the bestrophin protein - functional implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The mutation spectrum of the bestrophin protein - functional implications
    Show others...
    1999 In: Hum Genet, Vol. 104, p. 383-389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90082 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-12-17 Created: 2002-12-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy caused by a new mutation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy caused by a new mutation
    Show others...
    2001 In: Ophthalmic Genet, Vol. 22, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90083 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-12-17 Created: 2002-12-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Mouse Vmd2 expression and bestrophin localization during normal development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mouse Vmd2 expression and bestrophin localization during normal development
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90084 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-12-17 Created: 2002-12-17 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 32.
    Balciuniene, Jorune
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Genetic studies of two inherited human phenotypes: Hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the identification of genetic factors underlying two inherited human phenotypes: hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity.

    Non-syndromic hearing loss segregating in a Swedish family was tested for linkage to 13 previously reported candidate loci for hearing disabilities. Linkage was found to two loci: DFNA12 (llq22-q24) and DFNA2 (lp32). A detailed analysis of the phenotypes and haplotypes shared by the affected individuals supported the hypothesis of digenic inheritance of hearing disability in the Swedish family. Mutation screening of α-tectorin, a gene residing within the DFNA12 region revealed a mutation of a conserved amino acid (Cys to Ser), that segregated with the disease. The identification of the mutation added support to the involvement of α-tectorin in hearing disabilities. In contrast, no mutations were identified in two candidate genes at the DFNA2 locus, that were reported to cause hearing loss in other families. It is possible that the DFNA2 locus contains a third, not yet identified, hearing loss gene.

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and B (MAOB) catalyze the degradation of certain neurotransmitters in the central nervous system and are associated with specific behavioral and neuropsychiatric human traits. Activity levels of both monoamine oxidases (MAO) are highly variable among humans and are determined by unknown genetic factors. This study investigated the relationship of different MAO alleles with MAO mRNA levels and enzyme activity in human brain. Several novel DNA polymorphisms were identified in a group of Swedish individuals. Haplotypes containing several closely located MAOA polymorphisms were assessed in Asian, African, and Caucasian populations. The haplotype distribution and diversity pattern found among the three populations supported the occurrence of a bottleneck during the dispersion of modem humans from Africa.

    Allelic association studies conducted on postmortem human brain samples, revealed the association between a SNP in the MAOB intron 13, and different levels of both MAO enzyme activities. This suggested that this SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with at least one novel functional DNA polymorphism that controls MAO enzyme activities in human brain. The identification of functional polymorphisms regulating the activity of these enzymes will help to elucidate the involvement of MAO in human behavior and neuropsychiatric conditions.

  • 33.
    Bandstein, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The role of genetics in regulation of weight loss and food intake2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While obesity is a world leading health problem, the most efficient treatment option for severely obese patients is Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. However, there are large inter-individual differences in weight loss after RYGB surgery. The reasons for this are not yet elucidated and the role of genetics in weight loss-regulation is still not fully understood. The main aim for this thesis was to investigate the effects of common obesity-associated genetic variants and their effect on weight loss and food intake.

    We examined if the weight loss two years following RYGB surgery depends on the  FTO genotype, as well as pre-surgery vitamin D status. For FTO AA-carriers, the surgery resulted in a 3% per-allele increased excess BMI loss (EBMIL; P=0.02). When split by vitamin D baseline status, the EBMIL of vitamin D deficient patients carrying AA exceeded that of vitamin D deficient patients carrying TT by 14% (P=0.03). No such genotypic differences were found in patients without pre-surgery vitamin D deficiency.

    As the influence of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms may be small, we identified a novel method to combine SNPs into a genetic risk score (GRS). Using the random forest model, SNPs with high impact on weight loss after RYGB surgery were filtered out. An up to 11% lower EBMIL with higher risk score was estimated for the GRS model (p=0.026) composed of seven BMI-associated SNPs (closest genes: MC4R, TMEM160, PTBP2, NUDT3, TFAP2B, ZNF608 and MAP2K5).

    Pre-surgical hunger feelings were found to be associated with EBMIL and the SNP rs4846567. Before surgery, patients filled out the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and were genotyped for known BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) associated SNPs. Patients with the lowest hunger scores had up to 32% greater EBMIL compared to the highest scoring patients (P=0.002). TT-allele carriers of rs4846567 showed a 58% lower hunger feelings. TT- carriers also showed a 51% decrease in disinhibition, but no significant impact on cognitive restraint was observed.

    Due to the association of eating behaviour and weight loss, acute effects on DNA methylation in response to a food intake intervention of a standardized meal were also investigated.

    After food intake, 1832 CpG sites were differentially methylated compared to the baseline after multiple testing correction. When adjusted for white blood cell fractions, 541 CpG sites remained. This may be interpreted as that the immune system is playing an active role in the response to food intake and highlights the dynamic nature of DNA-methylation.

