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  • 1.
    Aarnio, Pauliina
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci Global Hlth & Dev, Kalevantie 4, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Dept Int Hlth, Tampere, Finland.
    Kulmala, Teija
    Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Child Hlth Res Unit, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Dept Int Hlth, Tampere, Finland.
    Olsson, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Husband's role in handling pregnancy complications in Mangochi District, Malawi: A call for increased focus on community level male involvement2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 16, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the current study is to provide information about husbands' role in decision-making and healthcare seeking in cases of pregnancy complications in Mangochi district, Malawi with an analysis of qualitative interviews using the concepts of "capital" and "field" from Bourdieu's social field theory. Study design: Twelve husbands and wives who had experienced pregnancy complications and six key informants from a semi-rural area of Mangochi district were interviewed individually. Thematic analysis was conducted based on the concepts of capital and field in Bourdieu's social field theory. Results: Husbands have significant economic and symbolic capital in decisions about healthcare seeking during instances of pregnancy complications as a result of their roles as father, head of the household and main income earner. Lack of money is the only acceptable reason for husbands to deny their wives healthcare. Husbands have limited access to knowledge of maternal health, which can compromise their decisions about seeking healthcare. Joint decision-making within families can be bypassed to allow for prompt healthcare seeking in emergencies. Conclusions: Husbands are important decision makers regarding seeking healthcare for pregnancy complications because of their economic and symbolic power and despite their limited access to knowledge of maternal health. Maternal healthcare seeking practices would benefit from wives gaining an empowered role as well as improved knowledge of maternal health among husbands.

  • 2.
    Aarnio, Riina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: Including clinical and health economic aspects2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer. HPV testing has higher sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) than cytology, resulting in more effective screening. As HPV testing also offers an opportunity for self-sampling, it could serve as an even more effective and cost-effective method of cervical screening.

    First, we compared repeated self-sampling for HPV testing with Pap smear cytology in detection of CIN2+ in primary cervical screening for women aged 30–49 years (n=36 390). We found a more than twofold higher detection rate of CIN2+ and a fourfold higher detection rate of CIN2 with self-sampling compared with cytology. However, no difference was seen between the arms in the detection rate of CIN3+. It thus seems that CIN is detected at an earlier stage with self-sampling than with cytology, but the impact of this needs to be further explored.

    Second, as management of HPV-positive women with normal cytology results is a challenge, we wanted to evaluate the proportion of cases of histological CIN2+ in these women. In this prospective study we performed LEEP and found that 15% (6/40) of the women had undetected CIN2+. These findings can be used in counseling women about the risk of cervical cancer and helping clinicians in decisions on management.

    Third, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis on the same study population as in Study I. Self-sampling for HPV testing resulted in a higher participation rate and more detected cases of CIN2+ at a lower cost and was regarded as more cost-effective than Pap smear cytology in cervical screening. These results can guide policy-makers when planning future screening programs.

    Fourth, we compared self-sampling with sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing in detection of CIN2+, using a combination of an FTA card as storage medium and a PCR-based HPV test (hpVIR) in women aged 30–60 years (n=11 951). No difference in the detection rates of histological CIN2+ was found between the arms.

    Taken together, self-sampling resulted in a higher participation rate than sampling by medical professionals in cervical screening and that triage with repeated self-sampling resulted in high compliance and detection rate of CIN2+. As repeated self-sampling for HPV testing was also cost-effective, it could serve as an attractive alternative in the development of future cervical screening programs. More research is needed on how to refine the management of HPV-positive women by self-sampling only.

    List of papers
    1. Randomised study shows that repeated self-sampling and HPV test has more than two-fold higher detection rate of women with CIN2+ histology than Pap smear cytology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Randomised study shows that repeated self-sampling and HPV test has more than two-fold higher detection rate of women with CIN2+ histology than Pap smear cytology
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 896-904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    This randomised study compared the detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-positive (CIN2+) based on histology in women performing repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid (VF) for human papillomavirus (HPV) test with a control group following the ordinary screening by Pap smear cytology.

    Methods:

    36390 women aged 30–49 years scheduled for invitation to organised screening were randomised in two groups, one to perform self-sampling of VF for HPV test (n=17 997, HPV arm) and the other group to perform screening by PAP smear cytology (n=18 393, control arm). HPV positive women in the HPV arm repeated the self-sampling and the HPV test on average 4.4 months later and those with two consecutive positive HPV tests were referred to colposcopy. Outcome was CIN2+ based on histology during 18-month follow-up.

    Results:

    Participation rate was 47% in the HPV arm and 39% in the control arm. The HPV prevalence in the first self-sampling was 6.9%, and 71% of these women were HPV positive in their second test. For the per-protocol approach, cumulative prevalence of histological CIN2+ in the HPV arm was 20.2 per 1000 women screened as compared to 10.8 in the control arm. The cumulative prevalence of CIN2+ diagnosed per 1000 years screened was 160.8 in the HPV arm as compared with 25.4 in the control arm.

    Conclusions:

    Repeated self-sampling of VF and HPV test had more than a two-fold higher discovery rate of CIN2+ per 1000 women screened as compared with PAP smear cytology.

    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367087 (URN)10.1038/bjc.2017.485 (DOI)000427945800030 ()29438367 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF)
    Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2020-03-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: European journal of obstetrics & gynecology and reproductive biology: X, ISSN 2590-1613, Vol. 3, article id 100042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Investigation via cytology and colposcopy have lower sensitivity than HPV testing in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Despite normal cytology and colposcopy findings women with persistent HPV infection have an increased risk of CIN2+. The aim of the study was to evaluate the proportion of histologically confirmed CIN2+ in women with persistent HPV infection and normal Pap smears.

    Study design: From April 2013 until March 2016 we prospectively recruited 91 women over 40 years with persistent HPV infection without any abnormalities in cytology. Of these, 40 women attended a gynecological examination including an HPV test, Pap smear, endocervical cytology, colposcopy with biopsies and diagnostic loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Biopsy and LEEP samples were subjected to histological examination.

    Results: CIN2+ was verified by histological examination of the LEEP sample in 6/40 (15%) of the women. All the cytological samples were normal and none of the biopsies confirmed CIN2+. Only 19/40 women still had a persistent HPV infection at the study visit. None of the 21/40 women who had cleared their HPV infection at the study visit had CIN2+ in histology of the LEEP sample.

    Conclusions: A persistent HPV infection needs to be monitored despite normal Pap smears, since 6/40 (15%) women older than 40 years, was revealed to have an undiagnosed CIN2+ when LEEP was performed. Counseling women regarding the risk of cervical cancer and the expected effect of an eventual LEEP can help them to make an optimal informed choice.

    Keywords
    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Colposcopy, Human papillomavirus, Loop electrical excision procedure, Transformation zone
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400770 (URN)10.1016/j.eurox.2019.100042 (DOI)31404426 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-03-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 645Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended in primary cervical screening to improve cancer prevention. An advantage of HPV testing is that it can be performed on self-samples, which could increase population coverage and result in a more efficient strategy to identify women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Our objective was to assess whether repeated self-sampling for HPV testing is cost-effective in comparison with Pap smear cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more (CIN2+) in increasing participation rate in primary cervical screening.

    Methods

    A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was performed on data from a previously published randomized clinical study including 36 390 women aged 30–49 years. Participants were randomized either to perform repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid for HPV testing (n = 17 997, HPV self-sampling arm) or to midwife-collected Pap smears for cytological analysis (n = 18 393, Pap smear arm).

    Results

    Self-sampling for HPV testing led to 1633 more screened women and 107 more histologically diagnosed CIN2+ at a lower cost vs. midwife-collected Pap smears (€ 228 642 vs. € 781 139). 

    Conclusions

    This study projected that repeated self-sampling for HPV testing increased participation and detection of CIN2+ at a lower cost than midwife-collected Pap smears in primary cervical screening. Offering women a home-based self-sampling may therefore be a more cost-effective alternative than clinic-based screening.

     

    Keywords
    Self-sampling, HPV testing, primary cervical screening, cost-effectiveness, CIN2+, precancerous lesion, cervical cancer
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405549 (URN)10.1186/s12885-020-07085-9 (DOI)000552814200003 ()32660432 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2015-02711Swedish Cancer Society, 19 0008Pj 01 H
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-10-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 148, no 12, p. 3051-3059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Primary screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) test is more effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence than cytology and it also offers the opportunity to self-sample. We conducted a randomized study to compare vaginal self-sampling with cervical sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing concerning prevalence of HPV and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) or grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in primary screening. In total, 11 951 women aged 30-60 years were randomized into two groups, 5961 for self-sampling (SS arm) and 5990 for sampling by medical professionals (SMP arm). Sampling was performed with a RoversViba-brush in the SS arm and a cytobrush in the SMP arm. All samples were applied to an indicating FTA elute card and analyzed for HPV using a clinically validated real-time PCR test (hpVIR). All HPV-positive women performed repeated sampling about 6 months later using the same procedure as used initially. All HPV-positive women in the second sampling were referred to colposcopy. The prevalence of HPV in the first test did not differ between the SS arm (6.8%, 167/2466) and the SMP arm (7.8%, 118/1519) (P = .255). The prevalence of CIN2+ per 1000 screened women was 17 (43/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 13-24) in the SS arm and 21 (32/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 15-30) in the SMP arm. For CIN3+, the prevalence per 1000 screened women was 14 (35/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 10-20) in the SS arm and 15 (23/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 10-23) in the SMP arm. In conclusion, self-sampling and sampling by medical professionals showed the same prevalence of HPV and detection rate of CIN2+ and CIN3+ in histology.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2021
    Keywords
    Self-sampling, HPV test, Primary cervical screening
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405547 (URN)10.1002/ijc.33482 (DOI)000618718900001 ()33497465 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
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  • 3.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Isacson, Isabella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sanner, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study2021In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 148, no 12, p. 3051-3059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) test is more effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence than cytology and it also offers the opportunity to self-sample. We conducted a randomized study to compare vaginal self-sampling with cervical sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing concerning prevalence of HPV and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) or grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in primary screening. In total, 11 951 women aged 30-60 years were randomized into two groups, 5961 for self-sampling (SS arm) and 5990 for sampling by medical professionals (SMP arm). Sampling was performed with a RoversViba-brush in the SS arm and a cytobrush in the SMP arm. All samples were applied to an indicating FTA elute card and analyzed for HPV using a clinically validated real-time PCR test (hpVIR). All HPV-positive women performed repeated sampling about 6 months later using the same procedure as used initially. All HPV-positive women in the second sampling were referred to colposcopy. The prevalence of HPV in the first test did not differ between the SS arm (6.8%, 167/2466) and the SMP arm (7.8%, 118/1519) (P = .255). The prevalence of CIN2+ per 1000 screened women was 17 (43/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 13-24) in the SS arm and 21 (32/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 15-30) in the SMP arm. For CIN3+, the prevalence per 1000 screened women was 14 (35/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 10-20) in the SS arm and 15 (23/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 10-23) in the SMP arm. In conclusion, self-sampling and sampling by medical professionals showed the same prevalence of HPV and detection rate of CIN2+ and CIN3+ in histology.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Wikström, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology2019In: European journal of obstetrics & gynecology and reproductive biology: X, ISSN 2590-1613, Vol. 3, article id 100042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Investigation via cytology and colposcopy have lower sensitivity than HPV testing in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Despite normal cytology and colposcopy findings women with persistent HPV infection have an increased risk of CIN2+. The aim of the study was to evaluate the proportion of histologically confirmed CIN2+ in women with persistent HPV infection and normal Pap smears.

    Study design: From April 2013 until March 2016 we prospectively recruited 91 women over 40 years with persistent HPV infection without any abnormalities in cytology. Of these, 40 women attended a gynecological examination including an HPV test, Pap smear, endocervical cytology, colposcopy with biopsies and diagnostic loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Biopsy and LEEP samples were subjected to histological examination.

    Results: CIN2+ was verified by histological examination of the LEEP sample in 6/40 (15%) of the women. All the cytological samples were normal and none of the biopsies confirmed CIN2+. Only 19/40 women still had a persistent HPV infection at the study visit. None of the 21/40 women who had cleared their HPV infection at the study visit had CIN2+ in histology of the LEEP sample.

    Conclusions: A persistent HPV infection needs to be monitored despite normal Pap smears, since 6/40 (15%) women older than 40 years, was revealed to have an undiagnosed CIN2+ when LEEP was performed. Counseling women regarding the risk of cervical cancer and the expected effect of an eventual LEEP can help them to make an optimal informed choice.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Östensson, Ellinor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study2020In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 645Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended in primary cervical screening to improve cancer prevention. An advantage of HPV testing is that it can be performed on self-samples, which could increase population coverage and result in a more efficient strategy to identify women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Our objective was to assess whether repeated self-sampling for HPV testing is cost-effective in comparison with Pap smear cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more (CIN2+) in increasing participation rate in primary cervical screening.

    Methods

    A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was performed on data from a previously published randomized clinical study including 36 390 women aged 30–49 years. Participants were randomized either to perform repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid for HPV testing (n = 17 997, HPV self-sampling arm) or to midwife-collected Pap smears for cytological analysis (n = 18 393, Pap smear arm).

