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  • 1. Aardema, Frederick
    et al.
    Johansson, Petter
    Uppsala University, The Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (SCASSS).
    Hall, Lars
    Paradisis, Stella-Marie
    Zidani, Melha
    Roberts, Sarah
    Choice Blindness, Confabulatory Introspection, and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A New Area of Investigation2014In: International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, ISSN 1937-1209, E-ISSN 1937-1217, Vol. 7, no 1, 83-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study is the first to investigate confabulatory introspection in relation to clinical psychological symptoms utilizing the Choice Blindness Paradigm (CBP). It was hypothesized that those with obsessive-compulsive symptoms are more likely to confabulate mental states. To test this hypothesis, an experimental choice blindness task was administered in two nonclinical samples (n = 47; n = 76). Results showed that a confabulatory introspection is significantly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. There was evidence for its specificity to symptoms of OCD depending on the obsessional theme addressed in the choice blindness task. However, confabulatory introspection was also found to be relevant to other symptoms, including depression and schizotypy. The results highlight a potentially fruitful new area of clinical investigation in the area of insight and self-knowledge, not limited to OCD alone, but potentially other disorders as well.

  • 2. Achermann, Sheila
    Småsyskonstudier om AST: föräldrarnas upplevelser2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3. Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Intense data collection from infant siblings of children on the autism spectrum: Is it ethical?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Parents’ Perspectives on Infant Sibling Studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Adam, Maurits
    et al.
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Reitenbach, Ivanina
    Euro FH Univ Appl Sci, Dept Psychol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Papenmeier, Frank
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Psychol, Tubingen, Germany..
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Max Planck Res Grp Naturalist Social Cognit, Berlin, Germany..
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Goal saliency boosts infants' action prediction for human manual actions, but not for mechanical claws2016In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, 29-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that infants' prediction of the goals of observed actions is influenced by own experience with the type of agent performing the action (i.e., human hand vs. non-human agent) as well as by action-relevant features of goal objects (e.g., object size). The present study investigated the combined effects of these factors on 12-month-olds' action prediction. Infants' (N=49) goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed 14 trials in which either a human hand or a mechanical claw reached for a small goal area (low-saliency goal) or a large goal area (high-saliency goal). Only infants who had observed the human hand reaching for a high-saliency goal fixated the goal object ahead of time, and they rapidly learned to predict the action goal across trials. By contrast, infants in all other conditions did not track the observed action in a predictive manner, and their gaze shifts to the action goal did not change systematically across trials. Thus, high-saliency goals seem to boost infants' predictive gaze shifts during the observation of human manual actions, but not of actions performed by a mechanical device. This supports the assumption that infants' action predictions are based on interactive effects of action-relevant object features (e.g., size) and own action experience.

  • 6.
    Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, 530-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyperor hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

  • 7. af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Alm, Per-Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Serotonin, personality and smoking2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. af Wahlberg, A. E.
    et al.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Empirical Test of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys2015In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 37, no 6, 336-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In surveys, nonresponse is considered a source of possible bias, which increases with the size of the nonresponding group. Nonresponse bias was investigated in 3 samples of offending drivers who were required to respond to an online questionnaire before taking a driver improvement course, creating an initial 100% response rate. The next 2 questionnaire waves were voluntary, and response rates were much lower. Results (means, internal consistency, correlations, etc.) in the first wave were compared between those who responded twice or thrice and those who responded only to the first wave. No substantial differences were found. Compared to common method variance, the effects of nonresponse are very small.

