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  • 1. Aardema, Frederick
    et al.
    Johansson, Petter
    Uppsala University, The Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (SCASSS).
    Hall, Lars
    Paradisis, Stella-Marie
    Zidani, Melha
    Roberts, Sarah
    Choice Blindness, Confabulatory Introspection, and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A New Area of Investigation2014In: International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, ISSN 1937-1209, E-ISSN 1937-1217, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study is the first to investigate confabulatory introspection in relation to clinical psychological symptoms utilizing the Choice Blindness Paradigm (CBP). It was hypothesized that those with obsessive-compulsive symptoms are more likely to confabulate mental states. To test this hypothesis, an experimental choice blindness task was administered in two nonclinical samples (n = 47; n = 76). Results showed that a confabulatory introspection is significantly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. There was evidence for its specificity to symptoms of OCD depending on the obsessional theme addressed in the choice blindness task. However, confabulatory introspection was also found to be relevant to other symptoms, including depression and schizotypy. The results highlight a potentially fruitful new area of clinical investigation in the area of insight and self-knowledge, not limited to OCD alone, but potentially other disorders as well.

  • 2.
    Abdi, Saida
    et al.
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA..
    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.
    CUNY City Coll, New York, NY USA.;CUNY, New York, NY USA..
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Fazel, Mina
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Ellis, B. Heidi
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Gillespie, Sarah
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA..
    Juang, Linda P.
    Univ Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany..
    Betancourt, Theresa S.
    Boston Coll, Sch Social Work, Chestnut Hill, MA USA..
    Promoting positive development among refugee adolescents2023In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 1064-1084Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the estimated 35.3 million refugees around the world (UNHCR, Figures at a Glance, 2022), approximately 50% are children under the age of 18. Refugee adolescents represent a unique group as they navigate developmental tasks in an unstable and often threatening environment or in resettlement contexts in which they often face marginalization. In addition to physiological, social, and psychological changes that mark adolescence, refugee youth often face traumatic experiences, acculturative stress, discrimination, and a lack of basic resources. In this consensus statement, we examine research on refugee adolescents' developmental tasks, acculturative tasks, and psychological adjustment using Suarez-Orozco and colleague's integrative risk and resilience model for immigrant-origin children and youth proposed by Suarez-Orozco et al. Finally, we discuss recommendations-moving from proximal to more distal contexts.

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  • 3.
    Abou-Soultan, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att kartlägga högskolestudenters psykiska ohälsa: Enkätanonymitetens effekt på svarsfrekvenser samt sambandet mellan stimatiserade erfarenheter och psykisk hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tiden för högskolestudier är en avgörande period i många unga människors liv då den utgör en övergång från tonåren till vuxenlivet, och det är under dessa år som många typer av psykisk ohälsa har sin debut. Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera en pilotenkät som var grunden för en ny forskningsinfrastruktur med syfte att kartlägga och förebygga psykisk ohälsa hos studenter med befintlig ohälsa eller som är i riskgrupp att utveckla psykisk ohälsa, samt behandla psykisk ohälsa via digitala insatser på universitet och högskolor. För att kunna ge behandling där behov identifierats kommer framtida enkäter behöva vara av konfidentiell art. Därför syftade denna studie att undersöka hur olika grader av integritetsintrång påverkar benägenheten hos studenter med stigmatiserande erfarenheter att svara på en enkät om psykisk ohälsa. Studien ämnade också undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan stigmatiserande erfarenheter och psykisk ohälsa i form at substansbruk, våld, suicidalitet och sexuell lägging. Resultaten visar att integritetsintrång inte har någon effekt på studenters benägenhet att svara på frågor av känslig natur. Vidare visar resultaten att det finns ett samband mellan stigmatiserande erfarenheter i form av substansbruk, suicidalitet, våld samt sexuell läggning och psykisk ohälsa i form av överlag upplevd psykisk ohälsa och/eller depression eller ångest under livstiden och de senaste 12 månaderna. 