    Results

    Self-sampling for HPV testing led to 1633 more screened women and 107 more histologically diagnosed CIN2+ at a lower cost vs. midwife-collected Pap smears (€ 228 642 vs. € 781 139). 

    Conclusions

    This study projected that repeated self-sampling for HPV testing increased participation and detection of CIN2+ at a lower cost than midwife-collected Pap smears in primary cervical screening. Offering women a home-based self-sampling may therefore be a more cost-effective alternative than clinic-based screening.

     

  • 6.
    Aarts, Clara
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference?: A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly.

    Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates obtained from "current status" data and data "since birth" was found.

    Using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding from birth and taking into account the reasons for giving complementary feeding, the study showed that many exclusively breastfed infants had infections early in life, the incidence of which increased with age, despite continuation of exclusive breastfeeding. However, truly exclusively breastfed infants seem less likely to suffer infections than infants who receive formula in addition to breast milk. Increasing formula use was associated with an increasing likelihood of suffering respiratory illnesses. The growth of exclusively breastfed infants was similar to that of infants who were not exclusively breastfed.

    The health of newborn infants during the first year of life was associated with factors other than feeding practices alone. Some of these factors may be prenatal, since increasing birth weight was associated with an increasing likelihood of having respiratory symptoms, even in exclusively breastfed infants. However, exclusive breastfeeding was shown to be beneficial for the health of the infant even in an affluent society.

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  • 7.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: A controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, article id 28608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite global recognition that sexual violence is a violation of human rights, evidence still shows it is a pervasive problem across all societies. Promising community intervention studies in the low- and middle-income countries are limited.

    Objective: This study assessed the impact of a community-based intervention, focusing on improving the community’s knowledge and reducing social acceptability of violence against women norms with the goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence.

    Design: The strategies used to create awareness included radio programs, information, education communication materials and advocacy meetings with local leaders. The intervention took place in Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design including cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2012) and endline (2014) with men and women aged 18-49. Main outcome measures were number of reported rape cases at health facilities and the community’s knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    Results: The number of reported rape events increased by more than 50% at health facilities during the intervention. Knowledge on sexual violence increased significantly in both areas over the study period (from 57.3% to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5% to 71.9% in the comparison area; p<.001), and the net effect of the intervention between the two areas was statistically significant (6.9, 95% CI 0.2–13.5, p= 0.03). There was significant improvement in most of attitude indicators in the intervention area, but not in the comparison area. However, the intervention had no significant effect in the overall scores of acceptance attitudes in the final assessment when comparing the two areas (-2.4, 95%CI: -8.4 – 3.6, p= 0.42).

    Conclusions: The intervention had an effect on some indicators on knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence even after a short period of intervention. This finding informs the public health practitioners of the importance of combined strategies in achieving changes.

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  • 8.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). MUHAS, Dept Obstet Gynecol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). MUHAS, Dept Obstet Gynecol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    MUHAS, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Gen Practice, Trondheim, Norway.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Evaluation of a training program for health care workers to improve the quality of care for rape survivors: a quasi-experimental design study in Morogoro, Tanzania2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, article id 31735Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Sexual violence against women and children in Tanzania and globally is a human rights violation and a developmental challenge.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of training health professionals on rape management. The specific objectives were to evaluate the changes of knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence among a selected population of health professionals at primary health care level.

    DESIGN:

    A quasi-experimental design using cross-sectional surveys was conducted to evaluate health care workers' knowledge, attitude, and clinical practice toward sexual violence before and after the training program. The study involved the Kilombero (intervention) and Ulanga (comparison) districts in Morogoro region. A total of 151 health professionals at baseline (2012) and 169 in the final assessment (2014) participated in the survey. Data were collected using the same structured questionnaire. The amount of change in key indicators from baseline to final assessment in the two areas was compared using composite scores in the pre- and post-interventions, and the net intervention effect was calculated by the difference in difference method.

    RESULTS:

    Overall, there was improved knowledge in the intervention district from 55% at baseline to 86% and a decreased knowledge from 58.5 to 36.2% in the comparison area with a net effect of 53.7% and a p-value less than 0.0001. The proportion of participants who exhibited an accepting attitude toward violence declined from 15.3 to 11.2% in the intervention area but increased from 13.2 to 20.0% in the comparison area.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Training on the management of sexual violence is feasible and the results indicate improvement in healthcare workers' knowledge and practice but not attitudes. Lessons learned from this study for successful replication of such an intervention in similar settings require commitment from those at strategic level within the health service to ensure that adequate resources are made available.

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  • 9.
    Abujrais, Sandy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Ahnoff, Martin
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Carl Skottbergs gata 22B, SE-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rasmusson, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Kultima, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    A sensitive method detecting trace levels of levonorgestrel using LC-HRMS.2019In: Contraception, ISSN 0010-7824, E-ISSN 1879-0518, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 247-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method to quantify levonorgestrel (LNG) in serum.

    STUDY DESIGN: Levonorgestrel was extracted using solid phase extraction and measured using liquid chromatography (LC) HRMS.

    RESULTS: Low limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 25pg/mL and low limit of detection (LLOD) was 12.5pg/mL. Precision and accuracy bias were<10%. LNG in serum samples from Mirena® users ranged between 37 to 219pg/mL (n=12). In eight out of 22 patients with suspected intrauterine device (IUD) expulsion LNG was detected (26 to 1272pg/mL).

    CONCLUSION: A sensitive, fast and simple LC-HRMS method was developed to detect trace levels of LNG.

  • 10.
    Adam, Sumaiya
    et al.
    Univ Pretoria, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Med, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Pretoria, South Africa.;Univ Pretoria, Fac Hlth Sci, Diabet Res Ctr, Pretoria, South Africa..
    McIntyre, Harold David
    Univ Queensland, Mater Hlth, Mater Hlth Campus, South Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Tsoi, Kit Ying
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Kapur, Anil
    World Diabet Fdn, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ma, Ronald C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Inst Diabet & Obes, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Dias, Stephanie
    South African Med Res Council, Biomed Res & Innovat Platform BRIP, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Okong, Pius
    St Francis Hosp Nsambya, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Kampala, Uganda..
    Hod, Moshe
    Helen Schneider Hosp Women, Rabin Med Ctr, Petah Tiqwa, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Fac Med, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Poon, Liona C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Prince Wales Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Smith, Graeme N.
    Queens Univ, Kingston Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Kingston, ON, Canada..
    Bergman, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Obstetrics. Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Algurjia, Esraa
    World Assoc Trainees Obstet & Gynecol WATOG, Paris, France.;Elwya Matern Hosp, Baghdad, Iraq..
    O'Brien, Patrick
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Medina, Virna P.
    Univ Valle, Univ Libre, Fac Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol,Clin Imbanaco Quiron Salud, Cali, Colombia..
    Maxwell, Cynthia, V
    Univ Toronto, Maternal Fetal Med, Sinai Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Womens Coll Hosp, Ontario, ON, Canada..
    Regan, Lesley
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Rosser, Mary L.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Irving Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Domain Hlth Data & Digitalisat, Oslo, Norway..
    Hanson, Mark A.
    Univ Hosp Southampton, Inst Dev Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.;Univ Southampton, NIHR Southampton Biomed Res Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England..
    O'Reilly, Sharleen L.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Natl Matern Hosp, UCD Perinatal Res Ctr, Sch Med, Dublin, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Agr & Food Sci, Dublin, Ireland..
    McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Natl Matern Hosp, UCD Perinatal Res Ctr, Sch Med, Dublin, Ireland..
    Pregnancy as an opportunity to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus: FIGO Best Practice Advice2023In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 160, no S1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) impacts approximately 17 million pregnancies worldwide. Women with a history of GDM have an 8-10-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and a 2-fold higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with women without prior GDM. Although it is possible to prevent and/or delay progression of GDM to type 2 diabetes, this is not widely undertaken. Considering the increasing global rates of type 2 diabetes and CVD in women, it is essential to utilize pregnancy as an opportunity to identify women at risk and initiate preventive intervention. This article reviews existing clinical guidelines for postpartum identification and management of women with previous GDM and identifies key recommendations for the prevention and/or delayed progression to type 2 diabetes for global clinical practice.

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  • 11.
    Adolphson, Katja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Högberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Midwives' experiences of working conditions, perceptions of professional role and attitudes towards mothers in Mozambique2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: low- and middle-income countries still have a long way to go to reach the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. Mozambique has accomplished a reduction of maternal mortality since the 1990s, but still has among the highest in the world. A key strategy in reducing maternal mortality is to invest in midwifery. AIM: the objective was to explore midwives' perspectives of their working conditions, their professional role, and perceptions of attitudes towards mothers in a low-resource setting. SETTING: midwives in urban, suburban, village and remote areas; working in central, general and rural hospitals as well as health centres and health posts were interviewed in Maputo City, Maputo Province and Gaza Province in Mozambique. METHOD: the study had a qualitative research design. Nine semi-structured interviews and one follow-up interview were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: two main themes were found; commitment/devotion and lack of resources. All informants described empathic care-giving, with deep engagement with the mothers and highly valued working in teams. Lack of resources prevented the midwives from providing care and created frustration and feelings of insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: the midwives perceptions were that they tried to provide empathic, responsive care on their own within a weak health system which created many difficulties. The great potential the midwives possess of providing quality care must be valued and nurtured for their competency to be used more effectively.

  • 12. Aghajanova, L.
    et al.
    Altmae, S.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Giudice, L. C.
    Stanniocalcin-1 in Human Endometrium2015In: Fertility and Sterility, ISSN 0015-0282, E-ISSN 1556-5653, Vol. 103, no 2, p. E6-E7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Aghajanova, Lusine
    et al.
    Mahadevan, S
    Altmäe, Signe
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Regan, L
    Sebire, N
    Dixon, P
    Fisher, R A
    Van den Veyver, I B
    No evidence for mutations in NLRP7, NLRP2 or KHDC3L in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss or infertility2015In: Human Reproduction, ISSN 0268-1161, E-ISSN 1460-2350, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 232-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY QUESTION: Are mutations in NLRP2/7 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 2/7) or KHDC3L (KH Domain Containing 3 Like) associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or infertility?

    SUMMARY ANSWER: We found no evidence for mutations in NLRP2/7 or KHDC3L in unexplained RPL or infertility.

    WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L are known to cause biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), a rare form of pregnancy loss. NLRP2, while not associated with the BiHM pathology, is known to cause recurrent Beckwith Weidemann Syndrome (BWS).

    STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION: Ninety-four patients with well characterized, unexplained infertility were recruited over a 9-year period from three IVF clinics in Sweden. Blood samples from 24 patients with 3 or more consecutive miscarriages of unknown etiology were provided by the Recurrent Miscarriage Clinic at St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.

    PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Patients were recruited into both cohorts following extensive clinical studies. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and subject to Sanger sequencing of NLRP2, NLRP7 and KHDC3L. Sequence electropherograms were analyzed by Sequencher v5.0 software and variants compared with those observed in the 1000 Genomes, single nucleotide polymorphism database (dbSNP) and HapMap databases. Functional effects of non-synonymous variants were predicted using Polyphen-2 and sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT).

    MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: No disease-causing mutations were identified in NLRP2, NLRP7 and KHDC3L in our cohorts of unexplained infertility and RPL.

    LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Due to the limited patient size, it is difficult to conclude if the low frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms observed in the present study are causative of the phenotype. The design of the present study therefore is only capable of detecting highly penetrant mutations.

    WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The present study supports the hypothesis that mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L are specific for the BiHM phenotype and do not play a role in other adverse reproductive outcomes. Furthermore, to date, mutations in NLRP2 have only been associated with the imprinting disorder BWS in offspring and there is no evidence for a role in molar pregnancies, RPL or unexplained infertility.

    STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This study was funded by the following sources: Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (Grant SF0180044s09), Enterprise Estonia (Grant EU30020); Mentored Resident research project (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine); Imperial NIHR Biomedical Research Centre; Grant Number C06RR029965 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCCR; NIH). No competing interests declared.

  • 14.
    Ahlqvist, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Schlager, Angela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    The Association of Self-Reported Generalized Joint Hypermobility with pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is common during pregnancy but the causes remain poorly understood. Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is an inherited trait, with joint mobility beyond normal limits and is assumed to be related with PGP. The aim of this project was to study the association between self-reported GJH and the presence of PGP during pregnancy. Methods In this cohort study, 4884 Swedish-speaking women were consecutively recruited at their first visit for registration in the national antenatal screening programme in Sweden. We used the five-part questionnaire (5PQ) to assess GJH and pain drawings to identify PGP. Our primary outcome was the presence of PGP during the entire pregnancy and secondary outcomes were PGP in each trimesters. We tested the associations with logistic regression analysis, and adjusted for age and ethnicity. Results In all,2455 (50.3%) women responded to both questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported GJH was 28.7%. A higher proportion of women with GJH than women without GJH reported PGP during the entire pregnancy (47.9% vs. 41.0%), particularly in trimester 1 (31.6% vs. 22.0%). Thus, women with GJH also had higher odds of PGP during the entire pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.27: 95% CI 1.11-1.47) and in trimester 1 (aOR 1.54: 95% CI 1.20-1.96), but the associations were not statistically significant in trimester 2 (aOR 1.24: 95% CI 0.82-1.88) or trimester 3 (aOR 1.20: 95% CI 0.99-1.45). The odds of PGP in pregnancy increased with increasing numbers of positive answers to the 5PQ (pfor linear trend < 0.001) for the entire pregnancy and in trimester 1 (pfor linear trend < 0.001), but not in trimesters 2 or 3 (p = 0.13 andp = 0.06, respectively). Conclusions Compared to women with normal joint mobility, women with GJH had higher odds of reporting PGP during pregnancy and the odds increased with number of positive responses to the 5PQ. The associations were present in trimester 1 but did not reach statistical significance in trimester 2 and 3.