  • 9.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att mäta effekter av utbildning i sparsam körning2002In: Transportforum 2002, Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet , 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    af, Wåhlberg. A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fuel efficient driving training - state of the art and quantification of effects2002In: Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the validity of self-reported traffic accident data2002In: E140 Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göthe, Johan
    Fuel wasting behaviors of truck drivers2007In: Industrial Psychology Research Trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2007, 73-87 p.Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in Driver Celeration Behavior over Time: do Drivers Learn from Collisions?2012In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 15, no 5, 471-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that drivers’ accident risk changes with experience, it has never been specified exactly how this comes about in terms of changes of behaviour, or what features of their experiences are important for this change. One possibility is that drivers learn from their collision involvement, and change their behaviour after such events, as some studies indicate. However, relative accident involvement tends to be very stable over time, which indicates the opposite. Repeated measurements of celeration (speed change) behaviour of bus drivers were compared between two groups; drivers without accidents within the measurement period (about 3 years), and drivers with at least one crash. For the crash group, there was a steady decline in their celeration values over time, but this was not related to their crashes. A similar reduction was also present for the non-crash sample. The results would seem to be in agreement with the theory of accident proneness; there exist stability in driver behaviour over time, despite accident involvement. However, this stability is relative within the sample, and not absolute. The reduction in celeration values for both groups over time would seem to indicate that drivers learn from their experiences in general, but not specifically from accidents. The present study seems to indicate that daily experience of driving situations is the strongest factor for changes in driving behaviour.

  • 14.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport. Part II.2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, 63-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differential accident involvement of bus drivers2005In: Driver Behaviour and Training: Volume II / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2005, 383-391 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between 552 bus drivers' low-speed traffic incidents (without consideration of culpability) and their age, exposure (hours of work) and experience (years as a bus driver) were calculated using bus company data from the Swedish city of Uppsala for the years 1999-2003. It was found that risk decreases with age and experience, with experience as the strongest factor, carrying the effect. Exposure (hours worked) had a curvilinear association to accidents. Also, the use of accidents per work hour yielded more easily interpreted results than the absolute number, indicating the importance of taking exposure into account when predicting accidents. These results are mainly in agreement with previous studies on other road user groups. However, two different ways of calculating age effects (individual and group level) gave somewhat different results, indicating that a fairly popular method of calculating risk indexes may be faulty. Furthermore, time for holding a car driver's license did not influence bus accident liability, despite being strongly correlated with age, indicating that bus driving is separate from car driving experience. Also, the extremely small amount of variance accounted for by experience and age point to the importance of other factors, although there seem to be a strong effect during the first years of driving, which thereafter levels off.

  • 16.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver Behaviour and Accident Research Methodology: Unresolved Problems2009Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hourly changes in accident risk for bus drivers2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 2, 187-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accident risk has in some studies been found to change with the time of day, after controlling for exposure, probably due to diurnal changes in the human body, which changes alertness. However, exposure data are not always of good quality, and culpability for accidents is not always taken into account. The change in culpable accident risk over the day for bus drivers was therefore investigated, with single accidents analysed separately, using induced exposure (non-culpable bus accidents) as well as general traffic density and number of buses on the road as controlling factors. It was found that the risk distribution was fairly similar to some previous results before controlling for exposure, but dissimilar to other, probably indicating that bus drivers have a somewhat different risk profile, but also that previous studies may not have controlled for exposure in a reliable way. When exposure was held constant, the risk distribution was different from all other studies. The three different exposure measures correlated strongly between themselves, and each would seem to be adequate for a basic control. However, although general traffic density was most strongly correlated with culpable bus accidents, the induced exposure parameter added some explained variance. Single accidents had a very different risk distribution as compared to other culpable accidents when exposure had been held constant. A number of unexpected effects were also noted, mainly that single accidents were associated most strongly with general traffic density.

  • 18.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory effects in self-reports of crashes2012In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume V / [ed] L. Dorn, 2012, Vol. V, 283-288 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 2, 99-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. Method: A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. Results: For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. Discussion: As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Impact on industry: Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety.

  • 20.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Some methodological deficiencies in studies on traffic accident predictors2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 35, 473-486 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability and correlates of driver acceleration behaviour2003In: Driver Behaviour and Training. First International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training. Stratford-upon-Avon 11-12 November, 2003., 2003, 45-54 p.Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 22.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prediction of Traffic Accident Involvement from Driving Behavior2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the studies was to predict individual traffic accident involvement by the quantification of driving style in terms of speed changes, using bus drivers as subjects. An accident database was constructed from the archives of the bus company whose drivers were used as subjects. The dependent variable was also discussed regarding whether responsibility for crashes should be included, and what time period to use for optimal prediction. A new theory was constructed about how accidents are caused by driver behavior, more specifically the control movements of the driver, i.e. all actions taken which influence the relative motion of the vehicle in a level plane when v>0. This theory states that all traffic safety related behavior can be measured as celerations (change of speed of the vehicle in any direction of a level plane) and summed. This theoretical total sum is a measure of a person's liability to cause accidents over the same time period within a homogenous traffic environment and a similarly homogenous driving population. Empirically, the theory predicts a positive correlation between mean driver celeration behavior and accident record. The theory was tested in three empirical studies. The first tested equipment and methods, the second studied the question whether driver celeration behavior is stable over time. Celeration behavior turned out to be rather variable between days, and repeated measurements were therefore needed to stabilize the measure. In the third study, a much larger amount of data brought out correlations of sizes sufficient to lend some credibility to the theory. However, the predictive power did not extend beyond two years of time. The reported results would seem to imply that the celeration variable can predict accident involvement (at least for bus drivers), and is practical to use, as it is easily and objectively measured and semi-stable over time.