    These findings will contribute to a better care for morbidly obese patients. Post-surgical treatment may be optimized so that patients with a less favourable genetic profile may receive additional support for weight loss and weight management. This may be considered as a step in the transition towards personalized medicine.

    List of papers
    1. The Role of FTO and Vitamin D for the Weight Loss Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of FTO and Vitamin D for the Weight Loss Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Patients
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    2015 (English)In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 2071-2077Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A recent study in children demonstrated that the rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene influences prospective weight gain, however, only in those who were vitamin D-deficient. If this might also be the case for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), surgery-induced weight loss is however unknown. The objective of this study is to examine if the magnitude of RYGB surgery-induced weight loss after 2 years depends on patients' FTO rs9939609 genotype (i.e., TT, AT, and AA) and presurgery vitamin D status (< 50 nmol/L equals deficiency). Before and at 24 months after RYGB surgery, BMI was measured in 210 obese patients (mean BMI 45 kg/m(2), 72 % females). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were also repeatedly measured. Following surgery, vitamin D was supplemented. Possible weight loss differences between genotypes were tested with multiple linear regressions. The per-allele effect of each FTO A-allele on excessive BMI loss (EBMIL) was 3 % (P = 0.02). When split by baseline status, the EBMIL of vitamin D-deficient patients carrying AA exceeded that of vitamin D-deficient patients carrying TT by similar to 14 % (P = 0.03). No such genotypic differences were found in patients without presurgery vitamin D deficiency. Post-surgery serum levels of vitamin D did not differ between groups. Our data suggest that presurgery vitamin D levels influence the size of genotype effects of FTO rs9939609 on RYGB surgery-induced weight loss in obese patients.

    Keywords
    Vitamin D, FTO, RYGB, Weight loss, Bariatric surgery
    National Category
    Surgery Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266692 (URN)10.1007/s11695-015-1644-4 (DOI)000362578700049 ()25724814 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain FoundationNovo Nordisk
    Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    2. A genetic risk score is associated with weight loss following Roux-Y gastric bypass surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A genetic risk score is associated with weight loss following Roux-Y gastric bypass surgery
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 2183-2189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. Weight loss after surgery is, however, highly variable and genetically influenced. Genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We aimed to identify two genetic risk scores (GRS) composed of weighted BMI and WHR-associated SNPs to estimate their impact on excess BMI loss (EBMIL) after RYGB surgery. Two hundred and thirty-eight obese patients (BMI 45.1 +/- 6.2 kg/m(2), 74 % women), who underwent RYGB, were genotyped for 35 BMI and WHR-associated SNPs and were followed up after 2 years. SNPs with high impact on post-surgical weight loss were filtered out using a random forest model. The filtered SNPs were combined into a GRS and analyzed in a linear regression model. An up to 11 % lower EBMIL with higher risk score was estimated for two GRS models (P = 0.026 resp. P = 0.021) composed of seven BMI-associated SNPs (closest genes: MC4R, TMEM160, PTBP2, NUDT3, TFAP2B, ZNF608, MAP2K5, GNPDA2, and MTCH2) and of three WHR-associated SNPs (closest genes: HOXC13, LYPLAL1, and DNM3-PIGC). Patients within the lowest GRS quartile had higher EBMIL compared to patients within the other three quartiles in both models. We identified two GRSs composed of BMI and WHR-associated SNPs with significant impact on weight loss after RYGB surgery using random forest analysis as a SNP selection tool. The GRS may be useful to pre-surgically evaluate the risks for patients undergoing RYGB surgery.

    Keywords
    Genetic risk score; Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery; Obesity; Random forest model; Post-operative weight loss
    National Category
    Medical Genetics
    Research subject
    Bioinformatics; Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295627 (URN)10.1007/s11695-016-2072-9 (DOI)000381759900028 ()26832135 (PubMedID)
    External cooperation:
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilNovo NordiskThe Swedish Brain Foundation
    Available from: 2016-06-08 Created: 2016-06-08 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    3. A genetic variant in proximity to the gene LYPLAL1 is associated with lower hunger feelings and increased weight loss following Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A genetic variant in proximity to the gene LYPLAL1 is associated with lower hunger feelings and increased weight loss following Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery
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    2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 1050-1055Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Bariatric surgery is the most efficient treatment of severe obesity. We investigated to what extent BMI- or waist-hip ratio (WHR)-related genetic variants are associated with excess BMI loss (EBMIL) two years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, and elucidated the affected biological pathways.

    Methods: Two-hundred fifty-one obese patients (age: 4310.7, preoperative BMI: 45.16.1kg/m(2), 186 women) underwent RYGB surgery and were followed up after two years with regard to BMI. Patients were genotyped for 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were investigated with regard to their impact on response to RYGB and preoperatively measured Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) scores.