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  • 15.
    Ahlqvist, Viktor H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekström, Lucas D.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jónsson-Bachmann, Egill
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP. Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Reg Stockholm, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Madley-Dowd, Paul
    Univ Bristol, Ctr Acad Mental Hlth, Bristol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Neovius, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Reg Stockholm, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berglind, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, S-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;Reg Stockholm, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Caesarean section and its relationship to offspring general cognitive ability: a registry-based cohort study of half a million young male adults2022In: Evidence-Based Mental Health, ISSN 1362-0347, E-ISSN 1468-960X, Vol. 25, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A relationship between caesarean section and offspring cognitive ability has been described, but data are limited, and a large-scale study is needed.

    Objective: To determine the relationship between mode of delivery and general cognitive ability.

    Methods: A cohort of 579 244 singleton males, born between 1973 and 1987 who conscripted before 2006, were identified using the Swedish population-based registries. Their mode of delivery was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth registry. The outcome measure was a normalised general cognitive test battery (mean 100, SD 15) performed at military conscription at around age 18.

    Findings: Males born by caesarean section performed poorer compared with those born vaginally (mean score 99.3 vs 100.1; adjusted mean difference -0.84; 95% CI -0.97 to -0.72; p<0.001). Both those born by elective (99.3 vs 100.2; -0.92; 95% CI -1.24 to -0.60; p<0.001) and non-elective caesarean section (99.2 vs 100.2; -1.03; 95% CI -1.34 to -0.72; p=0.001), performed poorer than those born vaginally. In sibling analyses, the association was attenuated to the null (100.9 vs 100.8; 0.07; 95% CI -0.31 to 0.45; p=0.712). Similarly, neither elective nor non-elective caesarean section were associated with general cognitive ability in sibling analyses.

    Conclusion: Birth by caesarean section is weakly associated with a lower general cognitive ability in young adult males. However, the magnitude of this association is not clinically relevant and seems to be largely explained by familial factors shared between siblings.

    Clinical implication: Clinicians and gravidas ought not to be concerned that the choice of mode of delivery will impact offspring cognitive ability.

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  • 16.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Akerud, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Schijven, Dick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Olivier, Jocelien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Univ Groningen, Dept Behav Physiol, Groningen, Netherlands.;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Gender Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Gene Expression in Placentas From Nondiabetic Women Giving Birth to Large for Gestational Age Infants2015In: Reproductive Sciences, ISSN 1933-7191, E-ISSN 1933-7205, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 1281-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gestational diabetes, obesity, and excessive weight gain are known independent risk factors for the birth of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. However, only 1 of the 10 infants born LGA is born by mothers with diabetes or obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare placental gene expression between healthy, nondiabetic mothers (n = 22) giving birth to LGA infants and body mass index-matched mothers (n = 24) giving birth to appropriate for gestational age infants. In the whole gene expression analysis, only 29 genes were found to be differently expressed in LGA placentas. Top upregulated genes included insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, aminolevulinate synthase 2, and prolactin, whereas top downregulated genes comprised leptin, gametocyte-specific factor 1, and collagen type XVII 1. Two enriched gene networks were identified, namely, (1) lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and organismal development and (2) cellular development, cellular growth, proliferation, and tumor morphology.

  • 17.
    Ahlsvik, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rossinen, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Barnmorskors erfarenheter av att stödja och bemöta förstföderskor med förlossningsrädsla2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fear of childbirth in pregnant women waiting for their first child is affecting both mother and child. That is why it is important for the midwife’s in the antenatal care to pay attention to fear of childbirth in time and also to help the women in the best possible way. Fear of childbirth is a problem that increases which can result in complicated deliveries and sections which costs a lot of money for the community.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate midwife’s experience of supporting and responding to fear of childbirth in nulliparous women and to study what has caused the fear.

     

    Method: We conducted a qualitative interview study with 11 midwives working at antenatal clinics in mid Sweden. The interviews were analyzed with manifest content analysis.

     

    Result: Four categories were found: Different ways to communicate fear, the content of the fear, influence factor and to help and support women with fear of childbirth.  Thirteen subcategories were created and formed the categories: Expresses the fear with words, no words, thoughts about disaster, control loss, pain, complications, past experiences, abuse, mental illness, external impact, difficult to reach the woman, a challenge and strengthening the woman's self-esteem.

     

    Conclusion: Most nulliparous women express their fear of childbirth early in pregnancy, but not everyone dares to talk about it. Controll loss is described as the main motive for fear. The most common cause of fear of childbirth today is due to external factors such as media and influences from friends and family. Also today's situation of maternity ward affects women's fear of childbirth. It could be a challenge to be able to support and respond to the woman in the best way.

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  • 18.
    Ahmed, Fozia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Kamble, Prasad G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Hetty, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Fanni, Giovanni
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Vranic, Milica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Sarsenbayeva, Assel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Kristofi, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Almby, Kristina E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Svensson, Maria K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Renal Medicine.
    Pereira, Maria J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Role of Estrogen and Its Receptors in Adipose Tissue Glucose Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women2022In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 107, no 5, p. E1879-E1889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Reduced estrogen levels in postmenopausal women predispose them to metabolic side effects, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, the cellular mechanisms are not well understood.

    Objective: This work aimed to study the expression of estrogen receptors in adipose tissue from pre- and postmenopausal women and the effects of estradiol (E2) on glucose uptake of adipocytes.

    Methods: Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) obtained from pre- and postmenopausal women (19-51 and 46-75 years old, respectively) were used to measure gene expression of ESR1 and ESR2. SAT tissue was incubated with E2, and glucose uptake and estrogen receptor levels were measured. Polymorphisms in ESR1 and ESR2 were addressed in public databases to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with metabolic traits.

    Results: ESR2 expression was lower in pre- vs postmenopausal women, corresponding to lower ESR1:ESR2 gene expression ratio in postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women, the expression of ESR1 was higher in VAT than in SAT. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, ESR2 expression was lower in VAT than in SAT. In late, but not pre- or early postmenopausal women, E2 reduced glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein and increased expression of ESR2. ESR1 polymorphisms were associated with weight, body fat distribution, and total cholesterol, and ESR2 polymorphisms were associated with total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and with body fat percentage.

    Conclusion: E2 inhibits glucose utilization in human adipocytes in late postmenopausal women. Changes in glucose utilization over time since menopause may be explained by a lower ESR1:ESR2 ratio. This can have clinical implications on the timing of estrogen treatment in postmenopausal women.

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  • 19.
    Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Small, Rhonda
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.;La Trobe Univ, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Judith Lumley Ctr, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Schytt, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Dept Hlth & Caring Sci, Bergen, Norway..
    Group antenatal care compared with standard antenatal care for Somali-Swedish women: a historically controlled evaluation of the Hooyo Project2023In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e066000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Comparing language-supported group antenatal care (gANC) and standard antenatal care (sANC) for Somali-born women in Sweden, measuring overall ratings of care and emotional well-being, and testing the feasibility of the outcome measures.

    Design: A quasi-experimental trial with one intervention and one historical control group, nested in an intervention development and feasibility study.

    Setting: Midwifery-led antenatal care clinic in a mid-sized Swedish town.

    Participants: Pregnant Somali-born women (<25 gestational weeks); 64women in gANC and 81 in sANC.

    Intervention: Language-supported gANC (2017-2019). Participants were offered seven 60-minute group sessions with other Somali-born women led by one to two midwives, in addition to 15-30min individual appointments with their designated midwife.

    Outcomes: Primary outcomes were women's overall ratings of antenatal care and emotional well-being (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)) in gestational week >= 35and 2 months post partum. Secondary outcomes were specific care experiences, information received, social support, knowledge of pregnancy danger signs and obstetric outcomes.

    Results: Recruitment and retention of participants were challenging. Of eligible women, 39.3% (n=106) declined to participate. No relevant differences regarding overall ratings of antenatal care between the groups were detected (late pregnancy OR 1.42, 95% CI 0.50 to 4.16 and 6-8 weeks post partum OR 2.71, 95% CI 0.88 to 9.41). The reduction in mean EPDS score was greater in the intervention group when adjusting for differences at baseline (mean difference -1.89; 95% CI -3.73 to -0.07). Women in gANC were happier with received pregnancy and birth information, for example, caesarean section where 94.9% (n=37) believed the information was sufficient compared with 17.5% (n=7) in standard care (p<0.001) in late pregnancy.

    Conclusions: This evaluation suggests potential for language-supported gANC to improve knowledge acquisition among pregnant Somali-born women with residence in Sweden <10 years. An adequately powered randomised trial is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention.

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  • 20.
    Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Falun, Sweden..
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Small, Rhonda
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.;La Trobe Univ, Judith Lumley Ctr, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Schytt, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Bergen, Norway..
    Group antenatal care (gANC) for Somali-speaking women in Sweden - a process evaluation2022In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Language supported group antenatal care (gANC) for Somali-born women was implemented in a Swedish public ANC clinic. The women were offered seven 60-min sessions, facilitated by midwives and starting with a presentation of a selected topic, with an additional 15-min individual appointment before or after. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility for participants and midwives of implementing The Hooyo ("mother" in Somali) gANC intervention, including implementation, mechanisms of impact and contextual factors. Methods A process evaluation was performed, using The Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines for evaluating complex interventions as a framework. A range of qualitative and quantitative data sources were used including observations (n = 9), complementary, in-depth and key-informant interviews (women n = 6, midwives n = 4, interpreters and research assistants n = 3) and questionnaire data (women n = 44; midwives n = 8). Results Language-supported gANC offered more comprehensive ANC that seemed to correspond to existing needs of the participants and could address knowledge gaps related to pregnancy, birth and the Swedish health care system. The majority of women thought listening to other pregnant women was valuable (91%), felt comfortable in the group (98%) and supported by the other women (79%), and they said that gANC suited them (79%). The intervention seemed to enhance knowledge and cultural understanding among midwives, thus contributing to more women-centred care. The intervention was not successful at involving partners in ANC. Conclusions The Hooyo gANC intervention was acceptable to the Somali women and to midwives, but did not lead to greater participation by fathers-to-be. The main mechanisms of impact were more comprehensive ANC and enhanced mutual cultural understanding. The position of women was strengthened in the groups, and the way in which the midwives expanded their understanding of the participants and their narratives was promising. To be feasible at a large scale, gANC might require further adaptations and the "othering" of women in risk groups should be avoided.

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  • 21.
    Akerstrom, Magnus
    et al.
    Inst Stress Med, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sengpiel, Verena
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hadzibajramovic, Emina
    Inst Stress Med, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Ylva
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Graner, Sofie
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Pharmacoepidemiol, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Danderyd Hosp, BB Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Ola
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Paediat, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Neonatol, Malmö, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Obstetrics.
    Naurin, Elin
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Polit Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Veje, Malin
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wessberg, Anna
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Linden, Karolina
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Inst Hlth & Care Sci, POB 457, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    The COPE Staff study: Study description and initial report regarding job satisfaction, work-life conflicts, stress, and burnout among Swedish maternal and neonatal healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic2023In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 989-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo describe the study design of the COPE Staff cohort study on working conditions for maternal and neonatal healthcare workers (MNHCWs), and present baseline data regarding job satisfaction, work-life conflicts, stress, and burnout. MethodsBetween January and April 2021, 957 MNHCWs (administrative and medical staff) completed a baseline survey. Average levels of job satisfaction, work-life conflicts, stress, and burnout, and associations to perceived workload were assessed. ResultsThe average levels of job satisfaction, work-life conflicts, stress, and burnout were 68.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.3-72.8), 42.6 (95% CI 37.3-48.0), 42.0 (95% CI 37.7-46.3), and 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.2), respectively. The respondents scoring above critical values indicating clinical burnout ranged between 3% and 18%, respectively, for the four burnout sub-dimensions. Women reported significantly higher levels of stress and burnout. Younger participants had lower job satisfaction and higher levels of work-life conflicts, stress, and burnout. Higher perceived workload was significantly associated with lower job satisfaction levels and higher levels of work-life conflicts, stress, and burnout. ConclusionsOur results indicate associations between MNHCWs perceived workload and job satisfaction, work-life conflicts, stress, and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eighteen percent scored above critical values for exhaustion.

