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  • 1. Alonso, Silvia
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Roesel, Kristina
    Traore, Sylvain Gnamien
    Yobouet, Bassa Antoine
    Ndour, Andrée Prisca Ndjoug
    Carron, Maud
    Grace, Delia
    Where literature is scarce: observations and lessons learnt from four systematic reviews of zoonoses in African countries.2016In: Animal Health Research Reviews, ISSN 1466-2523, E-ISSN 1475-2654, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations. Searches were conducted in four online databases. Articles were screened for relevance, and quality was assessed before data extraction. Literature on zoonotic hazards was in general scarce and access to full articles was limited. Overall, 25-40% of papers were considered poor quality. The diversity of approaches and designs in the studies compromised the ability to generate summarized estimates. We found that the emphasis of veterinary research has been on livestock problems rather than public health issues, although this seems to be shifting in the last decade; we also found there are limited studies on impact and control. While increasing literature is being published around zoonoses in Africa, this is still inadequate to appropriately inform policy and guide research efforts.

  • 2. Bett, Bernard
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Delia, Grace
    Climate Change and Infectious Livestock Diseases: The Case of Rift Valley Fever and Tick-Borne Diseases2019In: The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers, Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 29-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Breed, Andrew C.
    et al.
    Breed, Martin F.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB), and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.
    Meers, Joanne
    Field, Hume E.
    Evidence of endemic Hendra virus infection in flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus): implications for disease risk management2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, p. e28816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the seroepidemiology of Hendra virus in a spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus) population in northern Australia, near the location of an equine and associated human Hendra virus infection in late 2004. The pattern of infection in the population was investigated using a serial cross-sectional serological study over a 25-month period, with blood sampled from 521 individuals over six sampling sessions. Antibody titres to the virus were determined by virus neutralisation test. In contrast to the expected episodic infection pattern, we observed that seroprevalence gradually increased over the two years suggesting infection was endemic in the population over the study period. Our results suggested age, pregnancy and lactation were significant risk factors for a detectable neutralizing antibody response. Antibody titres were significantly higher in females than males, with the highest titres occurring in pregnant animals. Temporal variation in antibody titres suggests that herd immunity to the virus may wax and wane on a seasonal basis. These findings support an endemic infection pattern of henipaviruses in bat populations suggesting their infection dynamics may differ significantly from the acute, self limiting episodic pattern observed with related viruses (e.g. measles virus, phocine distemper virus, rinderpest virus) hence requiring a much smaller critical host population size to sustain the virus. These findings help inform predictive modelling of henipavirus infection in bat populations, and indicate that the life cycle of the reservoir species should be taken into account when developing risk management strategies for henipaviruses.

  • 4.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Young, Jarrah
    Wyatt, Amanda
    Young, Mary
    Alders, Robyn
    Bagnol, Brigitte
    Kibaya, Augustino
    Grace, Delia
    Do vaccination interventions have effects? A study on how poultry vaccination interventions change smallholder farmer knowledge, attitudes, and practice in villages in Kenya and Tanzania.2018In: Tropical Animal Health and Production, ISSN 0049-4747, E-ISSN 1573-7438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poultry are important for many poor households in developing countries, but there are many constraints to poultry production, including disease. One of the most important diseases of chickens is Newcastle disease (ND). Even though there are effective vaccines against this disease available in most countries, uptake by small-scale poultry keepers is often low. In this study, two areas in Kenya and Tanzania were studied, where some villages had received additional support to get vaccination and other villages had not. In Kenya, 320 households from 10 villages were interviewed, of which half of the villages had active promotion of vaccination through village-based advisors. In Tanzania, 457 households were interviewed, of which 241 came from villages that have had active support through either a project or government extension services. Knowledge about vaccines and the attitudes towards vaccinating against ND was evaluated using mixed multivariable logistic models. Results indicate that in Kenya, the most important determinants for understanding the function of a vaccine were having had support in the village and to have knowledge about ND signs, while in Tanzania gender and previous vaccine use were important in addition to having had support. Attitudes towards vaccination were mainly determined by knowledge, where more knowledge about how vaccines work in general or about ND contributed to more positive attitudes. Among Kenyan farmers that had never used the vaccine before, the amount of birds they lost to disease and predators also influenced attitudes. In conclusion, this study supports the notion that knowledge is a very important component of extension support and that simply making vaccines available may not be sufficient for high levels of uptake.