    Results: Homozygous T carriers of the SNP rs4846567 in proximity to the Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1) gene showed a 7% higher EBMIL compared to wild-type and heterozygous carriers (p=0.031). TT-allele carriers showed furthermore lower scores for Hunger (74%, p<0.001), lower Disinhibition (53%, p<0.001), and higher Cognitive restraint (21%, p=0.017) than GG/GT carriers in the TFEQ. Patients within the lowest quartile of Hunger scores had a 32% greater EBMIL compared to patients in the highest quartile (p<0.001).

    Conclusion: The LYPLAL1 genotype is associated with differences in eating behavior and loss of extensive body weight following RYGB surgery. Genotyping and the use of eating behavior-related questionnaires may help to estimate the RYGB-associated therapy success.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295634 (URN)10.3109/00365521.2016.1166519 (DOI)000381406800006 ()27181159 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Brain Foundation
    Available from: 2016-06-08 Created: 2016-06-08 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Major difference in DNA methylation in blood between fasted and postprandial state; before and 160 min after meal
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Major difference in DNA methylation in blood between fasted and postprandial state; before and 160 min after meal
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295636 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-06-08 Created: 2016-06-08 Last updated: 2017-05-18Bibliographically approved
  • 34.
    Bandstein, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ernst, Barbara
    eSwiss Medical & Surgical Center, Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, St. Gallen, Switzerland..
    Thurnheer, Martin
    eSwiss Medical & Surgical Center, Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, St. Gallen, Switzerland..
    Schultes, Bernd
    eSwiss Medical & Surgical Center, Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A genetic variant in proximity to the gene LYPLAL1 is associated with lower hunger feelings and increased weight loss following Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 1050-1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Bariatric surgery is the most efficient treatment of severe obesity. We investigated to what extent BMI- or waist-hip ratio (WHR)-related genetic variants are associated with excess BMI loss (EBMIL) two years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, and elucidated the affected biological pathways.

    Methods: Two-hundred fifty-one obese patients (age: 4310.7, preoperative BMI: 45.16.1kg/m(2), 186 women) underwent RYGB surgery and were followed up after two years with regard to BMI. Patients were genotyped for 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were investigated with regard to their impact on response to RYGB and preoperatively measured Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) scores.

    Results: Homozygous T carriers of the SNP rs4846567 in proximity to the Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1) gene showed a 7% higher EBMIL compared to wild-type and heterozygous carriers (p=0.031). TT-allele carriers showed furthermore lower scores for Hunger (74%, p<0.001), lower Disinhibition (53%, p<0.001), and higher Cognitive restraint (21%, p=0.017) than GG/GT carriers in the TFEQ. Patients within the lowest quartile of Hunger scores had a 32% greater EBMIL compared to patients in the highest quartile (p<0.001).

    Conclusion: The LYPLAL1 genotype is associated with differences in eating behavior and loss of extensive body weight following RYGB surgery. Genotyping and the use of eating behavior-related questionnaires may help to estimate the RYGB-associated therapy success.

  • 35.
    Bandstein, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Voisin, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schultes, Bernd
    eSwiss Medical & Surgical Center, Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Ernst, Barbara
    eSwiss Medical & Surgical Center, Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A genetic risk score is associated with weight loss following Roux-Y gastric bypass surgery2016In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 2183-2189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. Weight loss after surgery is, however, highly variable and genetically influenced. Genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We aimed to identify two genetic risk scores (GRS) composed of weighted BMI and WHR-associated SNPs to estimate their impact on excess BMI loss (EBMIL) after RYGB surgery. Two hundred and thirty-eight obese patients (BMI 45.1 +/- 6.2 kg/m(2), 74 % women), who underwent RYGB, were genotyped for 35 BMI and WHR-associated SNPs and were followed up after 2 years. SNPs with high impact on post-surgical weight loss were filtered out using a random forest model. The filtered SNPs were combined into a GRS and analyzed in a linear regression model. An up to 11 % lower EBMIL with higher risk score was estimated for two GRS models (P = 0.026 resp. P = 0.021) composed of seven BMI-associated SNPs (closest genes: MC4R, TMEM160, PTBP2, NUDT3, TFAP2B, ZNF608, MAP2K5, GNPDA2, and MTCH2) and of three WHR-associated SNPs (closest genes: HOXC13, LYPLAL1, and DNM3-PIGC). Patients within the lowest GRS quartile had higher EBMIL compared to patients within the other three quartiles in both models. We identified two GRSs composed of BMI and WHR-associated SNPs with significant impact on weight loss after RYGB surgery using random forest analysis as a SNP selection tool. The GRS may be useful to pre-surgically evaluate the risks for patients undergoing RYGB surgery.