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  • 22.
    Akhter, Tansim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Carotid Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during and after Pre-eclampsia: An investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. The ‘gold standard’ for estimating cardiovascular risk - ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) - does not convincingly demonstrate this increased risk. The aim of this thesis was to examine whether high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound assessment of the individual CCA intima and media layers and calculation of the intima/media (I/M) ratio - can indicate the increased cardiovascular risk after pre-eclampsia. After validation of the method in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who have a recognized increased risk of CVD, women during and after normal and preeclamptic pregnancies were investigated.

    Assessment of the individual artery wall layers reliably demonstrated the increased cardiovascular risk in premenopausal women with SLE, while CCA-IMT did not. The artery wall layer dimensions in women with SLE were comparable to those of postmenopausal women without SLE and were 30 years older.

    Among the women with normal pregnancies negative changes to the artery wall later on in the pregnancy were seen in those with lower serum estradiol, older age, higher body mass index or higher blood pressure early in the pregnancy. About one year postpartum, both the mean intima thickness and the I/M ratio had improved, compared to values during pregnancy. These findings support the theory that normal pregnancy is a stress on the vascular system.

    Women who developed pre-eclampsia (mean age 31 years) had thicker intima layers, thinner media layers and higher I/M ratios, both at diagnosis and one year postpartum, than women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk.

    Women with a history of severe pre-eclampsia (mean age 44 years; mean 11 years since the last delivery) had thicker intima layers and higher I/M ratios than women with a history of normal pregnancies, indicating long-standing negative vascular effects.

    Assessment of individual CCA wall layers, but not of CCA-IMT, provided clear evidence of the well-known increased cardiovascular risk in women with SLE or pre-eclampsia. The method has the potential to become an important tool in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these women through early diagnosis and intervention.

    List of papers
    1. Increased carotid intima thickness and decreased media thickness in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: an investigation by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased carotid intima thickness and decreased media thickness in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: an investigation by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
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    2011 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 279-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To determine whether high-frequency ultrasound (US) yielding separate assessments of intima and media thickness gives additional information about the vascular morphology compared with the total common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT).

    METHODS:

    Using a 22 MHz US instrument, we determined the near-wall CCA-IMT, the intima and media layers, and the intima/media (I/M) ratio in 47 premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 20 healthy women, and 17 postmenopausal women (mean ages 37, 40, and 69 years, respectively).

    RESULTS:

    In SLE, the carotid intima was thicker (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 mm), the media thinner (0.45 ± 0.12 vs. 0.68 ± 0.24 mm), the I/M ratio higher (0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.20 ± 0.07) (all p < 0.0001), and the CCA-IMT lower (0.64 ± 0.13 vs. 0.80 ± 0.25 mm, p < 0.01) compared to age-matched controls. The SLE patients had a thicker carotid intima compared to the postmenopausal women (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.14 ± 0.03 mm, p < 0.0001) and a similar I/M ratio.

    CONCLUSION:

    Separate assessment of carotid artery wall layers demonstrated a thicker intima, thinner media, and a higher I/M ratio in women with SLE compared to healthy controls and indicated an artery wall status in SLE comparable to 30-years-older healthy women. Separate estimates of carotid intima and media layers may be preferable to CCA-IMT in SLE patients.

    National Category
    Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-163533 (URN)10.3109/03009742.2011.556146 (DOI)000294068000005 ()21469940 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-12-13 Created: 2011-12-13 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during Normal Pregnancy: A longitudinal study using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during Normal Pregnancy: A longitudinal study using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
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    2013 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 304, no 2, p. H229-H234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The vascular effects of normal pregnancy were investigated by estimating the intima and media thicknesses of the common carotid artery separately using 22MHz ultrasound (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 57 healthy women with normal pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes, in all three trimesters and at one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. The mean artery wall layer dimensions remained fairly constant during pregnancy but the intima thickness and I/M thickness ratio appeared to improve (decrease) postpartum (p<0.001 for both). The cardiovascular risk parameters age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure in the first trimester were associated with higher I/M ratios, especially in the second trimester, whereas higher serum estradiol levels were significantly associated with a lower I/M ratio. Changes from the first to second trimesters in I/M ratio, taking into account differential changes in intima and media thickness, were significantly (p<0.05-0.001) associated with all risk parameters tested except age, which was associated with increased intima thickness (p=0.02). Associations with third trimester values and changes from first to third trimesters were similar but less apparent. Thus, fairly constant mean artery wall layer dimensions during pregnancy appeared to improve postpartum. However, higher age, BMI or blood pressure, and lower serum estradiol levels in the first trimester appeared to negatively affect the artery wall, strongly suggesting that pregnancy has negative vascular effects in some women. A less likely explanation involves possible adaptation to physiological changes during and after pregnancy.

    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-184996 (URN)10.1152/ajpheart.00670.2012 (DOI)000313587300006 ()23125216 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Individual Common Carotid Artery Wall Layer Dimensions, but Not Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Indicate Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Women With Preeclampsia: An investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual Common Carotid Artery Wall Layer Dimensions, but Not Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Indicate Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Women With Preeclampsia: An investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
    2013 (English)In: Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 1941-9651, E-ISSN 1942-0080, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 762-768Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) during or after PE has not indicated any increased cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results We used high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) to estimate the individual common carotid artery IMTs in 55 women at PE diagnosis and in 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar stage. All were re-examined about 1 year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media, and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. PE was associated with a significantly thicker mean common carotid artery intima, thinner media, and higher I/M ratio than in normal pregnancy (mean I/M difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.25; P<0.0001). After adjustment for first trimester body mass index and mean arterial pressure, differences in intima thickness and I/M remained significant. About 1 year postpartum, these values had improved in both groups, but group differences remained significant (all adjusted P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in IMT between groups. In receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, intima thickness and I/M were strongly predictive of prevalent PE (area under the curve, approximate to 0.95), whereas IMT was not (area under the curve, 0.49). Conclusions The arteries of women with PE were negatively affected during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum compared with women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk. Estimation of intima thickness and I/M ratio seem preferable to estimation of common carotid artery IMT in imaging cardiovascular risk in PE. Results from this pilot study warrant further confirmation.

    Keywords
    Preeclampsia, cardiovascular disease, common carotid artery, high-frequency ultrasound, intima/media ratio.
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197189 (URN)10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.113.000295 (DOI)000324526900023 ()
    Available from: 2013-03-18 Created: 2013-03-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Thicknesses of individual layers of artery wall indicate increased cardiovascular risk in severe pre-eclampsia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thicknesses of individual layers of artery wall indicate increased cardiovascular risk in severe pre-eclampsia
    2014 (English)In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0960-7692, E-ISSN 1469-0705, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 675-680Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia, especially severe pre-eclampsia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. However, ultrasound assessments of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) do not convincingly demonstrate this. The aim of this study was to assess whether the individual thickness of the CCA intima and media layers and calculation of intima/media ratio (I/M) indicate an increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe pre-eclampsia.

    METHODS: The thicknesses of the CCA intima and media layers were obtained by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) in 42 women with previous severe pre-eclampsia and 44 women with previous normal pregnancies. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M are signs of a less healthy artery wall.

    RESULTS: Women with previous severe pre-eclampsia had a thicker CCA intima and a higher I/M than women with previous normal pregnancies, also after adjustment for mean arterial pressure, body mass index and CCA-IMT (all p < 0.0001). CCA-IMT did not differ significantly between the groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, intima thickness and I/M clearly discriminated between women with and without previous pre-eclampsia (c value about 0.95), whereas CCA-IMT did not (c = 0.52).

    CONCLUSIONS: Estimation of the individual CCA intima and media layers using high-frequency ultrasound and calculation of the I/M clearly demonstrated the well known increased cardiovascular risk in women with pre-eclampsia, whereas CCA-IMT did not. This method appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for imaging arterial effects and the increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe pre-eclampsia.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2014
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214565 (URN)10.1002/uog.13289 (DOI)000338986100014 ()24375803 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Erik, Karin och Gösta Selanders FoundationThuréus stiftelse för främjande av geriatrisk forskningRegion Uppsala
    Note

    Title in the list of papers of Tansim Akhter's thesis: Individual Artery Wall Layer Dimensions Indicate Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Previous Severe Preeclampsia: an investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound

    Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2024-04-18Bibliographically approved
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  • 23.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ubhayasekera, Kumari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Kullinger, Merit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Plasma levels of arginines at term pregnancy in relation to mode of onset of labor and mode of childbirth2023In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 1046-7408, E-ISSN 1600-0897, Vol. 90, no 3, article id e13767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PROBLEM: The exact biochemical mechanisms that initiate labor are not yet fully understood. Nitric oxide is a potent relaxant of uterine smooth muscles until labor starts, and its precursor is L-arginine. Asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginines, are potent NO-inhibitors. However, arginines (dimethylarginines and L-arginine) are scarcely studied in relation to labor and childbirth. We aimed to investigate arginines in women with spontaneous (SLVB) and induced (ILVB) term labor with vaginal birth and in women undergoing elective caesarean section (ECS).

    METHOD OF STUDY: Women at gestational week 16-18 were recruited to the population-based prospective cohort study BASIC at the Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Plasma samples taken at start of labor were analyzed for arginines, from SLVB (n = 45), ILVB (n = 45), and ECS (n = 45), using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Between-group differences were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test.

    RESULTS: Women with SLVB and ILVB had higher levels of ADMA (p < .0001), SDMA (p < .05) and lower L-arginines (p < .01), L-arginine/ADMA (p < .0001), and L-arginine/SDMA (p < .01, respectively <.001) compared to ECS. However, ILVB had higher ADMA (p < .0001) and lower L-arginine (p < .01), L-arginine/ADMA (p < .0001), and L-arginine/SDMA (p < .01) compared to SLVB. Results are adjusted for gestational length at birth and cervical dilatation at sampling.

    CONCLUSION: Our novel findings of higher levels of dimethylarginines in term vaginal births compared to ECS give insights into the biochemical mechanisms of labor. These findings might also serve as a basis for further studies of arginines in complicated pregnancies and labor.

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  • 24.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Obstetrics.
    Hesselman, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Obstetrics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Lindström, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Obstetrics.
    Axelsson, Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Reproductive Health.
    Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Singleton Nulliparous Spontaneous Preterm Birth with and without Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes—A National Population-Based Cohort Study2022In: American Journal of Perinatology, ISSN 0735-1631, E-ISSN 1098-8785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Preterm birth (PTB, birth before 37 gestational weeks) is the leading cause of neonatal death and a major challenge for obstetric and neonatal care. About two-thirds of PTBs are spontaneous PTB (sPTB), of which approximately 30% start with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors and maternal and perinatal outcomes in sPTB with and without PPROM.

    Study Design This is a national population-based cohort study including all singleton pregnancies in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor and vaginal births (n = 266,968) registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 2005 to 2014. sPTB with PPROM (sPTB-PPROM) and sPTB without PPROM were compared regarding risk factors and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adjustments were made for maternal age, body mass index, country of birth, smoking, chronic hypertension, pregestational and gestational diabetes, and gestational length.

    Results sPTB-PPROM (n = 5,037), compared with sPTB without PPROM (n = 8,426), was more common in women with previous spontaneous abortions, prepregnancy urinary tract infections, chronic hypertension, and gestational diabetes and had a higher risk of postpartum endometritis (aOR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.55–5.00). Infants born to women with sPTB-PPROM had a lower risk of birth asphyxia (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.43–0.83), respiratory distress syndrome (aOR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.70–1.00), retinopathy of prematurity (aOR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92–0.94), necrotizing enterocolitis (aOR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94–0.96), and higher risk of hypoglycemia (aOR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28), and hyperbilirubinemia (aOR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.19–1.38) compared with infants born to sPTB without PPROM.

    Conclusion Our findings of risk factors and distinct differences in adverse outcomes after sPTB-PPROM compared with sPTB without PPROM are of vital importance and might serve as a basis when elaborating programs for the prevention and management of PPROM.

  • 25.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Marita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Sub-clinical atherosclerosis in the common carotid artery in women with/without previous pre-eclampsia: A seven-year follow-up2019In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 290, p. 206-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, conventional common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) measurement does not reflect this. In contrast, measurement of the individual CCA intima and media thicknesses clearly indicates increased vascular risk both at diagnosis and about one year after pre-eclampsia. This study examined whether individual CCA wall layers, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and markers of endothelial dysfunction had normalized or remained unfavorable seven years after pre-eclampsia.

    METHODS: The individual CCA intima and media thicknesses were measured using 22 MHz ultrasound. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media thickness ratio (I/M) are signs of sub-clinical atherosclerosis.

    RESULTS: The median age of women with previous pre-eclampsia (cases = 23) or normal pregnancies (controls = 35) was 39/37 years. At follow-up (median about seven years), the intima remained thicker and the I/M was higher in cases than in controls [all p < 0.0001; p < 0.001 after adjustment for time to follow-up, body mass index (BMI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], whereas the CCA-IMT was illogically thinner. Further, BMI, MAP, hip circumference, abdominal height, serum endostatin and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in cases (all p < 0.05). Intima and I/M measurements were correlated with age, MAP, endostatin and apolipoprotein B, whereas no logical correlations were found for CCA-IMT.