  • 5. Makita, Kohei
    et al.
    Sina, Sylvie Kouamé
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Desissa, Fanta
    Computation of Risk Assessment Modelling2018In: Reference Module in Food ScienceArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for risk assessment to evaluate the safety of foods is increasing in low and middle income countries, but almost no textbook on risk assessment modelling for informal market is available. This chapter introduces practical steps for the risk assessors to tackle with such a situation.

  • 6.
    Pujato, N.
    et al.
    Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Bioquim & Ciencias Biol, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Camussone, C. M.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina;INTA, Estn Expt Agr Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Renna, M. S.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina;Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Ciencias Vet, Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Perrig, M. S.
    Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Bioquim & Ciencias Biol, Santa Fe, Argentina;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Morein, B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Calvinho, L. F.
    INTA, Estn Expt Agr Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina;Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Ciencias Vet, Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Marcipar, I. S.
    Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Bioquim & Ciencias Biol, Santa Fe, Argentina;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Evaluation of the humoral immune response to a multicomponent recombinant vaccine against S-aureus in healthy pregnant heifers2018In: The Veterinary Journal, ISSN 1090-0233, E-ISSN 1532-2971, Vol. 235, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that causes mastitis in dairy herds. Shortcomings in control programs have encouraged the development of vaccines against this pathogen. This study evaluated the vaccine candidate VacR, which included recombinant S. aureus protein clumping factor A (rClf), fibronectin binding protein A (rFnBP) and hemolysin beta (rBt), formulated with a novel immune-stimulating complex. Comparisons were made between healthy pregnant heifers that received either VacR (n = 8; VacR group) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) plus adjuvant (control group) SC in the supramammary lymph node area on days 45 and 15 before the expected calving date. Blood and foremilk samples were collected from 7 to 60 days post-calving. After calving, heifers in the VacR group produced higher total IgG (IgG(total)) titers against each component, in both serum (rBt, 3.4 x 10(5); rClf, 3.1 x 10(5); rFnBP, 2.3 x 10(5)) and milk (rBt, 2.6 x 10(4); rClf, 1.3 x 10(4); rFnBP, 1.1 x 10(4)), than control heifers (P < 0.0001). There were increased concentrations of IgG(1), and IgG(2) in VacR group (P < 0.05), in both serum and milk. Humoral responses remained high throughout the period most susceptible to intramammary infections (P < 0.01). Antibodies produced against S. aureus rClf and rFnBP reduced bacterial adherence to fibronectin and fibrinogen by 73% and 67%, respectively (P < 0.001). Milk antibodies against these adhesins inhibited S. aureus invasion of a mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T), resulting in 15.7% of bacteria internalized (P < 0.0001). There was an approximately 6-fold reduction in the hemolysis titer for the native hemolysin in the VacR group compared to the control group (P < 0.0001) and a significantly increase in the proportion of positive neutrophils (VacR, 29.7%; PBS, 13.1%) and the mean fluorescent index (VacR, 217.4; PBS, 152.6; P < 0.01) in the VacR group. The results suggest that VacR is a valuable vaccine candidate against S. aureus infections, and merits further field trials and experimental challenges. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Redmalm, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Djur i bur även i hyllade djurparker2012In: Djurens Rätt, ISSN 0345-2409, no 1, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Rohdin, C.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden;Albano Small Anim Hosp, Anicura, Rinkebyvagen 21, S-18236 Danderyd, Sweden.
    Haggstrom, J.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljungvall, I.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lee, H. Nyman
    Bagarmossen Small Anim Hosp, Anicura, Ljusnevagen 17, S-12848 Bagarmossen, Sweden.
    De Decker, S.
    Univ London, Royal Vet Coll, Clin Sci & Serv, Hawkshead Lane, N Mymms AL9 7TA, England.
    Bertram, S.
    Univ London, Royal Vet Coll, Clin Sci & Serv, Hawkshead Lane, N Mymms AL9 7TA, England.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Broad Inst Harvard & MIT, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Jaderlund, K. Hultin
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, N-0033 Oslo, Norway.
    Presence of thoracic and lumbar vertebral malformations in pugs with and without chronic neurological deficits2018In: The Veterinary Journal, ISSN 1090-0233, E-ISSN 1532-2971, Vol. 241, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVMs) are common in brachycephalic dogs such as the pug, and are often considered incidental findings. However, specific CVMs have been suggested to be associated with neurological deficits in pugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of CVMs in the pug by comparing computed tomography studies of the thoracolumbar spine from pugs without neurological deficits with those from pugs with a confirmed T3-L3 spinal cord lesion and neurological deficits consistent with a chronic T3-L3 myelopathy. A total of 57 pugs were recruited into the study from Sweden (n=33), United Kingdom (n=21) and Norway (n = 3); 30 with neurological deficits and 27 without. Focal T3-L3 pathology was confirmed in all pugs with neurological deficits by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 29) and/or pathology (n = 15). Computed tomography studies of the thoracolumbar spine from pugs with and without neurological deficits were compared to investigate possible associations between presentation of neurological deficits consistent with chronic T3-L3 pathology and signalment variables, presence of CVMs and type of CVMs. Congenital vertebral malformations were as common in pugs with, as in pugs without, neurological deficits. Regardless of neurological status, the majority of pugs (96%) presented with one or more CVM. An association between presence, or type of CVM in the T1-L3 vertebral column, and neurological deficits consistent with T3-L3 pathology could not be confirmed.