    List of papers
    1. Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    2008 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 9, 383-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93939 (URN)10.1080/14639220701596722 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    2000 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, 29-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93940 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2009-03-05Bibliographically approved
    3. The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    2004 In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, 83-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93941 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 3, 281-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

    Keyword
    bus driver, traffic accident, crash, acceleration, celeration, driver behavior
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93942 (URN)000240701400006 ()16984787 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 23.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study2000In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, 29-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of non-culpable traffic incidents to bus drivers' celeration behavior2008In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 39, no 1, 41-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The driver celeration behavior theory predicts that celerations are associated with incidents for which the driver has some responsibility in causing, but not other incidents. Method: The hypothesis was tested in 25 samples of repeated measurements of bus drivers' celeration behavior against their incidents for two years. Results: The results confirmed the prediction; in 18 samples, the correlation for culpable incidents only was higher than for all incidents, despite the higher means of the latter. Non-culpable incidents had correlations close to zero with celeration. Discussion: It was pointed out that most individual crash prediction studies have not made this differentiation, and thus probably yielded underestimates of the associations sought, although the effect is not strong, due to non-culpable accident involvements being few (less than a third of the total). The methods for correct identification of culpable incident involvements were discussed.

  • 25.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, 83-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis" Comments.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, 83-85 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    Kline, T
    The effect of social desirability on self reported and recorded road traffic accidents2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 2, 106-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lie scales has a fairly long history in psychometrics, with the intention of identifying and correcting for socially desirable answers. This represents one type of common method variance (bias introduced when both predictors and predicted variables are gathered from the same source), which may lead to spurious associations in self-reports. Within traffic safety research, where self-report methods are used abundantly, it is uncommon to control for social desirability artifacts, or reporting associations between lie scales, crashes and driver behaviour scales. In the present study, it was shown that self-reports of traffic accidents were negatively associated with a lie scale for driving, while recorded ones were not, as could be expected if the scale was valid and a self-report bias existed. We conclude that whenever self-reported crashes are used as an outcome variable and predicted by other self-report measures, a lie scale should be included and used for correcting the associations. However, the only existing lie scale for traffic safety is not likely to catch all socially desirable responding, because traffic safety may not be desirable for all demographic groups. New lie scales should be developed specifically for driver behaviour questionnaires, to counter potential bias and artifactual results. Alternatively, the use of a single source of data should be discontinued.

  • 28. Af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Freeman, James
    Commentary on the rebuttal by de Winter and Dodou.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, 90-3 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Kline, Theresa
    University of Calgary.
    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as predictor of road traffic accidents2011In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 12, 66-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A reporting guide for studies on individual differences in traffic safety2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, 381-383 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Studies on individual differences in traffic safety report differently on their methodologies, and use different statistics, and these are therefore difficult to compare and meta-analyze. Method: Based upon a previous, extensive review and meta-analysis of the traffic safety literature, several recommendations are made about what features of the methodology of studies on individual differences (including evaluations) in safety need to be reported to facilitate interpretation and meta-analysis. Similarly, some basic types of statistical values are recommended. Impact on Industry: The accumulation of knowledge about individual differences in traffic safety would be facilitated if scientific authors and journals adhered to these guidelines.