  • 36.
    Banér, Johan
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Genetic Analyses using Rolling Circle or PCR Amplified Padlock Probes2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Padlock probes are useful in a variety of genetic applications, some of which require that the probes are amplified in order to generate detectable signals. Two general padlock amplification methods, RCA and PCR, are discussed in this thesis.

    The isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) mechanism is described in detail as well as how a target strand affects primer extension. A mechanism to resolve the topological constraint imposed by the target strand, to which a padlock probe has been linked, is also discussed. We also present a more powerful amplification technique, termed serial circle amplification, which provides a highly precise tool for nucleic acid studies. Rolling circle products are digested to unit lengths, and each monomer converted to new circular oligonucleotides that can serve as templates in consecutive rounds of RCA. The final products are single-stranded DNA molecules, readily available for hybridization-based detection, for instance using molecular beacons or array hybridization.

    Padlock probes have the potential to be combined in large numbers for parallel gene analysis. A significant improvement of the level of multiplexed genotyping is presented using padlock probes and a molecular inversion strategy. Padlock probes containing common primer sequences along with locus-specific tag sequences were combined in multiplexed ligation reactions. After exonucleolytic selection for circular molecules, the probes were cleaved at uracil residues situated between the primer sequences, which facilitated release from the genomic DNA. A single PCR primer pair amplified all molecularly inverted probes, and the products were finally sorted on microarrays for simultaneous readout. Up to 1,500 genotypes could be detected in parallel, with sufficient signal strength for further scale-up. Finally, an application of the same parallel genotyping strategy is described where a set of padlock probes was used to study tumor induced immune responses. The distribution of TCR Vβ transcripts in tumor infiltrating T-cells and in normal control tissues were investigated in a microarray format.