  • 4. Abrahams, Harriët J. G.
    et al.
    Knoop, Hans
    Schreurs, Maartje
    Aaronson, Neil K.
    Jacobsen, Paul B.
    Newton, Robert U.
    Courneya, Kerry S.
    Aitken, Joanne F.
    Arving, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Lifestyle and rehabilitation in long term illness.
    Brandberg, Yvonne
    Chambers, Suzanne K.
    Gielissen, Marieke F. M.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Goedendorp, Martine M.
    Graves, Kristi D.
    Heiney, Sue P.
    Horne, Rob
    Hunter, Myra S.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Northouse, Laurel L.
    Oldenburg, Hester S. A.
    Prins, Judith B.
    Savard, Josée
    van Beurden, Marc
    van den Berg, Sanne W.
    Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.
    Buffart, Laurien M.
    Moderators of the effect of psychosocial interventions on fatigue in women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer: Individual patient data meta-analyses2020In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1772-1785Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Psychosocial interventions can reduce cancer‐related fatigue effectively. However, it is still unclear if intervention effects differ across subgroups of patients. These meta‐analyses aimed at evaluating moderator effects of (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) clinical characteristics, (c) baseline levels of fatigue and other symptoms, and (d) intervention‐related characteristics on the effect of psychosocial interventions on cancer‐related fatigue in patients with non‐metastatic breast and prostate cancer.

    Methods

    Data were retrieved from the Predicting OptimaL cAncer RehabIlitation and Supportive care (POLARIS) consortium. Potential moderators were studied with meta‐analyses of pooled individual patient data from 14 randomized controlled trials through linear mixed‐effects models with interaction tests. The analyses were conducted separately in patients with breast (n = 1091) and prostate cancer (n = 1008).

    Results

    Statistically significant, small overall effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue were found (breast cancer: β = −0.19 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) = −0.30; −0.08]; prostate cancer: β = −0.11 [95%CI = −0.21; −0.00]). In both patient groups, intervention effects did not differ significantly by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics, nor by baseline levels of fatigue or pain. For intervention‐related moderators (only tested among women with breast cancer), statistically significant larger effects were found for cognitive behavioral therapy as intervention strategy (β = −0.27 [95%CI = −0.40; −0.15]), fatigue‐specific interventions (β = −0.48 [95%CI = −0.79; −0.18]), and interventions that only targeted patients with clinically relevant fatigue (β = −0.85 [95%CI = −1.40; −0.30]).

    Conclusions

    Our findings did not provide evidence that any selected demographic or clinical characteristic, or baseline levels of fatigue or pain, moderated effects of psychosocial interventions on fatigue. A specific focus on decreasing fatigue seems beneficial for patients with breast cancer with clinically relevant fatigue.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ahlund, Lovisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahrin, Elsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Video-based CBT-E improves eating patterns in obese patients with eating disorder: A single case multiple baseline study2018In: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, ISSN 0005-7916, E-ISSN 1873-7943, Vol. 61, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective for treating eating disorders but it may be difficult to reach patients living far from urban centers. Mobile video-based psychotherapy may potentially improve service reach but has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile video-based CBT for eating disorder and to explore the feasibility to use this technology in clinical care.

    METHODS:

    A controlled single case multiple baseline design was used which allowed for statistical analyses with randomization tests and non-overlap of all pairs (NAP). Five patients in the first stage of eating disorder treatment were included and the main outcome variable was daily meal frequency. Secondary outcome variables included eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress and treatment satisfaction.

    RESULTS:

    The treatment resulted in a significant (p < .01) increase in daily meal frequency with medium to large effect sizes (combined NAP = .89). Four participants reported reliable improvements in eating disorder symptoms and three reported improvements in mood. The participants reported high satisfaction with the treatment and with the mobile video-application despite some technical problems.

    LIMITATIONS:

    Self-reported data on eating behavior is prone to be biased and the results of single case studies may have limited generalizability.

    CONCLUSION:

    CBT can be delivered effectively via a mobile video application and, despite some technological issues, can be well received by patients. All participants in this study had previous low access to mental health services and reported high satisfaction with the treatment format.