    CONCLUSIONS: The arteries in cases but not controls were still adversely affected after seven years. Measuring intima thickness and I/M appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for demonstrating vascular risk after pre-eclampsia.

  • 26.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Marita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during Normal Pregnancy: A longitudinal study using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound2013In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 304, no 2, p. H229-H234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vascular effects of normal pregnancy were investigated by estimating the intima and media thicknesses of the common carotid artery separately using 22MHz ultrasound (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 57 healthy women with normal pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes, in all three trimesters and at one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. The mean artery wall layer dimensions remained fairly constant during pregnancy but the intima thickness and I/M thickness ratio appeared to improve (decrease) postpartum (p<0.001 for both). The cardiovascular risk parameters age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure in the first trimester were associated with higher I/M ratios, especially in the second trimester, whereas higher serum estradiol levels were significantly associated with a lower I/M ratio. Changes from the first to second trimesters in I/M ratio, taking into account differential changes in intima and media thickness, were significantly (p<0.05-0.001) associated with all risk parameters tested except age, which was associated with increased intima thickness (p=0.02). Associations with third trimester values and changes from first to third trimesters were similar but less apparent. Thus, fairly constant mean artery wall layer dimensions during pregnancy appeared to improve postpartum. However, higher age, BMI or blood pressure, and lower serum estradiol levels in the first trimester appeared to negatively affect the artery wall, strongly suggesting that pregnancy has negative vascular effects in some women. A less likely explanation involves possible adaptation to physiological changes during and after pregnancy.

  • 27.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Larsson, Marita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Thicknesses of individual layers of artery wall indicate increased cardiovascular risk in severe pre-eclampsia2014In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0960-7692, E-ISSN 1469-0705, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 675-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia, especially severe pre-eclampsia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. However, ultrasound assessments of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) do not convincingly demonstrate this. The aim of this study was to assess whether the individual thickness of the CCA intima and media layers and calculation of intima/media ratio (I/M) indicate an increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe pre-eclampsia.

    METHODS: The thicknesses of the CCA intima and media layers were obtained by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) in 42 women with previous severe pre-eclampsia and 44 women with previous normal pregnancies. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M are signs of a less healthy artery wall.

    RESULTS: Women with previous severe pre-eclampsia had a thicker CCA intima and a higher I/M than women with previous normal pregnancies, also after adjustment for mean arterial pressure, body mass index and CCA-IMT (all p < 0.0001). CCA-IMT did not differ significantly between the groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, intima thickness and I/M clearly discriminated between women with and without previous pre-eclampsia (c value about 0.95), whereas CCA-IMT did not (c = 0.52).

    CONCLUSIONS: Estimation of the individual CCA intima and media layers using high-frequency ultrasound and calculation of the I/M clearly demonstrated the well known increased cardiovascular risk in women with pre-eclampsia, whereas CCA-IMT did not. This method appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for imaging arterial effects and the increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe pre-eclampsia.

  • 28.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Gynecological endocrinology.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Larsson, Marita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Gynecological endocrinology.
    Association between angiogenic factors and signs of arterial aging in women with pre-eclampsia2017In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0960-7692, E-ISSN 1469-0705, Vol. 50, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. In PE there is a substantial increase in levels of the anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and decreased levels of the pro-angiogenic factor placental growth factor (PlGF). Elevated levels of sFlt1 are also found in individuals with CVD. The aims of this study were to assess sFlt1, PlGF and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio and their correlation with signs of arterial aging by measuring common carotid artery (CCA) intima and media thicknesses and their ratio (I/M ratio) in women with and without PE.

    METHODS: Serum sFlt1 and PlGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and CCA intima and media thicknesses were estimated using high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography in 55 women at PE diagnosis and 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar gestational age, with reassessment one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and a high I/M ratio indicate a less healthy arterial wall.

    RESULTS: During pregnancy, higher levels of sFlt1, lower levels of PlGF and thicker intima, thinner media and higher I/M ratios were found in women with PE vs. controls (all p < 0.0001). Further, sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio (all p < 0.0001), but negatively correlated with media thickness (p = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). About one year postpartum, levels of sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio had decreased in both groups, but compared with controls women in the PE group still had higher levels (p = 0.001 and 0.02, respectively). Further, sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were still positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher sFlt1 levels and sFlt1/PlGF ratios in women with PE were positively associated with signs of arterial aging during pregnancy. About one year postpartum sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratios were still higher in the PE group, and also associated with the degree of arterial aging.

  • 29.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Gynecological endocrinology.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics. Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Gynecological endocrinology.
    Serum Pentraxin 3 is associated with signs of arterial alteration in women with preeclampsia.2017In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 241, p. 417-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) in pregnancy is a state of exaggerated inflammation and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a novel inflammation marker, are increased during PE and in individuals with CVD. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether serum PTX3 in women with PE is associated with adverse arterial effects; a thicker intima and higher intima/media (I/M) ratio in the common carotid artery (CCA).

    METHODS: Serum PTX3 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and individual CCA intima and media thicknesses were estimated by 22MHz non-invasive ultrasound in 55 women at PE diagnosis and 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar gestational age, and about one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M ratio indicate a less healthy artery wall.

    RESULTS: During pregnancy serum PTX3 correlated positively with intima thickness and I/M ratio but negatively with media thickness (all p<0.0001), indicating adverse arterial effects. About one year postpartum, PTX3 levels had decreased in both groups and there remained no significant group difference or significant correlation with CCA wall layers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of serum PTX3 in women with PE were significantly associated with signs of adverse arterial effects during pregnancy, but not one year postpartum, supporting the rapid dynamics of PTX3.

  • 30.
    Akhter, Tansim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Uppsala Clinical Research Center (UCR).
    Larsson, Marita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Chem, Analyt Pharmaceut Chem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Chem, Analyt Pharmaceut Chem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Dimethylarginines correlate to common carotid artery wall layer dimensions and cardiovascular risk factors in pregnant women with/without preeclampsia: A group comparative study2021In: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, ISSN 0301-2115, E-ISSN 1872-7654, Vol. 258, p. 288-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Asymmetric- and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA, SDMA) are elevated in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome and is an independent risk factor for subsequent CVD. Aims were to investigate whether ADMA, SDMA levels and L-arginine/ADMA and I.arginine/SDMA ratios during pregnancy and their changes from pregnancy to postpartum are associated to arterial wall layer dimensions and cardiovascular risk factors in women with and without preeclampsia. Study design: Dimethylarginines were analyzed by LC-MS, and the common-carotid-artery (CCA) intima and media thicknesses were estimated using 22-MHz non-invasive ultrasonography in women with preeclampsia (cases = 48) and normal pregnancies (controls = 58) in similar gestational age, with reassessment one-year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media ratio (I/M) indicates a less healthy arterial wall. Results: The median age of cases and controls was 30 years. During pregnancy, women with preeclampsia had higher plasma ADMA, SDMA and lower t-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA (all p <0.01) than women with normal pregnancies. Further, ADMA, SDMA, L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA correlated to intima thickness (r(s) = 0.33/0.33/-0.33/-0.35 and p <0.01), UM (r(s) = 0.26/0.28/-0.22/-0.26 and p <0.05) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (rs = 0.43/0.42/-0.39/-0.40 and p <0.0001). Changes in ADMA, SDMA and t-arginine/SDMA from pregnancy to postpartum correlated to changes in intima thickness (r(s) = 0.22/0.32/-0.21 and p < 0.05/<0.01/<0.05), I/M (r(s) = 0.22/0.31/0.08 and p < 0.05/<0.01/=0.43) and MAP (r(s) = 0.31/0.53/-0.25 and p < 0.01/<0.001/<0.05). No correlations were found for conventional CCA intima-media-thickness. Conclusions: Dimethylarginines were associated to signs of adverse effects on arterial wall layer dimensions and cardiovascular risk factors in women with and without preeclampsia, during pregnancy and to their changes from pregnancy up to one-year postpartum. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 31.
    Akram, Frida Hosseini
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Bengt
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mollerstrom, Gunnar
    Oxback Clin, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Landgren, Britt-Marie
    Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Skjoldebrand-Sparre, Lottie
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Incidence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy2017In: Journal of Women's Health, ISSN 1540-9996, E-ISSN 1931-843X, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1231-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Untreated and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy complications such as increased risk of miscarriage, hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. However, in Sweden, screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is only recommended for women with a high risk of thyroid disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical and SCH in women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 1298 pregnant women were divided into three groups: one unselected general screening group (n=611), one low-risk group comprising women without risk factors for thyroid disorder (n=511), and one high-risk group comprising women with an inheritance or suspicion of thyroid disease or undergoing treatment for thyroid disease (n=88). Serum was obtained up to gestational week 13, and thyrotropin (TSH) was analyzed.

    Results: The incidences of thyroid dysfunction in the three screening groups were 9.8% in the general screening group, 9.6% in the low-risk group, and 10.2%, p=0.948, in the high-risk group. In the women with known hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment, 50.6% had serum TSH levels above 2.0mIU/L.

    Conclusions: High-risk screening is not useful in predicting which women are at risk of thyroid disease in early pregnancy since approximate to 10% of women with SCH or hypothyroidism could not be diagnosed in this way.

  • 32.
    Aktar, Shaki
    et al.
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Nu, U. Tin
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Monjur
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Pervin, Jesmin
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Moshfiqur Rahman, Syed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition.
    El Arifeen, Shams
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Persson, Lars Åke
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Fac Infect & Trop Dis, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Rahman, Anisur
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Trends and risk of recurrent preterm birth in pregnancy cohorts in rural Bangladesh, 1990-20192023In: BMJ Global Health, E-ISSN 2059-7908, Vol. 8, no 11, article id e012521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A history of preterm birth reportedly increases the risk of subsequent preterm birth. This association has primarily been studied in high-income countries and not in low-income settings in transition with rapidly descending preterm birth figures. We evaluated the population-based trends of preterm births and recurrent preterm births and the risk of preterm birth recurrence in the second pregnancy based on prospectively studied pregnancy cohorts over three decades in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Methods: A population-based cohort included 72 160 live births from 1990 to 2019. We calculated preterm birth and recurrent preterm birth trends. We assessed the odds of preterm birth recurrence based on a subsample of 14 567 women with live-born singletons in their first and second pregnancies. We used logistic regression and presented the associations by OR with a 95% CI.

    Results: The proportion of preterm births decreased from 25% in 1990 to 13% in 2019. The recurrent preterm births had a similar, falling pattern from 7.4% to 3.1% across the same period, contributing 27% of the total number of preterm births in the population. The odds of second pregnancy preterm birth were doubled (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.96 to 2.43) in women with preterm birth compared with the women with term birth in their first pregnancies, remaining similar over the study period. The lower the gestational age at the first birth, the higher the odds of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy (test for trend p<0.001).

    Conclusion: In this rural Bangladeshi setting, recurrent preterm births contributed a sizeable proportion of the total number of preterm births at the population level. The increased risk of recurrence remained similar across three decades when the total proportion of preterm births was reduced from 25% to 13%.

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  • 33.
    Albert, Benjamin B.
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Derraik, José G. B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Xia, Yin-Yin
    Chongqing Med Univ, Innovat Ctr Social Risk Governance Hlth, Res Ctr Med & Social Dev, Sch Publ Hlth & Management, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Norris, Tom
    Univ Leicester, Coll Life Sci, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Zhang, Ting
    Chongqing Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Han, Ting-Li
    Chongqing Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.;Chongqing Med Univ, Canada China New Zealand Joint Lab Maternal & Fet, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Chang, Chen
    Chongqing Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.;Chongqing Med Univ, Canada China New Zealand Joint Lab Maternal & Fet, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Rowan, Angela
    Fonterra Cooperat Grp Ltd, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Gallier, Sophie
    Fonterra Cooperat Grp Ltd, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Souza, Renato T.
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Campinas, Brazil..
    Hammond, Judith J.
    Auckland UniServ Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Zhou, Wei
    Chongqing Hlth Ctr Women & Children, Dept Obstet, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Hua
    Chongqing Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.;Chongqing Med Univ, Canada China New Zealand Joint Lab Maternal & Fet, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Qi, Hong-Bo
    Chongqing Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.;Chongqing Med Univ, Canada China New Zealand Joint Lab Maternal & Fet, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Baker, Philip N.
    Chongqing Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.;Chongqing Med Univ, Canada China New Zealand Joint Lab Maternal & Fet, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Supplementation with milk enriched with complex lipids during pregnancy: A double-blind randomized controlled trial2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 2, article id e0244916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Gangliosides are a class of sphingolipids that are present in the cell membranes of vertebrates. Gangliosides influence a broad range of cellular processes through effects on signal transduction, being found abundantly in the brain, and having a role in neurodevelopment.

    Objective We aimed to assess the effects of maternal daily consumption of ganglioside-enriched milk vs non-enriched milk and a non-supplemented group of pregnant women on maternal ganglioside levels and pregnancy outcomes.

    Design Double-blind parallel randomized controlled trial.

    Methods 1,500 women aged 20-40 years were recruited in Chongqing (China) between 11 and 14 weeks of a singleton pregnancy, and randomized into three groups: Control-received standard powdered milk formulation (>= 4 mg gangliosides/day); Complex milk lipid-enhanced (CML-E) group-same formulation enriched with complex milk lipids (>= 8 mg gangliosides/day) from milk fat globule membrane; Reference-received no milk. Serum ganglioside levels were measured in a randomly selected subsample of 250 women per group.