  • 37.
    Barban, Nicola
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Sociol, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Coll, Oxford, England..
    Jansen, Rick
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    de Vlaming, Ronald
    Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Vaez, Ahmad
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands.;Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Primordial Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Esfahan, Iran..
    Mandemakers, Jornt J.
    Wageningen Univ Res, Sociol Consumpt & Households, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Tropf, Felix C.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Sociol, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Coll, Oxford, England..
    Shen, Xia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Edinburgh, MRC Human Genet Unit, MRC Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Wilson, James F.
    Univ Edinburgh, MRC Human Genet Unit, MRC Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Nolte, Illa M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Tragante, Vinicius
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Dept Cardiol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van der Laan, Sander W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Perry, John R. B.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Kong, Augustine
    Univ Iceland, Sch Engn & Nat Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Sect Metab Genet, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Steno Diabet Ctr, Gentofte, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Prospect Studies Asthma Childhood, COPSAC, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Albrecht, Eva
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Genet Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Yerges-Armstrong, Laura
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Div Endocrinol Diabet & Nutr, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Atzmon, Gil
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Med, Inst Aging Res, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.;Albert Einstein Coll Med, Diabet Res Ctr, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.;Albert Einstein Coll Med, Inst Aging Res, Dept Genet, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.;Univ Haifa, Dept Nat Sci, Haifa, Israel..
    Auro, Kirsi
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med FIMM, Helsinki, Finland..
    Ayers, Kristin
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Genet Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Bakshi, Andrew
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Ben-Avraham, Danny
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Inst Aging Res, Dept Genet, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Berger, Klaus
    Univ Munster, Inst Epidemiol & Social Med, Munster, Germany..
    Bergman, Aviv
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Syst & Computat Biol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.;Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Pathol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.;Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Bertram, Lars
    Univ Lubeck, Lubeck Interdisciplinary Platform Genome Analyt, Inst Neurogenet, Lubeck, Germany.;Univ Lubeck, Inst Integrat & Expt Genom, Lubeck, Germany.;Imperial Coll, Fac Med, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Bielak, Lawrence F.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Bjornsdottir, Gyda
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Bonder, Marc Jan
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, Genom Coordinat Ctr, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Broer, Linda
    Erasmus MC, Dept Internal Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Bui, Minh
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Barbieri, Caterina
    San Raffaele Res Inst, Div Genet & Cell Biol, Milan, Italy..
    Cavadino, Alana
    UCL Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London, England.;Queen Mary Univ London, Wolfson Inst Preventat Med, Ctr Environm & Prevent Med, London, England..
    Chavarro, Jorge E.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    Turman, Constance
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    Concas, Maria Pina
    CNR, UOS Sassari, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Sassari, Italy..
    Cordell, Heather J.
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Genet Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Davies, Gail
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Eibich, Peter
    Univ Oxford, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Eriksson, Nicholas
    23andMe Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    Esko, Tonu
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Eriksson, Joel
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Ctr Bone & Arthrit Res, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Falahi, Fahimeh
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Felix, Janine F.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Generat R Study Grp, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Pediat, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Fontana, Mark Alan
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Franke, Lude
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, Genom Coordinat Ctr, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Gandin, Ilaria
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Trieste, Italy..
    Gaskins, Audrey J.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA..
    Gieger, Christian
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Gunderson, Erica P.
    Kaiser Permanente Northern Calif, Div Res, Cardiovasc & Metab Condit Sect, Oakland, CA USA..
    Guo, Xiuqing
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90509 USA..
    Hayward, Caroline
    Univ Edinburgh, MRC Human Genet Unit, MRC Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    He, Chunyan
    Indiana Univ, Richard M Fairbanks Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA..
    Hofer, Edith
    Med Univ Graz, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Dept Neurol, Graz, Austria.;Med Univ Graz, Inst Med Informat Stat & Documentat, Graz, Austria..
    Huang, Hongyan
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    Joshi, Peter K.
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London, England..
    Karlsson, Robert
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kiechl, Stefan
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Neurol, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Kifley, Annette
    Univ Sydney, Dept Ophthalmol, Ctr Vis Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Westmead Inst Med Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia..
    Kluttig, Alexander
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Med Epidemiol Biostat & Informat, Halle, Saale, Germany..
    Kraft, Peter
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA.;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA..
    Lagou, Vasiliki
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Neurosci, Leuven, Belgium.;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Leuven, Belgium.;VIB, Translat Immunol Lab, Leuven, Belgium..
    Lecoeur, Cecile
    Univ Lille, CNRS, Inst Pasteur Lille, Lille, France..
    Lahti, Jari
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Coll Adv Studies, Helsinki, Finland.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland..
    Li-Gao, Ruifang
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Lind, Penelope A.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Psychiat Genet, Herston Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Liu, Tian
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Lifespan Psychol, Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Mol Genet, Dept Vertebrate Genom, Berlin, Germany..
    Makalic, Enes
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Mamasoula, Crysovalanto
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Genet Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Matteson, Lindsay
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Psychol, Minnesota Ctr Twin & Family Res, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Mbarek, Hamdi
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    McArdle, Patrick F.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Div Endocrinol Diabet & Nutr, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    McMahon, George
    Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Meddens, S. Fleur W.
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Complex Trait Genet, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Miller, Mike
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Missmer, Stacey A.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Biol, Boston, MA USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Monnereau, Claire
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Generat R Study Grp, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Pediat, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    van der Most, Peter J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Myhre, Ronny
    Inst Publ Hlth, Area Hlth Data & Digitalizat, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Oslo, Norway..
    Nalls, Mike A.
    NIA, Lab Neurogenet, US Natl Inst Hlth, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Nutile, Teresa
    CNR, Inst Genet & Biophys A Buzzati Traverso, Naples, Italy..
    Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota
    Harokopio Univ, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens, Greece..
    Porcu, Eleonora
    Cittadella Univ Monserrato, Ist Ric Genet & Biomed, CMR, Cagliari, Italy.;Univ Sassari, Dipartimento Sci Biomed, Sassari, Italy..
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Genom Common Dis, London, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England..
    Rajan, Kumar B.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Rich-Edwards, Janet
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Connors Ctr Womens Hlth & Gender Biol, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Rietveld, Cornelius A.
    Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Robino, Antonietta
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Rueedi, Rico
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Computat Biol, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Ryan, Kathleen-A
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Div Endocrinol Diabet & Nutr, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Saba, Yasaman
    Med Univ Graz, Ctr Mol Med, Inst Mol Biol & Biochem, Graz, Austria..
    Schmidt, Daniel
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Smith, Jennifer A.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Stolk, Lisette
    Erasmus MC, Dept Internal Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Streeten, Elizabeth
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Div Endocrinol Diabet & Nutr, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Toenjes, Anke
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Med, Leipzig, Germany..
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Ulivi, Sheila
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Wedenoja, Juho
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Wellmann, Juergen
    Univ Munster, Inst Epidemiol & Social Med, Munster, Germany..
    Willeit, Peter
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Neurol, Innsbruck, Austria.;Kings British Heart Fdn Ctr, Kings Coll London, London, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Yao, Jie
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90509 USA..
    Yengo, Loic
    Univ Lille, CNRS, Inst Pasteur Lille, Lille, France.;Univ Queensland, Ctr Neurogenet & Stat Genom, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Zhao, Wei
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Zhernakova, Dania V.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, Genom Coordinat Ctr, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Amin, Najaf
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Andrews, Howard
    New York State Psychiat Inst & Hosp, Data Coordinating Ctr, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Balkau, Beverley
    Univ Lille, CNRS, Inst Pasteur Lille, Lille, France..
    Barzilai, Nir
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Med, Inst Aging Res, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.;Albert Einstein Coll Med, Diabet Res Ctr, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Bergmann, Sven
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Computat Biol, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Biino, Ginevra
    Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Mol Genet, Pavia, Italy..
    Bisgaard, Hans
    Univ Copenhagen, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Prospect Studies Asthma Childhood, COPSAC, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bonnelykke, Klaus
    Univ Copenhagen, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Prospect Studies Asthma Childhood, COPSAC, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buring, Julie E.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Campbell, Harry
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Cappellani, Stefania
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Ciullo, Marina
    CNR, Inst Genet & Biophys A Buzzati Traverso, Naples, Italy.;IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Isernia, Italy..
    Cox, Simon R.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Cucca, Francesco
    Cittadella Univ Monserrato, Ist Ric Genet & Biomed, CMR, Cagliari, Italy.;Univ Sassari, Dipartimento Sci Biomed, Sassari, Italy..