  • 6.
    Abu-Quota, Nedal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Silfverhammar, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effekt av musik på bedömningar av attraktivitet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Musik väcker olika emotioner inom oss som bidrar till arousal. Tidigare studier har fått blandade resultat när de försökt visa att arousal från musik leder till att vi finner varandra mer attraktiva. Denna studie ämnar visa att musiken påverkar vid bedömningen av andras attraktion. Ett kvasi-experiment genomfördes med oberoende variablerna musik och kön med vardera två lägen samt den beroende variabeln attraktion. Deltagarna i experimentgruppen fick svara på en enkät och skatta 15 bilder på motsatt kön samtidigt som de lyssnade på en låt från topplistan. Låten valdes utifrån arousal och valence enligt Circumplex-modellen som systematiserar emotioner (Russel, 1980). Kontrollgruppen svarade på samma enkät men utan musik. Resultatet visar på en icke signifikant huvudeffekt av musik, en icke signifikant interaktionseffekt av kön och musik. Studien visade ingen signifikant effekt av musikalisk erfarenhet på skattad attraktivitet.

  • 7.
    Achermann, Sheila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prediction in Typical and Atypical Development2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forming predictions about what is going to happen next is a crucial ability that develops early in life. Theory and some empirical evidence suggest that predictive abilities may be impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate early measures of prediction in relation to concurrent and later outcomes in typical and atypical development, with a particular focus on ASD and related behavioral problems.

    In Study I, we used motion capture technology to examine prospective motor control and its relationship to executive functions in typically developing 18-month-olds. Our findings showed that motor control is associated with executive functioning in infancy.

    Study II investigated motor control in infants at low and elevated likelihood for ASD and examined how these measures relate to later development. We found group differences as well as similarities in motor control in 10-months-olds with and without a familial history of ASD. Early motor measures were related to general developmental level, but not ASD symptomatology in toddlerhood.

    Using eye tracking, Study III examined how infants with later ASD and neurotypical infants form predictions about visual object motion. Our findings indicated that infants with later ASD were able to form predictions about object motion and adapt to simple changes in motion patterns, and that their performance did not differ from the performance of neurotypical infants.

    In Study IV, we surveyed parents about their experiences during participation in an infant sibling study of ASD as a first step to understanding the benefits and risks associated with this type of research. Parents were generally positive about their experiences both from their own perspective as well as, the child’s perspective.

    This thesis illustrates the potential of using advanced technology, such as motion tracking and eye tracking, to study and compare prediction in typical and atypical development. It points to the important role of prediction and motor control for child development, but fails to find a specific link to ASD.

    List of papers
    1. An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1600-1610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasksinvolving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibitionand a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life.

    Keywords
    prospective motor control, motor development, executive functions, reaching, infancy
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314054 (URN)10.1177/0956797616667447 (DOI)000390582500006 ()
    Funder
    EU, European Research Council, 312292
    Available from: 2017-01-26 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Motor Atypicalities in Infancy are Associated with General Developmental Level at Two Years, but Not Autistic Symptoms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motor Atypicalities in Infancy are Associated with General Developmental Level at Two Years, but Not Autistic Symptoms
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-408578 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-04-08 Created: 2020-04-08 Last updated: 2020-04-08
    3. Updating Expectations about Unexpected Object Motion in Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Updating Expectations about Unexpected Object Motion in Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    2021 (English)In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 4186-4198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In typical development, infants form predictions about future events based on incoming sensory information, which is essential for perception and goal-directed action. It has been suggested that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make predictions differently compared to neurotypical individuals. We investigated how infants who later received an ASD diagnosis and neurotypical infants react to temporarily occluded moving objects that violate initial expectations about object motion. Our results indicate that infants regardless of clinical outcome react similarly to unexpected object motion patterns, both in terms of gaze shift latencies and pupillary responses. These findings indicate that the ability to update representations about such regularities in light of new information may not differ between typically developing infants and those with later ASD.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Nature, 2021
    Keywords
    Infants, Autism spectrum disorder, Visual motion, Prediction, Eye tracking, Tolerance for uncertainty
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-408576 (URN)10.1007/s10803-021-04876-2 (DOI)000613092100003 ()33517525 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1Swedish Research Council, 2018-06232
    Available from: 2020-04-08 Created: 2020-04-08 Last updated: 2023-07-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study of autism spectrum disorder
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study of autism spectrum disorder
    2020 (English)In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 69, article id 101454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) play an important role in advancing our knowledge about early developmental pathways in ASD. Despite this clear benefit, currently little is known about potential risks or disadvantages for participating families. As a first step in addressing this issue, we asked parents about their experiences from participating in an infant sibling study.