  • 31.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aggregation of driver celeration behavior data: Effects on stability and accident prediction2007In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 45, no 4, 487-500 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions about effects of aggregating driver celeration data were tested in a set of data where bus drivers' behavior had been measured repeatedly over three years in a city environment. For drivers with many measurements, this data was correlated with the drivers' accident record at various levels of aggregation over measurements. A single measurement (one sample) was seldom a significant predictor, but for each drive added to a mean, the variation explained in accident record was increased by about 1%. Also, correlations between measurements increased when these were aggregated, and the association with number of passengers (a proxy for traffic density) decreased somewhat, all as predicted. These results show that although driver celeration behavior is only semi-stable across time and environments, aggregating measurements increases both stability and predictive power versus accidents considerably. The celeration variable is therefore promising as a tool for identifying dangerous drivers, if these can be measured repeatedly, or, even better, continuously.

  • 32.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 1, 9-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density cirrcumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Method: Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). Results: After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. Conclusions: The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

  • 33.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Environmental determinants of celeration behaviour2015In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 21, no 1, 71-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celeration (speed change) behaviour of drivers has been posited to be the best predictor of their traffic accident involvement. The origins of this behaviour, however, have not been specified. A model is therefore introduced, where celeration is partly due to the individual disposition of the driver (i.e., driving style), and partly to the environment (road layout, rules and traffic density). Three measurement problems for celeration were studied; the effect of traffic density, of regular versus irregular routes, and weight of the vehicle (loaded/unloaded) on celeration behaviour. Two small samples of truck drivers in Sweden were measured for several months each. There was a strong effect of vehicle load, with behaviour being more cautious with increased weight. Driving on different roads also yielded differences in behaviour, although the design used did not permit conclusions about what caused these. Traffic volume was not found to have any reliable effect on celeration.

  • 34.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    If you can’t take the heat: Influences of temperature on bus accident rates2008In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 46, no 1, 66-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of heat and rain upon accident risk of city buses in a Swedish town were studied for a 10-year time period, but no reliable effects found, despite the fact that the temperature might be as high as 30 degrees C outside the vehicles. As the use of single accidents with buses bypasses many of the methodological problems inherent in the study of weather effects on accident rates, for example changes in general traffic density, the present study was a rather strict test of the hypothesis of increased accident risk due to these factors. It was therefore concluded that rain and high temperatures do not increase the risk of accident for low-speed buses in Sweden. However, there could still be an effect of hot weather on bus accidents at higher temperatures than those normally found in Sweden.

  • 35.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term prediction of traffic accident record from bus driver celeration behavior2007In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, no 2, 159-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers measured a number of times was used to predict their culpable accidents over increasing time periods. It was found that predictive power was considerable (>.30 correlation) over 5 years of time with aggregated celeration (mean of repeated measurements) as independent variables, and there were also indications that power reached even further, although too low Ns made these results unreliable. Similarly, there were indications of even stronger correlations with increased aggregation of celeration values. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology needed to bring out such results, and the stability of accident-causing behavior over time.

  • 36.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Re-education of young driving offenders: Effects on self-reports of driver behavior2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, 331-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Offending drivers are often re-educated, but these courses have seldom been shown to have any safety effects. Method: An on-line improvement course for offending drivers below the age of 25 was evaluated with several driver inventories. Results: The drivers reported higher levels of aggression, stress, sensation seeking, drunk driving, and driving violations, six months after the course than before. However, these levels were lower than those of controls, indicating that the initially low levels for the education group were due to socially desirable responding, as measured by a lie scale, an effect that waned after the course. Discussion: The results can be interpreted as a positive effect of the education, although this conclusion is tentative and not in agreement with all effects in the data. Impact on industry: The results are in disagreement with previous evaluation studies using the same or similar instruments, and show the need to include controls for social desirability in self-report studies.

  • 37.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The theoretical features of some current approaches to risk perception2001In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 4, no 3, 237-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three approaches to risk perception (RP), the psychometric, the Basic Risk Perception Model, and the social amplification of risk, are evaluated using four common criteria for scientific theories. All approaches are found to meet the criterion of describing a large set of data, and for the psychometric approach and the Basic Risk Perception Model, the criterion of parsimony is fulfilled. The criteria of falsifiability and generating testable hypotheses are not met by any of these approaches. It is concluded that there is not as much theory available in RP research as could be expected at face value, if theory is defined as statements about causal mechanisms generating testable hypotheses. These three approaches instead qualifies as models (here defined as mathematical descriptions of data).