    Toniolo, Daniela
    San Raffaele Res Inst, Div Genet & Cell Biol, Milan, Italy..
    Davey-Smith, George
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Dedoussis, George
    Harokopio Univ, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens, Greece..
    Deloukas, Panos
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London, England.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Princess Al Jawhara Al Brahim Ctr Excellence Res, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    de Geus, Eco J. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Gen Practice & Primary Hlth Care, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Unit Gen Practice, Helsinki, Finland.;Vasa Cent Hosp, Vaasa, Finland..
    Evans, Denis A.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Faul, Jessica D.
    Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI USA..
    Sala, Cinzia Felicita
    San Raffaele Res Inst, Div Genet & Cell Biol, Milan, Italy..
    Froguel, Philippe
    Univ Lille, CNRS, Inst Pasteur Lille, Lille, France..
    Gasparini, Paolo
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Trieste, Italy.;Sidra, Div Expt Genet, Doha, Qatar..
    Girotto, Giorgia
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Trieste, Italy.;Sidra, Div Expt Genet, Doha, Qatar..
    Grabe, Hans-Joergen
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat, Greifswald, Germany..
    Greiser, Karin Halina
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Canc Epidemiol, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Groenen, Patrick J. F.
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Erasmus Sch Econ, Econometric Inst, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    de Haan, Hugoline G.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Haerting, Johannes
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Med Epidemiol Biostat & Informat, Halle, Saale, Germany..
    Harris, Tamara B.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Heath, Andrew C.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Genet Epidemiol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Heikkila, Kauko
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med FIMM, Helsinki, Finland..
    Hofman, Albert
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    Homuth, Georg
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany..
    Holliday, Elizabeth G.
    Univ Newcastle, Sch Med & Publ Hlth, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Hunter Med Res Inst, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Hopper, John
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Hypponen, Elina
    UCL Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London, England.;Univ South Australia, Sansom Inst Hlth Res, Ctr Populat Hlth Res, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Univ South Australia, Sch Hlth Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Inst Publ Hlth, Area Hlth Data & Digitalizat, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Oslo, Norway.;Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jaddoe', Vincent W. V.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Generat R Study Grp, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Pediat, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kahonen, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere, Finland.;Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland.;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Diabet Prevent Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kajantie, Eero
    Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Childrens Hosp, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, MRC Oulu, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Kardia, Sharon L. R.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Keavney, Bernard
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Genet Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.;Univ Manchester, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Kolcic, Ivana
    Univ Split, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Split, Croatia..
    Koponen, Paivikki
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Hlth Monitoring Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kovacs, Peter
    Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, Leipzig, Germany..
    Kronenberg, Florian
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Div Genet Epidemiol, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Inst Social & Prevent Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    La Bianca, Martina
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Lachance, Genevieve
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London, England..
    Iacono, William G.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Lai, Sandra
    Cittadella Univ Monserrato, Ist Ric Genet & Biomed, CMR, Cagliari, Italy..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Univ Tampere, Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Tampere, Finland..
    Liewald, David C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.;NIHR Oxford Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford, England..
    Liu, Yongmei
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Winston Salem, NC USA..
    Luben, Robert
    Univ Cambridge, Strangeways Res Lab, Cambridge, England..
    Lucht, Michael
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland..
    Luoto, Riitta
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot, Tampere, Finland..
    Magnus, Per
    Inst Publ Hlth, Area Hlth Data & Digitalizat, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Oslo, Norway..
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Psychiat Genet, Herston Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    McGue, Matt
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA.;Univ Southern Denmark, Inst Publ Hlth, Danish Aging Res Ctr, Odense, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Inst Publ Hlth, Danish Twin Registry, Odense, Denmark..
    McQuillan, Ruth
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Medland, Sarah E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Psychiat Genet, Herston Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Meisinger, Christa
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany.;Cent Hosp Augsburg, MONICA KORA Myocardial Infarct Registry, Augsburg, Germany..
    Mellstrom, Dan
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Ctr Bone & Arthrit Res, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Tartu, Estonia..
    Traglia, Michela
    San Raffaele Res Inst, Div Genet & Cell Biol, Milan, Italy..
    Milani, Lili
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Mitchell, Paul
    Univ Sydney, Dept Ophthalmol, Ctr Vis Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Westmead Inst Med Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia..
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Genet Epidemiol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Leiden, Netherlands.;King Faisal Specialist Hosp & Res Ctr, Epidemiol Sect, Dept BESC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    de Mutsert, Renee
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Nohr, Ellen A.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Clin Res, Res Unit Gynecol & Obstet, Odense, Denmark..
    Ohlsson, Claes
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Ctr Bone & Arthrit Res, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Olsen, Porn
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Clin Epidemiol, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Ong, Ken K.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Paternoster, Lavinia
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Pattie, Alison
    Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Perola, Markus
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Peyser, Patricia A.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Pirastu, Mario
    CNR, UOS Sassari, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Sassari, Italy..
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Split, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Split, Croatia..
    Power, Chris
    UCL Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London, England..
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Raffel, Leslie J.
    Cedars Sinai Med Ctr, Med Genet Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90048 USA..
    Raikkonen, Katri
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland..
    Raitakari, Olli
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland..
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Ring, Susan M.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Roll, Kathryn
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90509 USA..
    Rudan, Igor
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Ruggiero, Daniela
    CNR, Inst Genet & Biophys A Buzzati Traverso, Naples, Italy..
    Rujescu, Dan
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Dept Psychiat, Halle, Saale, Germany..
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Schlessinger, David
    NIA, Lab Genet, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Schmidt, Helena
    Med Univ Graz, Ctr Mol Med, Inst Mol Biol & Biochem, Graz, Austria..
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Med Univ Graz, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Dept Neurol, Graz, Austria..
    Schupf, Nicole
    Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY USA.;Columbia Univ, Dept Psychiat, Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Smit, Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sorice, Rossella
    CNR, Inst Genet & Biophys A Buzzati Traverso, Naples, Italy.;IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Isernia, Italy..
    Spector, Tim D.
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London, England..
    Starr, John M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Stockl, Doris
    Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY USA.;Columbia Univ, Dept Psychiat, Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Genet Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Chair Genet Epidemiol, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Munich, Germany..
    Stumvoll, Michael
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Med, Leipzig, Germany.;Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, Leipzig, Germany..
    Swertz, Morris A.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, Genom Coordinat Ctr, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thurik, A. Roy
    Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Montpellier Business Sch, Montpellier, France..
    Timpson, Nicholas J.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Tung, Joyce Y.
    23andMe Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Internal Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Vaccargiu, Simona
    CNR, UOS Sassari, Inst Genet & Biomed Res, Sassari, Italy..
    Viikari, Jorma
    Univ Turku, Dept Med, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Div Med, Turku, Finland..
    Vitart, Veronique
    Univ Edinburgh, MRC Human Genet Unit, MRC Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Voelzke, Henry
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Dept Internal Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Vuckovic, Dragana
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Trieste, Italy.;Sidra, Div Expt Genet, Doha, Qatar..
    Waage, Johannes
    Univ Copenhagen, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Prospect Studies Asthma Childhood, COPSAC, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Wagner, Gert G.
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, German Socioecon Panel Study SOEP, Berlin, Germany.;Berlin Univ Technol TUB, Berlin, Germany..
    Wang, Jie Jin
    Univ Sydney, Dept Ophthalmol, Ctr Vis Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Westmead Inst Med Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia..
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Weir, David R.
    Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI USA..
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Willeit, Johann
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Neurol, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Wright, Alan F.
    Univ Edinburgh, MRC Human Genet Unit, MRC Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Zondervan, Krina T.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Genet & Genom Epidemiol Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Endometriosis CaRe Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Stefansson, Kari
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Krueger, Robert F.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Lee, James J.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Benjamin, Daniel J.
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA USA.;Natl Bur Econ Res, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Cesarini, David
    NYU, Dept Econ, New York, NY 10003 USA.;Res Inst Ind Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Koellinger, Philipp D.
    Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Complex Trait Genet, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    den Hoed, M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Snieder, Harold
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Mills, Melinda C.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Sociol, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Coll, Oxford, England..
    Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior2016In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 48, no 12, p. 1462-1472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.