    Method:

    Eighty-eight families responded to a questionnaire examining parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. The questions assessed parents' satisfaction with the study, the child's perceived satisfaction, and the parents' motivation for participating. The study included parents of two groups, (1) infants with an older sibling diagnosed with ASD (HR, high risk, n = 43) and (2) infants with no familial history of ASD (LR, low risk, n = 21).

    Results:

    The results indicated that parents are generally positive about study participation and few disadvantages were reported. This pattern was mirrored when splitting parents' responses into the two groups. There was no indication for group differences between parents of infants at high risk and low risk for ASD.

    Conclusion:

    Our findings present a first step into understanding parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. Most parents were satisfied with participation in the study and only few disadvantages were reported. Our results have implications for ethical discussions about benefits and risks regarding infant sibling studies in various fields.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier BV, 2020
    Keywords
    Autism spectrum disorder, Infant siblings, Early identification, Ethics, Risk factors
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400748 (URN)10.1016/j.rasd.2019.101454 (DOI)000501403800001 ()
    Funder
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1Swedish Research Council, 2015-03670
    Available from: 2020-01-03 Created: 2020-01-03 Last updated: 2021-09-01Bibliographically approved
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  • 8. Achermann, Sheila
    Småsyskonstudier om AST: föräldrarnas upplevelser2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bolte, Sven
    Karolinska Inst & Reg Stockholm, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Psychiat Res, Karolinska Inst KIND,Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden;Curtin Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy Social Work & Speech Pathol, Essential Partner Autism CRC, Curtin Autism Res Grp, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Karolinska Inst & Reg Stockholm, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Psychiat Res, Karolinska Inst KIND,Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study of autism spectrum disorder2020In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 69, article id 101454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) play an important role in advancing our knowledge about early developmental pathways in ASD. Despite this clear benefit, currently little is known about potential risks or disadvantages for participating families. As a first step in addressing this issue, we asked parents about their experiences from participating in an infant sibling study.

    Method:

    Eighty-eight families responded to a questionnaire examining parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. The questions assessed parents' satisfaction with the study, the child's perceived satisfaction, and the parents' motivation for participating. The study included parents of two groups, (1) infants with an older sibling diagnosed with ASD (HR, high risk, n = 43) and (2) infants with no familial history of ASD (LR, low risk, n = 21).

    Results:

    The results indicated that parents are generally positive about study participation and few disadvantages were reported. This pattern was mirrored when splitting parents' responses into the two groups. There was no indication for group differences between parents of infants at high risk and low risk for ASD.

    Conclusion:

    Our findings present a first step into understanding parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. Most parents were satisfied with participation in the study and only few disadvantages were reported. Our results have implications for ethical discussions about benefits and risks regarding infant sibling studies in various fields.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10. Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Intense data collection from infant siblings of children on the autism spectrum: Is it ethical?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Parents’ Perspectives on Infant Sibling Studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Updating Expectations about Unexpected Object Motion in Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder2021In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 4186-4198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In typical development, infants form predictions about future events based on incoming sensory information, which is essential for perception and goal-directed action. It has been suggested that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make predictions differently compared to neurotypical individuals. We investigated how infants who later received an ASD diagnosis and neurotypical infants react to temporarily occluded moving objects that violate initial expectations about object motion. Our results indicate that infants regardless of clinical outcome react similarly to unexpected object motion patterns, both in terms of gaze shift latencies and pupillary responses. These findings indicate that the ability to update representations about such regularities in light of new information may not differ between typically developing infants and those with later ASD.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Motor atypicalities in infancy are associated with general developmental level at 2 years, but not autistic symptoms2020In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 1650-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atypical motor development has frequently been reported in infants at elevated likelihood for autism spectrum disorder. However, no previous study has used detailed motion capture technology to compare infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder and infant siblings with no familial history of autism spectrum disorder. We investigated reaching movements during an interceptive action task in 10-month-old infants using kinematic data with high spatiotemporal resolution. The results indicated that several measures were different in infants at elevated likelihood. However, longitudinal analyses revealed that while specific infant motor measures (e.g. number of movement units) were related to broad measures of general developmental level in toddlerhood, the associations with later autism spectrum disorder symptomatology were not significant. These findings confirm that some aspects of motor functioning are atypical in infants at elevated likelihood for autism spectrum disorder, but provide no support for the view that these issues are specifically linked to autism spectrum disorder symptoms, but may rather reflect neurodevelopment more generally.Lay abstractAtypicalities in motor functioning are often observed in later born infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of our study was to investigate motor functioning in infants with and without familial history of autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we investigated how infants catch a ball that is rolling toward them following a non-straight path, a task that requires both efficient planning and execution. Their performance was measured using detailed three-dimensional motion capture technology. We found that several early motor functioning measures were different in infants with an older autistic sibling compared to controls. However, these early motor measures were not related to autistic symptoms at the age of 2 years. Instead, we found that some of the early motor measures were related to their subsequent non-social, general development. The findings of our study help us understand motor functioning early in life and how motor functioning is related to other aspects of development.

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    fulltext
  • 14.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Motor Atypicalities in Infancy are Associated with General Developmental Level at Two Years, but Not Autistic SymptomsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Characterizing Motor Functioning in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Motion Capture Technology2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Adam, Maurits
    et al.
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Reitenbach, Ivanina
    Euro FH Univ Appl Sci, Dept Psychol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Papenmeier, Frank
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Psychol, Tubingen, Germany..
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Max Planck Res Grp Naturalist Social Cognit, Berlin, Germany..
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Goal saliency boosts infants' action prediction for human manual actions, but not for mechanical claws2016In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that infants' prediction of the goals of observed actions is influenced by own experience with the type of agent performing the action (i.e., human hand vs. non-human agent) as well as by action-relevant features of goal objects (e.g., object size). The present study investigated the combined effects of these factors on 12-month-olds' action prediction. Infants' (N=49) goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed 14 trials in which either a human hand or a mechanical claw reached for a small goal area (low-saliency goal) or a large goal area (high-saliency goal). Only infants who had observed the human hand reaching for a high-saliency goal fixated the goal object ahead of time, and they rapidly learned to predict the action goal across trials. By contrast, infants in all other conditions did not track the observed action in a predictive manner, and their gaze shifts to the action goal did not change systematically across trials. Thus, high-saliency goals seem to boost infants' predictive gaze shifts during the observation of human manual actions, but not of actions performed by a mechanical device. This supports the assumption that infants' action predictions are based on interactive effects of action-relevant object features (e.g., size) and own action experience.

  • 17.
    Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, p. 530-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyperor hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

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  • 18. af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Alm, Per-Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Serotonin, personality and smoking2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. af Wahlberg, A. E.
    et al.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Empirical Test of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys2015In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 336-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In surveys, nonresponse is considered a source of possible bias, which increases with the size of the nonresponding group. Nonresponse bias was investigated in 3 samples of offending drivers who were required to respond to an online questionnaire before taking a driver improvement course, creating an initial 100% response rate. The next 2 questionnaire waves were voluntary, and response rates were much lower. Results (means, internal consistency, correlations, etc.) in the first wave were compared between those who responded twice or thrice and those who responded only to the first wave. No substantial differences were found. Compared to common method variance, the effects of nonresponse are very small.