  • 38.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Svenska arbetsgivares implicita stereotyper av arabiska muslimer och överviktiga2008In: Socialvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 12, 239-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Ahlström, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Börjesson, Erik
    Ahlström, Vicki
    Perceptual interference in the processing of superimposed motions1999In: Visual Cognition, Vol. 6(2), 129-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Ahmed, Sara
    et al.
    Schwartz, Carolyn
    Ring, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.
    Applications of health-related quality of life for guiding health care: advances in response shift research2009In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 62, no 11, 1115-1117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Ahs, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Women with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Have Increased Harm Avoidance and Reduced 5-HT1A Receptor Binding Potential in the Anterior Cingulate and Amygdala2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Contrary to the expectations it was recently found that persons with MCS activate the odor-processing brain regions less than controls, while their activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is increased. The present follow-up study was designed to test the hypotheses that MCS subjects have increased harm avoidance and deviations in the serotonin system, which could render them intolerant to environmental odors. Twelve MCS and 11 control subjects, age 22–44, all working or studying females, were included in a PET study where 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (BP) was assessed after bolus injection of [11C]WAY100635. Psychological profiles were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. All MCS and 12 control subjects were also tested for emotional startle modulation in an acoustic startle test. MCS subjects exhibited significantly increased harm avoidance, and anxiety compared to controls. They also had a reduced 5-HT1A receptor BP in amygdala (p = 0.029), ACC (p = 0.005) (planned comparisons, significance level 0.05), and insular cortex (p = 0.003; significance level p<0.005 with Bonferroni correction), and showed an inverse correlation between degree of anxiety and the BP in the amygdala (planned comparison). No group by emotional category difference was found in the startle test. Increased harm avoidance and the observed changes in the 5-HT1A receptor BP in the regions processing harm avoidance provides a plausible pathophysiological ground for the symptoms described in MCS, and yields valuable information for our general understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerances.

  • 42.
    Ahs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Caroline F
    Gorka, Adam X
    Hariri, Ahmad R
    Feature-based representations of emotional facial expressions in the human amygdala.2014In: Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 9, no 9, 1372-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amygdala plays a central role in processing facial affect, responding to diverse expressions and features shared between expressions. Although speculation exists regarding the nature of relationships between expression- and feature-specific amygdala reactivity, this matter has not been fully explored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of 300 young adults, to investigate patterns related to expression- and feature-specific amygdala reactivity to faces displaying neutral, fearful, angry or surprised expressions. The PCA revealed a two-dimensional correlation structure that distinguished emotional categories. The first principal component separated neutral and surprised from fearful and angry expressions, whereas the second principal component separated neutral and angry from fearful and surprised expressions. This two-dimensional correlation structure of amygdala reactivity may represent specific feature-based cues conserved across discrete expressions. To delineate which feature-based cues characterized this pattern, face stimuli were averaged and then subtracted according to their principal component loadings. The first principal component corresponded to displacement of the eyebrows, whereas the second principal component corresponded to increased exposure of eye whites together with movement of the brow. Our results suggest a convergent representation of facial affect in the amygdala reflecting feature-based processing of discrete expressions.

  • 43.
    Akrami, N
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social categories and stereotypes: A case of intimacy?2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1, stereotypic knowledge about the social category immigrants and its subcategories was examined and related to participants’ degree of explicit prejudice. Study 2 examined differences in implicit prejudice (negative evaluations of outgroups) as

  • 44.
    Akrami, N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, B
    Category and stereotype activation revisited2002In: Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Savannah, GA, USA. January, 31 - february 2,, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1, we examined the knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants and the national/ethnic categories associated with immigrants among high- and low-prejudice participants (N = 230). Stereotype priming occurs when a stereotypical word (e.g., lazy

  • 45.
    Akrami, N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, B
    Personality and Prejudice: A Person-centered versus a Variable-centered Approach2002In: In Rammstedt B; Riemann R (Eds.) 11th European Conference on Personality, Jena, Germany, June 21-25, 2002, Conference Program and Abstracts, Papst Science Publishers: Lengerich , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a relationship between people’s personalities and their degree of prejudice? This issue was studies using a variable-centered (the most often used method) and a person-centered statistical approach (not so often applied). The variable-centered ap