  • 38. Barbaro, Michela
    et al.
    Soardi, Fernanda C.
    Ostberg, Linus J.
    Persson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    de Mello, Maricilda Palandi
    Wedell, Anna
    Lajic, Svetlana
    In vitro functional studies of rare CYP21A2 mutations and establishment of an activity gradient for nonclassic mutations improve phenotype predictions in congenital adrenal hyperplasia2015In: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundA detailed genotype-phenotype evaluation is presented by studying the enzyme activities of five rare amino acid substitutions (Arg233Gly, Ala265Ser, Arg341Trp, Arg366Cys and Met473Ile) identified in the CYP21A2 gene in patients investigated for Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). ObjectiveTo investigate whether the mutations identified in the CYP21A2 gene are disease causing and to establish a gradient for the degree of enzyme impairment to improve prediction of patient phenotype. Design and patientsThe CYP21A2 genes of seven patients investigated for CAH were sequenced and five mutations were identified. The mutant proteins were expressed in vitro in COS-1 cells, and the enzyme activities towards the two natural substrates were determined to verify the disease-causing state of the mutations. The in vitro activities of these rare mutations were also compared with the activities of four mutations known to cause nonclassic CAH (Pro30Leu, Val281Leu, Pro453Ser and Pro482Ser) in addition to an in silico structural evaluation of the novel mutants. Main outcome measureTo verify the disease-causing state of novel mutations. ResultsFive CYP21A2 mutations were identified (Arg233Gly, Ala265Ser, Arg341Trp, Arg366Cys and Met473Ile). All mutant proteins exhibited enzyme activities above 5%, and four mutations were classified as nonclassic and one as a normal variant. By comparing the investigated protein changes with four common mutations causing nonclassic CAH, a gradient for the degree of enzyme impairment could be established. Studying rare mutations in CAH increases our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms that render a mutation pathogenic. It also improves phenotype predictions and genetic counselling for future generations.