  • 20.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att mäta effekter av utbildning i sparsam körning2002In: Transportforum 2002, Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet , 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 21.
    af, Wåhlberg. A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fuel efficient driving training - state of the art and quantification of effects2002In: Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the validity of self-reported traffic accident data2002In: E140 Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göthe, Johan
    Fuel wasting behaviors of truck drivers2007In: Industrial Psychology Research Trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2007, p. 73-87Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 24.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in Driver Celeration Behavior over Time: do Drivers Learn from Collisions?2012In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that drivers’ accident risk changes with experience, it has never been specified exactly how this comes about in terms of changes of behaviour, or what features of their experiences are important for this change. One possibility is that drivers learn from their collision involvement, and change their behaviour after such events, as some studies indicate. However, relative accident involvement tends to be very stable over time, which indicates the opposite. Repeated measurements of celeration (speed change) behaviour of bus drivers were compared between two groups; drivers without accidents within the measurement period (about 3 years), and drivers with at least one crash. For the crash group, there was a steady decline in their celeration values over time, but this was not related to their crashes. A similar reduction was also present for the non-crash sample. The results would seem to be in agreement with the theory of accident proneness; there exist stability in driver behaviour over time, despite accident involvement. However, this stability is relative within the sample, and not absolute. The reduction in celeration values for both groups over time would seem to indicate that drivers learn from their experiences in general, but not specifically from accidents. The present study seems to indicate that daily experience of driving situations is the strongest factor for changes in driving behaviour.

  • 25.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport. Part II.2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differential accident involvement of bus drivers2005In: Driver Behaviour and Training: Volume II / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2005, p. 383-391Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between 552 bus drivers' low-speed traffic incidents (without consideration of culpability) and their age, exposure (hours of work) and experience (years as a bus driver) were calculated using bus company data from the Swedish city of Uppsala for the years 1999-2003. It was found that risk decreases with age and experience, with experience as the strongest factor, carrying the effect. Exposure (hours worked) had a curvilinear association to accidents. Also, the use of accidents per work hour yielded more easily interpreted results than the absolute number, indicating the importance of taking exposure into account when predicting accidents. These results are mainly in agreement with previous studies on other road user groups. However, two different ways of calculating age effects (individual and group level) gave somewhat different results, indicating that a fairly popular method of calculating risk indexes may be faulty. Furthermore, time for holding a car driver's license did not influence bus accident liability, despite being strongly correlated with age, indicating that bus driving is separate from car driving experience. Also, the extremely small amount of variance accounted for by experience and age point to the importance of other factors, although there seem to be a strong effect during the first years of driving, which thereafter levels off.

  • 27.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver Behaviour and Accident Research Methodology: Unresolved Problems2009Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hourly changes in accident risk for bus drivers2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accident risk has in some studies been found to change with the time of day, after controlling for exposure, probably due to diurnal changes in the human body, which changes alertness. However, exposure data are not always of good quality, and culpability for accidents is not always taken into account. The change in culpable accident risk over the day for bus drivers was therefore investigated, with single accidents analysed separately, using induced exposure (non-culpable bus accidents) as well as general traffic density and number of buses on the road as controlling factors. It was found that the risk distribution was fairly similar to some previous results before controlling for exposure, but dissimilar to other, probably indicating that bus drivers have a somewhat different risk profile, but also that previous studies may not have controlled for exposure in a reliable way. When exposure was held constant, the risk distribution was different from all other studies. The three different exposure measures correlated strongly between themselves, and each would seem to be adequate for a basic control. However, although general traffic density was most strongly correlated with culpable bus accidents, the induced exposure parameter added some explained variance. Single accidents had a very different risk distribution as compared to other culpable accidents when exposure had been held constant. A number of unexpected effects were also noted, mainly that single accidents were associated most strongly with general traffic density.

  • 29.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory effects in self-reports of crashes2012In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume V / [ed] L. Dorn, 2012, Vol. V, p. 283-288Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. Method: A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. Results: For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. Discussion: As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Impact on industry: Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety.