    Results CML-E milk was associated with marginally greater total gangliosides levels in maternal serum compared to Control (13.02 vs 12.69 mu g/ml; p = 0.034) but not to Reference group. CML-E milk did not affect cord blood ganglioside levels. Among the 1500 women, CML-E milk consumption was associated with a lower rate of gestational diabetes mellitus than control milk [relative risk 0.80 (95% CI 0.64, 0.99)], but which was not different to the Reference group. CML-E milk supplementation had no other effects on maternal or newborn health.

    Conclusions Maternal supplementation with milk fat globule membrane, as a source of gangliosides, was not associated with any adverse health outcomes, and did not increase serum gangliosides compared with the non-supplemented reference group.

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  • 34.
    Albertson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Chandraharan, E.
    St Georges Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    Lowe, V.
    St Georges Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    Archer, A.
    St Georges Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    Amer-Wåhlin, I.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Incidence of subacute hypoxia during active maternal pushing during labour2016In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 123, p. 147-147, article id EP8.037Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Albertsson Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Abdullahi, Naima Abdinuur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Barnmorskors erfarenheter av att handlägga graviditeter där den gravida har övervikt eller fetma: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 36.
    Alfonzo, Emilia
    et al.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Med Gatan 3, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallin, Emelie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Obstet & Gynaecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Linnea
    Skane Univ Hosp, Div Gynaecol Oncol, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Staf, Christian
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Reg Canc Ctr Western Sweden, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Radestad, Angelique Floter
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Obstet & Gynaecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynisson, Petur
    Skane Univ Hosp, Div Gynaecol Oncol, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Stålberg, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Falconer, Henrik
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Obstet & Gynaecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Jan
    Skane Univ Hosp, Div Gynaecol Oncol, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Dahm-Kahler, Pernilla
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Med Gatan 3, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Reg Canc Ctr Western Sweden, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    No survival difference between robotic and open radical hysterectomy for women with early-stage cervical cancer: results from a nationwide population-based cohort study2019In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 116, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare overall survival (OS) and diseasefree survival (DFS) after open and robotic radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer. Patients and methods: This was a nationwide population-based cohort study on all women with cervical cancer stage IA1-IB of squamous, adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histological subtypes, from January 2011 to December 2017, for whom radical hysterectomy was performed. The Swedish Quality Register of Gynaecologic Cancer was used for identification. To ensure quality and conformity of data and to disclose patients not yet registered, hospital registries were reviewed and validated. Cox and propensity score regression analysis and univariable and multivariable regression analysis were performed in regard to OS and DFS. Results: There were 864 women (236 open and 628 robotic) included in the study. The 5-year OS was 92% and 94% and DFS was 84% and 88% for the open and robotic cohorts, respectively. The recurrence pattern was similar in both groups. Using propensity score analysis and matched cohorts of 232 women in each surgical group, no significant differences were seen in survival: 5-year OS of 92% in both groups (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-2.01) and DFS of 85% vs 84% in the open and robotic cohort, respectively (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.66-1.78). In univariable and multivariable analysis with OS as the end-point, no significant factors were found, and in regard to DFS, tumour size (p < 0.001) and grade 3 (p = 0.02) were found as independent significant risk factors. Conclusion: In a complete nationwide population-based cohort, where radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer is highly centralised, neither long-term survival nor pattern of recurrence differed significantly between open and robotic surgery. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 37.
    Algård, Teresa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kalliokoski, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Ahlqvist, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Schlager, Angela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Role of depressive symptoms on the development of pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: A prospective inception cohort study.2023In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 102, no 10, p. 1281-1289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy is a major public health concern. For too many women, the pain condition causes disability and sick leave, has a negative impact on daily life, and breeds doubt in their view as mother, partner, and worker. The pathophysiology is unknown and causal treatment is lacking. Depression in pregnancy is common, undertreated, and previously associated with pelvic girdle pain with unclear causal direction.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective inception cohort study of 356 Swedish women examined them in early and late pregnancy. Women with a positive Posterior Pelvic Pain Provocation test in early pregnancy were not included. The exposure, depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, was self-reported on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, depression part (0-21). Outcome measure in late pregnancy was a graded score on the Posterior Pelvic Pain Provocation test (0-8). Covariates for statistical adjustment were identified in a directed acyclic graph. Linear robust and logistic regression were used in the statistical analyses.

    RESULTS: In early pregnancy, the 248 women with negative Posterior Pelvic Pain Provocation test had a mean score of 2.35 (± 2.3 standard deviation) on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, depression part. In a fully adjusted, multiple robust regression model a positive association was shown between Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score, depression part, and the Posterior Pelvic Pain Provocation test score in late pregnancy with an estimated effect of β = 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.48, p < 0.001). Dichotomization of exposure (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, depression part <8/≥8) and outcome (Posterior Pelvic Pain Provocation test score 0/>0) rendered adjusted odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 0.38-7.7) and numbers needed to treat adjusted odds ratio 5.54 (95% CI -3.4-14.5).

    CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms in early pregnancy were associated with the development and intensity of pelvic girdle pain in late pregnancy. Considering the small sample size, screening and treatment for depressive symptoms in early pregnancy may enable a way to reduce and prevent disabling pelvic girdle pain in late pregnancy. Trials are needed to confirm the results.

  • 38.
    Alkmark, Marten
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol,Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Keulen, Judit K. J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Amsterdam Reprod & Dev Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kortekaas, Joep C.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen Med Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Bergh, Christina
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Reprod Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    van Dillen, Jeroen
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen Med Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Duijnhoven, Ruben G.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Amsterdam Reprod & Dev Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Hagberg, Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol,Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mol, Ben Willem
    Monash Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Monash Med Ctr, Clayton, Vic, Australia.;Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen Ctr Womens Hlth Res, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Molin, Mattias
    Stat Consulting Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    van der Post, Joris A. M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Amsterdam Reprod & Dev Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Saltvedt, Sissel
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol,Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet, Reg Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    de Miranda, Esteriek
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Amsterdam Reprod & Dev Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Induction of labour at 41 weeks or expectant management until 42 weeks: A systematic review and an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised trials2020In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 17, no 12, article id e1003436Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe risk of perinatal death and severe neonatal morbidity increases gradually after 41 weeks of pregnancy. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed if induction of labour (IOL) in uncomplicated pregnancies at 41 weeks will improve perinatal outcomes. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPD-MA) on this subject.Methods and findingsWe searched PubMed, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (Embase), The Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and PsycINFO on February 21, 2020 for RCTs comparing IOL at 41 weeks with expectant management until 42 weeks in women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Individual participant data (IPD) were sought from eligible RCTs. Primary outcome was a composite of severe adverse perinatal outcomes: mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. Additional outcomes included neonatal admission, mode of delivery, perineal lacerations, and postpartum haemorrhage. Prespecified subgroup analyses were conducted for parity (nulliparous/multiparous), maternal age (<35/≥35 years), and body mass index (BMI) (<30/≥30). Aggregate data meta-analysis (MA) was performed to include data from RCTs for which IPD was not available.

    From 89 full-text articles, we identified three eligible RCTs (n = 5,161), and two contributed with IPD (n = 4,561). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups regarding age, parity, BMI, and higher level of education. IOL resulted overall in a decrease of severe adverse perinatal outcome (0.4% [10/2,281] versus 1.0% [23/2,280]; relative risk [RR] 0.43 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21 to 0.91], p-value 0.027, risk difference [RD] −57/10,000 [95% CI −106/10,000 to −8/10,000], I2 0%). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 175 (95% CI 94 to 1,267).

    Perinatal deaths occurred in one (<0.1%) versus eight (0.4%) pregnancies (Peto odds ratio [OR] 0.21 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78], p-value 0.019, RD −31/10,000, [95% CI −56/10,000 to −5/10,000], I2 0%, NNT 326, [95% CI 177 to 2,014]) and admission to a neonatal care unit ≥4 days occurred in 1.1% (24/2,280) versus 1.9% (46/2,273), (RR 0.52 [95% CI 0.32 to 0.85], p-value 0.009, RD −97/10,000 [95% CI −169/10,000 to −26/10,000], I2 0%, NNT 103 [95% CI 59 to 385]). There was no difference in the rate of cesarean delivery (10.5% versus 10.7%; RR 0.98, [95% CI 0.83 to 1.16], p-value 0.81) nor in other important perinatal, delivery, and maternal outcomes. MA on aggregate data showed similar results.

    Prespecified subgroup analyses for the primary outcome showed a significant difference in the treatment effect (p = 0.01 for interaction) for parity, but not for maternal age or BMI. The risk of severe adverse perinatal outcome was decreased for nulliparous women in the IOL group (0.3% [4/1,219] versus 1.6% [20/1,264]; RR 0.20 [95% CI 0.07 to 0.60], p-value 0.004, RD −127/10,000, [95% CI −204/10,000 to −50/10,000], I2 0%, NNT 79 [95% CI 49 to 201]) but not for multiparous women (0.6% [6/1,219] versus 0.3% [3/1,264]; RR 1.59 [95% CI 0.15 to 17.30], p-value 0.35, RD 27/10,000, [95% CI −29/10,000 to 84/10,000], I2 55%).

    A limitation of this IPD-MA was the risk of overestimation of the effect on perinatal mortality due to early stopping of the largest included trial for safety reasons after the advice of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Furthermore, only two RCTs were eligible for the IPD-MA; thus, the possibility to assess severe adverse neonatal outcomes with few events was limited.ConclusionsIn this study, we found that, overall, IOL at 41 weeks improved perinatal outcome compared with expectant management until 42 weeks without increasing the cesarean delivery rate. This benefit is shown only in nulliparous women, whereas for multiparous women, the incidence of mortality and morbidity was too low to demonstrate any effect. The magnitude of risk reduction of perinatal mortality remains uncertain. Women with pregnancies approaching 41 weeks should be informed on the risk differences according to parity so that they are able to make an informed choice for IOL at 41 weeks or expectant management until 42 weeks.

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  • 39.
    Alkmark, Mårten
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ylva
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brismar Wendel, Sophia
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elden, Helen
    Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fadl, Helena
    Örebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Ladfors, Lars
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saltvedt, Sissel
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sengpiel, Verena
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wessberg, Anna
    Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Hagberg, Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt
    Univ Gothenburg, Ctr Perinatal Med & Hlth, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Reg Västra Götaland, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Efficacy and safety of oral misoprostol versus transvaginal balloon catheter for labor induction: An observational study within the SWEdish Postterm Induction Study (SWEPIS)2021In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 100, no 8, p. 1463-1477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Induction of labor is increasing. A common indication for induction of labor is late term and postterm pregnancy at 41 weeks or more. We aimed to evaluate if there are any differences regarding efficacy, safety, and women's childbirth experience between oral misoprostol and transvaginal balloon catheter for cervical ripening in women with a low-risk singleton pregnancy and induction of labor at 41+0 to 42+0 to 1 weeks of gestation.

    Material and methods

    In this observational study, based on data from the Swedish Postterm Induction Study (SWEPIS), a multicenter randomized controlled trial, a total of 1213 women with a low-risk singleton pregnancy at 41 to 42 weeks of gestation were induced with oral misoprostol (n = 744) or transvaginal balloon catheter (n = 469) at 15 Swedish delivery hospitals. The primary efficacy outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 h and primary safety outcomes were neonatal and maternal composite adverse outcomes. Secondary outcomes included time to vaginal delivery and mode of delivery. Women's childbirth experience was assessed with the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ 2.0) and visual analog scale. We present crude and adjusted mean differences and relative risks (RR) with 95% CI. Adjustment was performed for a propensity score based on delivery hospital and baseline characteristics including Bishop score.

    Results

    Vaginal delivery within 24 h was significantly lower in the misoprostol group compared with the balloon catheter group (46.5% [346/744] vs 62.7% [294/469]; adjusted RR 0.76 95% CI 0.640.89]). Primary neonatal and maternal safety outcomes did not differ between groups (neonatal composite 3.5% [36/744] vs 3.2% [15/469]; adjusted RR 0.77 [95% CI 0.31–1.89]; maternal composite 2.3% [17/744] vs 1.9% [9/469]; adjusted RR 1.70 [95% CI 0.58–4.97]). Adjusted mean time to vaginal delivery was increased by 3.8 h (95% CI 1.3–6.2 h) in the misoprostol group. Non-operative vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery rates did not differ. Women's childbirth experience was positive overall and similar in both groups.

    Conclusions

    Induction of labor with oral misoprostol compared with a transvaginal balloon catheter was associated with a lower probability of vaginal delivery within 24 h and a longer time to vaginal delivery. However, primary safety outcomes, non-operative vaginal delivery, and women's childbirth experience were similar in both groups. Therefore, both methods can be recommended in women with low-risk postdate pregnancies.