  • 39.
    Baskin, Berivan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Choufani, Sanaa
    Chen, Yi-an
    Shuman, Cheryl
    Parkinson, Nicole
    Lemyre, Emmanuelle
    Stavropoulos, Dimitri J
    Ray, Peter N
    Weksberg, Rosanna
    High frequency of copy number variations (CNVs) in the chromosome 11p15 region in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome2014In: Human Genetics, ISSN 0340-6717, E-ISSN 1432-1203, Vol. 133, no 3, p. 321-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an overgrowth and tumor predisposition syndrome is clinically heterogeneous. Its variable presentation makes molecular diagnosis particularly important for appropriate counseling of patients with respect to embyronal tumor risk and recurrence risk. BWS is characterized by macrosomia, omphalocele, and macroglossia. Additional clinical features can include hemihyperplasia, embryonal tumors, umbilical hernia, and ear anomalies. BWS is etiologically heterogeneous arising from dysregulation of one or both of the chromosome 11p15.5 imprinting centers (IC) and/or imprinted growth regulatory genes on chromosome 11p15.5. Most BWS cases are sporadic and result from loss of maternal methylation at imprinting center 2 (IC2), gain of maternal methylation at imprinting center 1 (IC1) or paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). Heritable forms of BWS (15%) have been attributed mainly to mutations in the growth suppressor gene CDKN1C, but have also infrequently been identified in patients with copy number variations (CNVs) in the chromosome 11p15.5 region. Four hundred and thirty-four unrelated BWS patients referred to the molecular diagnostic laboratory were tested by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Molecular alterations were detected in 167 patients, where 103 (62%) showed loss of methylation at IC2, 23 (14%) had gain of methylation at IC1, and 41 (25%) showed changes at both ICs usually associated with paternal UPD. In each of the three groups, we identified patients in whom the abnormalities in the chromosome 11p15.5 region were due to CNVs. Surprisingly, 14 patients (9%) demonstrated either deletions or duplications of the BWS critical region that were confirmed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array analysis. The majority of these CNVs were associated with a methylation change at IC1. Our results suggest that CNVs in the 11p15.5 region contribute significantly to the etiology of BWS. We highlight the importance of performing deletion/duplication testing in addition to methylation analysis in the molecular investigation of BWS in order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of this disorder, and to provide accurate genetic counselling.

  • 40.
    Baskin, Berivan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Hosp Sick Children, Dept Pediat Lab Med, Toronto, Canada.
    Kalia, Lorraine V.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Morton & Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clin, Toronto, Canada; Toronto Western Hosp, Edmond J Safra Program Parkinsons Dis, Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Univ Hlth Network, Div Neurol, Dept Med, Toronto, Canada.
    Banwell, Brenda L.
    Univ Philadelphia, Perelman Sch Med, Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA.
    Ray, Peter N.
    Hosp Sick Children, Dept Pediat Lab Med, Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Dept Mol Genet, Toronto, Canada.
    Yoon, Grace
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Dept Pediat, Div Clin & Metab Genet, Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Dept Pediat, Div Neurol, Toronto, Canada.
    Complex genomic rearrangement in SPG11 due to a DNA replication-based mechanism2017In: Movement Disorders, ISSN 0885-3185, E-ISSN 1531-8257, Vol. 32, p. 1792-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Baskin, Berivan
    et al.