  • 31.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Some methodological deficiencies in studies on traffic accident predictors2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 35, p. 473-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability and correlates of driver acceleration behaviour2003In: Driver Behaviour and Training. First International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training. Stratford-upon-Avon 11-12 November, 2003., 2003, p. 45-54Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 33.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prediction of Traffic Accident Involvement from Driving Behavior2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the studies was to predict individual traffic accident involvement by the quantification of driving style in terms of speed changes, using bus drivers as subjects. An accident database was constructed from the archives of the bus company whose drivers were used as subjects. The dependent variable was also discussed regarding whether responsibility for crashes should be included, and what time period to use for optimal prediction. A new theory was constructed about how accidents are caused by driver behavior, more specifically the control movements of the driver, i.e. all actions taken which influence the relative motion of the vehicle in a level plane when v>0. This theory states that all traffic safety related behavior can be measured as celerations (change of speed of the vehicle in any direction of a level plane) and summed. This theoretical total sum is a measure of a person's liability to cause accidents over the same time period within a homogenous traffic environment and a similarly homogenous driving population. Empirically, the theory predicts a positive correlation between mean driver celeration behavior and accident record. The theory was tested in three empirical studies. The first tested equipment and methods, the second studied the question whether driver celeration behavior is stable over time. Celeration behavior turned out to be rather variable between days, and repeated measurements were therefore needed to stabilize the measure. In the third study, a much larger amount of data brought out correlations of sizes sufficient to lend some credibility to the theory. However, the predictive power did not extend beyond two years of time. The reported results would seem to imply that the celeration variable can predict accident involvement (at least for bus drivers), and is practical to use, as it is easily and objectively measured and semi-stable over time.

    List of papers
    1. Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    2008 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 9, p. 383-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93939 (URN)10.1080/14639220701596722 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    2000 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93940 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2009-03-05Bibliographically approved
    3. The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    2004 In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93941 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

    Keywords
    bus driver, traffic accident, crash, acceleration, celeration, driver behavior
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93942 (URN)000240701400006 ()16984787 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
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  • 34.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study2000In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of non-culpable traffic incidents to bus drivers' celeration behavior2008In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The driver celeration behavior theory predicts that celerations are associated with incidents for which the driver has some responsibility in causing, but not other incidents. Method: The hypothesis was tested in 25 samples of repeated measurements of bus drivers' celeration behavior against their incidents for two years. Results: The results confirmed the prediction; in 18 samples, the correlation for culpable incidents only was higher than for all incidents, despite the higher means of the latter. Non-culpable incidents had correlations close to zero with celeration. Discussion: It was pointed out that most individual crash prediction studies have not made this differentiation, and thus probably yielded underestimates of the associations sought, although the effect is not strong, due to non-culpable accident involvements being few (less than a third of the total). The methods for correct identification of culpable incident involvements were discussed.

  • 36.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis" Comments.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 83-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    Kline, T
    The effect of social desirability on self reported and recorded road traffic accidents2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lie scales has a fairly long history in psychometrics, with the intention of identifying and correcting for socially desirable answers. This represents one type of common method variance (bias introduced when both predictors and predicted variables are gathered from the same source), which may lead to spurious associations in self-reports. Within traffic safety research, where self-report methods are used abundantly, it is uncommon to control for social desirability artifacts, or reporting associations between lie scales, crashes and driver behaviour scales. In the present study, it was shown that self-reports of traffic accidents were negatively associated with a lie scale for driving, while recorded ones were not, as could be expected if the scale was valid and a self-report bias existed. We conclude that whenever self-reported crashes are used as an outcome variable and predicted by other self-report measures, a lie scale should be included and used for correcting the associations. However, the only existing lie scale for traffic safety is not likely to catch all socially desirable responding, because traffic safety may not be desirable for all demographic groups. New lie scales should be developed specifically for driver behaviour questionnaires, to counter potential bias and artifactual results. Alternatively, the use of a single source of data should be discontinued.