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  • 40.
    Alosaimi, Abdullah N.
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Hlth Sci Dept, Tampere 33014, Finland.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Riitta, Luoto
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Hlth Sci Dept, Tampere 33014, Finland.
    Nwaru, Bright I.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Hlth Sci Dept, Tampere 33014, Finland;Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Krefting Res Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mouniri, Halima
    Columbia Univ, Averting Maternal Death & Disabil Program, Dept Populat & Family Hlth, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, New York, NY USA.
    Factors associated with female genital cutting in Yemen and its policy implications2019In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 74, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    A tremendous number of girls in Yemen are still subjected to female genital cutting (FGC), which carries an increased risk of health complications and violates children's rights. This study describes the prevalence of FGC in four Yemeni provinces and investigates the determinants of FGC.

    Methods:

    We analyzed data from women aged 15 to 49 years who responded to a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts of four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between individual and household socioeconomic factors and FGC practices and attitudes.

    Results:

    The prevalence of women's FGC was 48% while daughters' FGC was 34%. Almost 45.8% of the women surveyed believe the FGC practice should discontinue. Higher odds of FGC practice and positive attitude towards it were associated with older age, family marriage, and lower tertiles of wealth and education indices. Early marriage was also associated with increased odds of FGC practice (p < 0.01).

    Conclusions:

    Socioeconomic indices and other individual factors associated with FGC are differing and complex. Younger generations of women are more likely to not have FGC and to express negative attitudes towards the tradition. Appropriate strategies to invest in girls' education and women's empowerment with effective engagement of religious and community leaders might support the change of attitudes and practice of FGC in the younger generation.

  • 41.
    Al-Saqi, Shahla Hamza
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Aino Fianu
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Oxytocin improves cytological and histological profiles of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women2016In: Post Reproductive Health, ISSN 2053-3691, E-ISSN 2053-3705, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if topical oxytocin can reverse vaginal atrophy, as assessed by cytological and histological examination of the vaginal mucosal epithelium, in postmenopausal women after 12 weeks of treatment as compared to placebo.

    STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-eight postmenopausal women diagnosed with vaginal atrophy were randomized for this multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-three women received 600 IU vagitocin, an oxytocin containing gel, and 35 women received a placebo gel intravaginally. The dose was 600 IU daily for the first two weeks and thereafter 600 IU twice a week for 10 weeks. All participant women underwent four visits and a subgroup of 20 women had a further fifth visit. Vaginal smears for cytological evaluation were collected at all visits. Vaginal biopsies were taken in 20 women before and after 12 weeks of treatment for histological analysis. In these women a vaginal smear was also collected after 14 weeks.

    RESULTS: The increase in the percentage of superficial cells between 0 and 2 weeks was significantly greater after treatment with vagitocin in comparison with placebo (p = 0.04). The difference in the maturation value between 0 and 12 weeks was significantly higher in the vagitocin than in the placebo group (p = 0.01). The reduction in the scores of atrophy was according to the histological investigation significantly greater in the vagitocin group than in the placebo group at 12 weeks (p < 0.04).

    CONCLUSION: Daily intravaginal treatment with vagitocin 600 IU improves expressions of vaginal atrophy as recorded by cytological investigation of vaginal smears and histological analysis of vaginal biopsies. Treatment twice weekly seems to be less effective regarding the increase in superficial cells.

  • 42.
    Altmae, Signe
    et al.
    Competence Ctr Hlth Technol, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Granada, Sch Med, Dept Paediat, Granada, Spain..
    Tamm-Rosenstein, Karin
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Gene Technol, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Esteban, Francisco J.
    Univ Jaen, Dept Expt Biol, Jaen, Spain..
    Simm, Jaak
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Gene Technol, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Kolberg, Liis
    Univ Tartu, Inst Comp Sci, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Peterson, Hedi
    Univ Tartu, Inst Comp Sci, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia.;Quretec Ltd, Tartu, Estonia..
    Metsis, Madis
    Competence Ctr Hlth Technol, Tartu, Estonia.;Tallinn Univ, Sch Nat Sci & Hlth, EE-10120 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Haldre, Kai
    West Tallinn Cent Hosp Womens Clin, Ctr Reprod Med, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Horcajadas, Jose A.
    Hosp Miguel Servet, Araid I CS, Zaragoza, Spain..
    Salumets, Andres
    Competence Ctr Hlth Technol, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Endometrial transcriptome analysis indicates superiority of natural over artificial cycles in recurrent implantation failure patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer2016In: Reproductive BioMedicine Online, ISSN 1472-6483, E-ISSN 1472-6491, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 597-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little consensus has been reached on the best protocol for endometrial preparation for frozen embryo transfer (FET). It is not known how, and to what extent, hormone supplementation in artificial cycles influences endometrial preparation for embryo implantation at a molecular level, especially in patients who have experienced recurrent implantation failure. Transcriptome analysis of 15 endometrial biopsy samples at the time of embryo implantation was used to compare two different endometrial preparation protocols, natural versus artificial cycles, for FET in women who have experienced recurrent implantation failure compared with fertile women. IPA and DAVID were used for functional analyses of differentially expressed genes. The TRANSFAC database was used to identify oestrogen and progesterone response elements upstream of differentially expressed genes. Cluster analysis demonstrated that natural cycles are associated with a better endometrial receptivity transcriptome than artificial cycles. Artificial cycles seemed to have a stronger negative effect on expression of genes and pathways crucial for endometrial receptivity, including ESR2, FSHR, LEP, and several interleukins and matrix metalloproteinases. Significant overrepresentation of oestrogen response elements among the genes with deteriorated expression in artificial cycles (P < 0.001) was found; progesterone response elements predominated in genes with amended expression with artificial cycles (P = 0.0052).

  • 43.
    Altman, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health. Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden;Stockholm Urogynecol Clin, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Geale, Kirk
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Falconer, Christian
    Danderyd Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Div Obstet & Gynecol, S-18288 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Morcos, Edward
    Danderyd Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Div Obstet & Gynecol, S-18288 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A generic health-related quality of life instrument for assessing pelvic organ prolapse surgery: correlation with condition-specific outcome measures2018In: International Urogynecology Journal, ISSN 0937-3462, E-ISSN 1433-3023, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1093-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a generic and globally accessible instrument for assessing health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery. In a prospective multicenter setting, 207 women underwent surgery for apical prolapse [stage ae<yen>2, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantificcation (POP-Q) system] with or without anterior wall defect. Demographic and surgical characteristics were collected before surgery. Results of the 15-dimensional (15D) instrument and condition-specific pelvic floor symptoms as assessed using the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory questionnaire (PFDI-20), including its subscales Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory-6 (POPDI-6), Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory-8 (CRADI-8), and Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6), were assessed preoperatively and 2 months and 1 year after surgery. HR-QoL as estimated by 15D was improved 1 year after surgery (p < 0.001). Prolapse-related 15D profile-index measures (excretion, discomfort, sexual activity, distress, and mobility) were significantly improved after surgery (p < 0.05-0.001). Significant inverse associations were detected between increased 15D scores and a decrease in PFDI-20 and subscale scores (p < 0.001), indicating improvements on both instruments. Generic HR-QoL as estimated by 15D improved significantly after apical POP surgery and correlated with improvements of condition-specific outcome measures. These results suggest that a comprehensive evaluation of global HR-QoL is valid in assessing pelvic reconstructive surgery and may provide novel and important insights into previously understudied areas, such as cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis after urogynecological surgery.

  • 44. Altmäe, Signe
    et al.
    Esteban, Francisco J
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Simón, Carlos
    Giudice, Linda
    Lessey, Bruce A
    Horcajadas, Jose A
    Macklon, Nick S
    D'Hooghe, Thomas
    Campoy, Cristina
    Fauser, Bart C
    Salamonsen, Lois A
    Salumets, Andres
    Guidelines for the design, analysis and interpretation of 'omics' data: focus on human endometrium2013In: Human Reproduction Update, ISSN 1355-4786, E-ISSN 1460-2369, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 12-28Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND 'Omics' high-throughput analyses, including genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, are widely applied in human endometrial studies. Analysis of endometrial transcriptome patterns in physiological and pathophysiological conditions has been to date the most commonly applied 'omics' technique in human endometrium. As the technologies improve, proteomics holds the next big promise for this field. The 'omics' technologies have undoubtedly advanced our knowledge of human endometrium in relation to fertility and different diseases. Nevertheless, the challenges arising from the vast amount of data generated and the broad variation of 'omics' profiling according to different environments and stimuli make it difficult to assess the validity, reproducibility and interpretation of such 'omics' data. With the expansion of 'omics' analyses in the study of the endometrium, there is a growing need to develop guidelines for the design of studies, and the analysis and interpretation of 'omics' data.

    METHODS Systematic review of the literature in PubMed, and references from relevant articles were investigated up to March 2013.

    RESULTS The current review aims to provide guidelines for future 'omics' studies on human endometrium, together with a summary of the status and trends, promise and shortcomings in the high-throughput technologies. In addition, the approaches presented here can be adapted to other areas of high-throughput 'omics' studies.

    CONCLUSION A highly rigorous approach to future studies, based on the guidelines provided here, is a prerequisite for obtaining data on biological systems which can be shared among researchers worldwide and will ultimately be of clinical benefit.

  • 45.
    Altmäe, Signe
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salumets, Andres
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Bjuresten, Kerstin
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Wånggren, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Landgren, Britt-Marie
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hovatta, Outi
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Tissue Factor and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitors TFPI and TFPI2 in Human Secretory Endometrium - Possible Link to Female Infertility2011In: Reproductive Sciences, ISSN 1933-7191, E-ISSN 1933-7205, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 666-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate tissue factor (TF) and its inhibitors TFPI and TFPI2 in secretory endometrium of fertile women and in women with unexplained infertility in relation to endometrial receptivity. In addition, common variation in the regulatory area of TF and TFPI genes was studied. Immunostaining of TF and TFPI, together with the appearance of pinopodes, revealed similar expression pattern in fertile endometrium throughout the secretory phase, being highest at the time of implantation. When compared protein expression levels at the time of implantation, infertile women demonstrated significantly higher TFPI expression in luminal epithelium. Furthermore, polymorphism TF -603 A/G was associated with the endometrial protein level in infertile women, being highest in women with GG genotype, and variation TFPI -287 T/C was associated with unexplained infertility, where infertile women presented more frequently T allele than fertile women. Contrary to TF and TFPI, TFPI2 showed different mRNA and protein expression patterns in fertile endometrium, and no differences between fertile and infertile women were detected. We conclude that the TF pathway is involved in normal endometrial maturation, where TF and TFPI seem to have important roles at the time of embryo implantation. Higher TFPI expression level during the time of embryo implantation and TFPI -287 T allele could be risk factors for unexplained infertility. No distinct involvement of TFPI2 in the regulation of endometrial receptivity and unexplained infertility was found.

  • 46.
    Amark, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Millde-Luthander, Charlotte
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ajne, Gunilla
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Pettersson, Hans
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Ingela
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grunewald, Charlotta
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Single versus pairwise interpretation of cardiotochography, a comparative study from six Swedish delivery units2014In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 195-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether interpreting CTG pairwise brings about a higher level of correctly classified CTG recordings in a non-selected population of midwives and physicians.

    STUDY DESIGN: A comparative study.

    SETTING: Five delivery units in Stockholm and one delivery unit in Uppsala, with 1589, 3740, 3908, 4539, 6438, and 7331 deliveries in 2011, respectively.

    SUBJECTS: 536 midwives and physicians classified one randomly selected CTG recording individually followed by a pairwise classification. The pairs consisted of two midwives (119 pairs) or one midwife and one physician (149 pairs), a total of 268 pairs.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The proportion of individually correctly classified CTG recordings versus the proportion of pairwise correctly classified CTG recordings.

    RESULTS: The proportion of individually correctly classified CTG's was 75% and the proportion of pairwise correctly classified CTG's was 80% (difference 5%, p = 0.12).

    CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference when CTG's were classified pairwise compared to individual classifications. The proportion of individually correctly classified CTG's was high (75%). There were differences in the proportion of correctly classified CTG recordings between the delivery units, indicating potential areas of improvement.