  • 46.
    Akrami, N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, B
    Araya, T
    Classical and modern racial prejudice: a study of attitudes toward immigrants in Sweden2000In: European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 30, no 4, 521-532 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies we develop and validate a Classical-overt or direct-and a Modern-covert or subtle-Racial Prejudice Scale, concerning attitudes toward immigrants, for a Swedish (Scandinavian) context. Further, we examine whether these two forms of prejudice

  • 47.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Decomposing prejudice: Identifying the basis of personality-prejudice relations2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: In two studies, aimed to examine the concept of generalized prejudice and the relationship between personality and prejudice, we found that attitudes toward various national and ethnic groups including a fictitious, an unknown, and a well-known group were significantly correlated (Study 1, N = 113). In Study 2 (N = 861), we found significant intercorrelations between four types of prejudice. More important, we made a theoretical and a statistical distinction between an abstract and a group-specific component of prejudice and found that personality variables explained a substantial proportion of the variance of the abstract part but a very small share of the group-specific component. The findings support the existence of a generalized prejudice tendency and a substantial relationship between personality and prejudice, and show that personality is related to prejudice at an abstract rather than specific level. The outcome is discussed in the light of the personality and social psychological explanations of prejudice.

  • 48.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prejudice: The Interplay of Personality, Cognition, and Social Psychology2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three main theoretical approaches to the study of the causation of prejudice can be distinguished within psychological research. The cognitive approach suggests that prejudice is a function of cognitive processes where stereotypic information about social groups, stored in memory, is automatically activated and affects people’s judgements and behavior toward members of the target group. The personality approach suggests that prejudice is a function of people’s personality characteristics. Finally, the social psychological approach emphasizes people’s group membership and group identification as the as major source of causation.

    Previous research has almost entirely focused on only one approach of causation at a time. The focus has also shifted periodically – with attention paid to one approach at each period of time. The present thesis is an attempt to integrate these approaches and suggests an integrative model where the relative contribution of each approach could be assessed. The underlying assumption is that all three approaches are meaningful and that prejudice is a complex phenomenon that is best explained by taking into account all approaches jointly.

    Examining the cognitive approach, Paper I revealed that people are knowledgeable of the cultural stereotypes and that stereotypic information is automatically activated and affects people’s judgments. Paper II (and Paper III) supported the personality approach and revealed that prejudice is highly related to primary personality characteristics and, in line with a central idea in this approach, different types of prejudice (ethnic prejudice, sexism, homophobia, and prejudice toward disabled people) are highly correlated. The results of Paper III revealed the importance of group membership and group identification, supporting the social psychology approach.

    The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and the necessity to integrate various approaches and disciplines to explain psychological phenomena in general and prejudice in particular. Also, implications of the findings for prejudice prevention are discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Category and stereotype activation revisited
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Category and stereotype activation revisited
    2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, 513-522 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants' explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N= 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people's explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype priming condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and immigrants as primes, showed that participants' implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the distinction between category and stereotype priming and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

    Keyword
    Category activation, Explicit prejudice, Implicit prejudice, Stereotype activation
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93025 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00523.x (DOI)000242725900009 ()17107500 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-22 Created: 2005-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, social dominance orientation or right-wing authoritarianism?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, social dominance orientation or right-wing authoritarianism?
    2004 In: European Journal of Personality, Vol. 18, 463-482 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93026 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-04-22 Created: 2005-04-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Prejudice: Personality or social psychology?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prejudice: Personality or social psychology?
    Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93027 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-04-22 Created: 2005-04-22Bibliographically approved
  • 49.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Category and Stereotype Activation Revisited: The Intimate Relation between Category and Stereotypes2004In: The 6th European Social Cognition Network Meeting, Lisboa, Portugal, 2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants’ explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N = 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people’s explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype activation condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and Immigrants as primes, showed that participants’ implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to previous research, the distinction between category and stereotype activation, and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

  • 50.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ethnic Prejudice: The Explanatory Power of Personality and Social Psychology2005In: the Conference on Personality, Group and Social Psychology, 2005, 7-20 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 1984
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