  • 9.
    Rohdin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Albano Anim Hosp, Anicura, Danderyd, Sweden..
    Jäderlund, Karin Hultin
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Ljungvall, Ingrid
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Broad Inst Harvard & Massachusetts, Inst Technol, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Häggstrom, Jens
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    High prevalence of gait abnormalities in pugs2018In: The Veterinary Record, ISSN 0042-4900, E-ISSN 2042-7670, Vol. 182, no 6, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of gait abnormalities in a cohort of Swedish pugs by using an owner-based questionnaire targeting signs of gait abnormality and video footage showing the dog's gait. This study also evaluated associated conditions of abnormal gait, including other health disorders prevalent in the breed. Five hundred and fifty (550) pugs registered in the Swedish Kennel Club, of one, five and eight years of age, in 2015 and 2016, were included in the study. Gait abnormalities were reported in 30.7 per cent of the responses. In the majority of cases, the character of the described gait indicated a neurological cause for the gait abnormality. An association was observed between abnormal gait and age, with gait abnormalities being significantly more common in older pugs (P=0.004). An association was also found between abnormal gait and dyspnoea, with dyspnoea being significantly more common in pugs with gait abnormalities (P<0.0001). This study demonstrated that the prevalence of gait abnormalities was high in the Swedish pug breed and increased with age. Future studies on the mechanisms behind these gait abnormalities are warranted.

  • 10.
    Svensson, C.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alvasen, K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Frossling, J.
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Dis Control & Epidemiol, Uppsala, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden.
    Lomander, H.
    Swedish Board Agr, Dist Vet Org, Tibro, Sweden.
    Veterinary herd health management: Experience among farmers and farm managers in Swedish dairy production2018In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, E-ISSN 1873-1716, Vol. 155, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM. The participants reported HHM to be important, but they had difficulty defining the actions included in the concept. They described a wide range of their work duties as preventive. The farmers' list of potential contributions by the veterinarians in HHM was strikingly short compared to the considerable number of preventive measures they performed themselves. Four main obstacles for farmers and farm managers to engage a veterinarian in HHM on their farm were identified in the analysis: "costs", "veterinary knowledge, skills, and organization", "farmer attitudes", and "veterinarian-farmer relationships". Costs were proposed as the main reason against engaging a veterinarian in HHM and included a high veterinary bill, low cost-benefit of veterinary services, and high costs to implement advice. Poor veterinary competence in HHM and poor knowledge about effective measures, practical farming, and farm economics were other important obstacles. Veterinarians were perceived to insufficiently describe their services and their benefits, and several participants felt they had never been offered veterinary HHM. Although veterinary HHM may be initiated by the farmer, the participants expected the veterinarian to have special responsibility for the initiation. A firm trust between farmer, staff, and veterinarian was considered crucial for veterinary HHM, but such trust takes a long time to build and can easily be disrupted by, for example, a veterinarian's poor communication skills or lack of time. Our findings suggest that Swedish dairy farmers and herd managers find disease prevention important and that they perform a wide range of tasks to prevent disease in their animals. However, they do not see what role the veterinarian can play, and veterinarians were mainly associated with treating unhealthy cows. In order to increase the use of veterinary HHM programs the services and potential benefits of such programs need to be communicated more proactively.

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