  • 47.
    Ameen, Shafiqul
    et al.
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Siddique, Abu Bakkar
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Peven, Kimberly
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Florence Nightingale Fac Nursing Midwifery & Pall, London, England..
    Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Day, Louise T.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England..
    Shabani, Josephine
    Ifakara Hlth Inst IHI, Dept Hlth Syst Impact Evaluat & Policy, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    KC, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), Global Health Research on Implementation and Sustainability.
    Boggs, Dorothy
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England..
    Shamba, Donat
    Ifakara Hlth Inst IHI, Dept Hlth Syst Impact Evaluat & Policy, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Tahsina, Tazeen
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Zaman, Sojib Bin
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Hossain, Aniqa Tasnim
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Ahmed, Anisuddin
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Basnet, Omkar
    Golden Community, Res Div, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Malla, Honey
    Golden Community, Res Div, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Ruysen, Harriet
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England..
    Blencowe, Hannah
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England..
    Arnold, Fred
    ICF, Demog & Hlth Survey Program, Rockville, MD USA..
    Requejo, Jennifer
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Div Data Anal Planning & Monitoring, New York, NY USA..
    El Arifeen, Shams
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, 68 Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Lawn, Joy E.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England..
    Survey of women's report for 33 maternal and newborn indicators: EN-BIRTH multi-country validation study2021In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 21, no SUPPL, article id 238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPopulation-based household surveys, notably the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), remain the main source of maternal and newborn health data for many low- and middle-income countries. As part of the Every Newborn Birth Indicators Research Tracking in Hospitals (EN-BIRTH) study, this paper focuses on testing validity of measurement of maternal and newborn indicators around the time of birth (intrapartum and postnatal) in survey-report.MethodsEN-BIRTH was an observational study testing the validity of measurement for selected maternal and newborn indicators in five secondary/tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh, Nepal and Tanzania, conducted from July 2017 to July 2018. We compared women's report at exit survey with the gold standard of direct observation or verification from clinical records for women with vaginal births. Population-level validity was assessed by validity ratios (survey-reported coverage: observer-assessed coverage). Individual-level accuracy was assessed by sensitivity, specificity and percent agreement. We tested indicators already in DHS/MICS as well as indicators with potential to be included in population-based surveys, notably the first validation for small and sick newborn care indicators.Results33 maternal and newborn indicators were evaluated. Amongst nine indicators already present in DHS/MICS, validity ratios for baby dried or wiped, birthweight measured, low birthweight, and sex of baby (female) were between 0.90-1.10. Instrumental birth, skin-to-skin contact, and early initiation of breastfeeding were highly overestimated by survey-report (2.04-4.83) while umbilical cord care indicators were massively underestimated (0.14-0.22). Amongst 24 indicators not currently in DHS/MICS, two newborn contact indicators (kangaroo mother care 1.00, admission to neonatal unit 1.01) had high survey-reported coverage amongst admitted newborns and high sensitivity. The remaining indicators did not perform well and some had very high "don't know" responses.ConclusionsOur study revealed low validity for collecting many maternal and newborn indicators through an exit survey instrument, even with short recall periods among women with vaginal births. Household surveys are already at risk of overload, and some specific clinical care indicators do not perform well and may be under-powered. Given that approximately 80% of births worldwide occur in facilities, routine registers should also be explored to track coverage of key maternal and newborn health interventions, particularly for clinical care.

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  • 48.
    Amini, Hashem
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Fetal Anomalies: Surveillance and Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to investigate the accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosis of structural fetal anomalies with special focus on false positive findings (I), to evaluate the additional value of second trimester fetal MRI on pregnancy management (II-III) and to estimate the ascertainment in the Swedish Birth Defects Registry and incidence of spina bifida and cleft lip/palate (IV).

    Retrospectively, 328 fetal autopsies were identified where pregnancies were terminated due to ultrasonographically diagnosed fetal anomalies. In 175 (53.4 %) cases ultrasound and fetal autopsy were identical, in 124 (37.8 %) ultrasound was almost correct, in 23 (7.0 %)  ultrasound diagnoses could not be verified, but fetal autopsy showed other anomalies with at least the same prognostic value and in six (1.8 %)  ultrasound diagnosis could not be verified and autopsy showed no or less severe anomalies (I).

    Prospectively, 29 pregnancies with CNS- (II) and 63 with non-CNS-anomalies (III) were included. In the CNS study MRI provided no additional information in 18 fetuses (62 %), additional information without changing the management in 8 (28 %) and additional information altering the pregnancy management in 3 (10%). In the non-CNS study the corresponding figures were 43 (68 %), 17 (27 %) and three (5 %), respectively. MRI in the second trimester might be a clinically valuable adjunct to ultrasound for the evaluation of CNS anomalies, especially when the ultrasound is inconclusive due to maternal obesity (II) and in non-CNS anomalies in cases of diaphragmatic hernia or oligohydramnios (III).

    In newborns, the ascertainments of birth defects are relatively high and assessable, but in pregnancy terminations they are lower or unknown. The incidence of newborns with spina bifida has decreased because of an increased rate of pregnancy terminations (>60%). There is room for improvement concerning the reporting of anomalies from terminated pregnancies (IV).

    List of papers
    1. Comparison of ultrasound and autopsy findings in pregnancies terminated due to fetal anomalies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of ultrasound and autopsy findings in pregnancies terminated due to fetal anomalies
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 10, p. 1208-1216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To compare antenatal diagnoses with autopsy findings in pregnancies terminated after ultrasound detection of fetal anomalies. A second aim was to study the quality of antenatal fetal diagnosis over time. Design. Retrospective, multicenter study over two consecutive six-year periods in Uppsala and Stockholm. Setting. Cases were identified through fetal autopsy reports. Subjects. Three hundred and twenty-eight fetuses from pregnancies terminated between 1992 and 2003 because of ultrasonographically diagnosed anomalies. Main outcome measures. The findings at the last ultrasound examination were compared with the autopsy reports. Results. In 299 cases (91.2%) ultrasound findings either exactly matched or were essentially similar to the autopsy findings. In 23 cases (7%) ultrasound findings were not confirmed at autopsy, but the postnatal findings were at least as severe as the antenatal ones. In six cases (1.8%) termination was performed for an anomaly which proved to be less severe than was predicted by ultrasound. The number of such cases was the same in both six-year periods, while the total number of cases increased from 113 in the first to 215 in the second period. Fetal examination provided further diagnostic information in 47% of the cases. In 10% a syndrome was disclosed. Conclusion. Termination of pregnancy was not always based on a correct antenatal diagnosis. All fetuses but one from terminated pregnancies had evident anomalies. In six cases (1.8%) the decision to terminate was based on suboptimal prognostic and diagnostic information. Fetal autopsy by an experienced perinatal pathologist is essential to provide a definitive diagnosis.

    Keywords
    fetal anomaly, ultrasound, antenatal diagnosis, pregnancy termination, fetal autopsy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-21374 (URN)10.1080/00016340600880886 (DOI)000241362200009 ()17068680 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-06-28 Created: 2008-06-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. The Swedish Birth Defects Registry: ascertainment and incidence of spina bifida and cleft lip/palate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish Birth Defects Registry: ascertainment and incidence of spina bifida and cleft lip/palate
    2009 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 654-659Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ascertainment of spina bifida and cleft lip/palate (CLP) in newborns and in fetuses from terminated pregnancies (ToPs) in the Swedish Birth Defects Registry (BDR) and to estimate the true incidences of these two anomalies. DESIGN: Retrospective register study. SETTING: Center for Epidemiology at the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, and Uppsala University Hospital. POPULATION: Newborns and fetuses from ToPs with spina bifida (1999-2004) and CLP (1999-2002) in Sweden. METHODS: Data from four registries/sources were used to estimate ascertainment in BDR and incidences of spina bifida and CLP. Main outcome measure: Ascertainment, under-ascertainment, and true incidence. RESULTS: For newborns, under-ascertainment of spina bifida and CLP were 6 and 13%, respectively, in BDR after record linkage with the Medical Birth Registry. Ascertainment of cleft palate increased when accompanied by cleft lip. The under-ascertainment of spina bifida in ToPs after 18 gestational weeks was 27%. Ascertainment of CLP in all ToPs and of spina bifida in ToPs before the 18th gestational week could not be estimated. The majority (109/155, 70%) of ToPs with spina bifida occurred before the 18th week. The estimated incidence of spina bifida per 10,000 births was 6.1 (2.4 newborns and 3.7 ToPs) and of CLP 20.1 (18.9 newborns and 1.2 ToPs). CONCLUSION: The ascertainments are relatively high for newborns in BDR, but lower or unknown for ToPs, which has an impact on the surveillance of spina bifida in view of the high proportion of ToPs.

    Keywords
    Birth defects registry, ascertainment, cleft lip/palate, spina bifida, termination of pregnancies
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106006 (URN)10.1080/00016340902934696 (DOI)000267201800006 ()19412801 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-06-11 Created: 2009-06-11 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
    3. The Clinical Impact of Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Management of CNS Anomalies in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Clinical Impact of Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Management of CNS Anomalies in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy
    2010 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 89, no 12, p. 20p. 1571-1581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the additional information of second trimester magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to ultrasound in fetuses with identified or suspected CNS anomalies and to study the clinical impact of the information on pregnancy management.

    Design: Prospective study during 2004-2007. The fetal MRI examination was planned to be performed within three days after the ultrasound.

    Setting: Uppsala University hospital.    

    Subjects: Twenty-nine pregnant women where second trimester ultrasound identified or suspected fetal CNS anomalies.

    Main outcome measures: Evaluation of the additional information gained from MRI and the consequence it had on pregnancy management.

    Results: The mean interval between ultrasound and MRI was 1.6 days (range 0 –7). In 18 fetuses (62 %)  MRI verified the ultrasound diagnosis but provided no additional information, while in 8 (28 %) MRI gave additional information without changing the management. In 3 (10 %), MRI provided additional information that changed the management of the pregnancy. Two of these women were obese.

    Conclusions: Fetal MRI in the second trimester might be a clinically valuable adjunct to ultrasound for the evaluation of CNS anomalies, especially when ultrasound is inconclusive due to maternal obesity.

     

    Publisher
    p. 20
    Keywords
    CNS anomalies, Fetal MRI, Pregnancy management, Second trimester, Ultrasound
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121487 (URN)10.3109/00016349.2010.526184 (DOI)000284318900012 ()21080900 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-03-24 Created: 2010-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. The Clinical Impact of Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Management of Non-CNS Anomalies in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Clinical Impact of Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Management of Non-CNS Anomalies in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the additional information of second trimester MRI compared to ultrasound in fetuses with identified or suspected non-CNS anomalies and to study the clinical impact of the MRI information on pregnancy management.

    Methods: Sixty-three women were included, where the second trimester ultrasound identified or raised suspicion of fetal anomalies. Ultrasound was compared to MRI in relation to the final diagnosis, fetal autopsy if performed or postnatal diagnosis. The additional information of MRI and effect on pregnancy management was estimated in consensus.

    Results: The mean gestational age at the last ultrasound before MRI was 18+1 weeks (range 13+0-21+5). The mean interval between ultrasound and MRI was 2.6 days (range 0-15). In 42 (67 %) cases MRI was performed within three days. All MRI examinations were assessable. In 43 (68 %) fetuses MRI provided no additional information, in 17 (27 %) MRI added information without changing the management and in three (5 %) MRI provided additional information which changed the management. These three cases had all oligohydramnios. In all six cases of diaphragmatic hernia MRI provided additional information.

    Conclusions: Fetal MRI of non-CNS anomalies is feasible in the second trimester and gives additional information in nearly a third of cases. It may provide a clinically valuable adjunct to ultrasound especially in cases of diaphragmatic hernia or oligohydramnios.

    Keywords
    Fetal MRI, non-CNS anomalies, second trimester, ultrasound, pregnancy management, antenatal diagnosis
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121500 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-03-24 Created: 2010-03-24 Last updated: 2010-03-24
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Amini, Hashem
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Axelsson, Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    The Clinical Impact of Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Management of Non-CNS Anomalies in the Second Trimester of PregnancyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the additional information of second trimester MRI compared to ultrasound in fetuses with identified or suspected non-CNS anomalies and to study the clinical impact of the MRI information on pregnancy management.

    Methods: Sixty-three women were included, where the second trimester ultrasound identified or raised suspicion of fetal anomalies. Ultrasound was compared to MRI in relation to the final diagnosis, fetal autopsy if performed or postnatal diagnosis. The additional information of MRI and effect on pregnancy management was estimated in consensus.

    Results: The mean gestational age at the last ultrasound before MRI was 18+1 weeks (range 13+0-21+5). The mean interval between ultrasound and MRI was 2.6 days (range 0-15). In 42 (67 %) cases MRI was performed within three days. All MRI examinations were assessable. In 43 (68 %) fetuses MRI provided no additional information, in 17 (27 %) MRI added information without changing the management and in three (5 %) MRI provided additional information which changed the management. These three cases had all oligohydramnios. In all six cases of diaphragmatic hernia MRI provided additional information.

    Conclusions: Fetal MRI of non-CNS anomalies is feasible in the second trimester and gives additional information in nearly a third of cases. It may provide a clinically valuable adjunct to ultrasound especially in cases of diaphragmatic hernia or oligohydramnios.

  • 50.
    Anders, Larsson
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Lena, Carlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Rasha, Khierallah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Jan, Holte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Theodora Kunovac, Kallak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Higher levels of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) in human seminal plasma in comparison with blood plasma and negative association with several motile sperm cells2023In: Global Journal of Fertility and Research, E-ISSN 2640-7884, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 008-013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Semen is a complex fluid with many functions, some of them well-known, others more obscure.

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) in human seminal plasma in comparison with blood plasma levels.

    Methods: HGF concentrations were measured in seminal plasma from 40 men utilizing commercial ELISA kits. Blood plasma from 40 healthy blood donors served as a comparison group.

    Results: Median seminal plasma HGF was approximately five times higher than the levels found in blood plasma (5717.5 pg/mL vs. 1124.6 pg/mL). There was a negative correlation between HGF values in seminal plasma and the number of sperm cells.

    Conclusion: The study shows that seminal plasma contains high levels of HGF and that HGF binds to prostasomes. Male HGF can thus reach the female reproductive tract during unprotected sexual intercourse. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of this on fertility.

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