  • 39. Af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Freeman, James
    Commentary on the rebuttal by de Winter and Dodou.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 90-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Kline, Theresa
    University of Calgary.
    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as predictor of road traffic accidents2011In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 12, p. 66-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A reporting guide for studies on individual differences in traffic safety2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 381-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Studies on individual differences in traffic safety report differently on their methodologies, and use different statistics, and these are therefore difficult to compare and meta-analyze. Method: Based upon a previous, extensive review and meta-analysis of the traffic safety literature, several recommendations are made about what features of the methodology of studies on individual differences (including evaluations) in safety need to be reported to facilitate interpretation and meta-analysis. Similarly, some basic types of statistical values are recommended. Impact on Industry: The accumulation of knowledge about individual differences in traffic safety would be facilitated if scientific authors and journals adhered to these guidelines.

  • 42.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aggregation of driver celeration behavior data: Effects on stability and accident prediction2007In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 487-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions about effects of aggregating driver celeration data were tested in a set of data where bus drivers' behavior had been measured repeatedly over three years in a city environment. For drivers with many measurements, this data was correlated with the drivers' accident record at various levels of aggregation over measurements. A single measurement (one sample) was seldom a significant predictor, but for each drive added to a mean, the variation explained in accident record was increased by about 1%. Also, correlations between measurements increased when these were aggregated, and the association with number of passengers (a proxy for traffic density) decreased somewhat, all as predicted. These results show that although driver celeration behavior is only semi-stable across time and environments, aggregating measurements increases both stability and predictive power versus accidents considerably. The celeration variable is therefore promising as a tool for identifying dangerous drivers, if these can be measured repeatedly, or, even better, continuously.

  • 43.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density cirrcumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Method: Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). Results: After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. Conclusions: The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

  • 44.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Environmental determinants of celeration behaviour2015In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celeration (speed change) behaviour of drivers has been posited to be the best predictor of their traffic accident involvement. The origins of this behaviour, however, have not been specified. A model is therefore introduced, where celeration is partly due to the individual disposition of the driver (i.e., driving style), and partly to the environment (road layout, rules and traffic density). Three measurement problems for celeration were studied; the effect of traffic density, of regular versus irregular routes, and weight of the vehicle (loaded/unloaded) on celeration behaviour. Two small samples of truck drivers in Sweden were measured for several months each. There was a strong effect of vehicle load, with behaviour being more cautious with increased weight. Driving on different roads also yielded differences in behaviour, although the design used did not permit conclusions about what caused these. Traffic volume was not found to have any reliable effect on celeration.

  • 45.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    If you can’t take the heat: Influences of temperature on bus accident rates2008In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of heat and rain upon accident risk of city buses in a Swedish town were studied for a 10-year time period, but no reliable effects found, despite the fact that the temperature might be as high as 30 degrees C outside the vehicles. As the use of single accidents with buses bypasses many of the methodological problems inherent in the study of weather effects on accident rates, for example changes in general traffic density, the present study was a rather strict test of the hypothesis of increased accident risk due to these factors. It was therefore concluded that rain and high temperatures do not increase the risk of accident for low-speed buses in Sweden. However, there could still be an effect of hot weather on bus accidents at higher temperatures than those normally found in Sweden.

  • 46.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term prediction of traffic accident record from bus driver celeration behavior2007In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers measured a number of times was used to predict their culpable accidents over increasing time periods. It was found that predictive power was considerable (>.30 correlation) over 5 years of time with aggregated celeration (mean of repeated measurements) as independent variables, and there were also indications that power reached even further, although too low Ns made these results unreliable. Similarly, there were indications of even stronger correlations with increased aggregation of celeration values. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology needed to bring out such results, and the stability of accident-causing behavior over time.

  • 47.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Re-education of young driving offenders: Effects on self-reports of driver behavior2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Offending drivers are often re-educated, but these courses have seldom been shown to have any safety effects. Method: An on-line improvement course for offending drivers below the age of 25 was evaluated with several driver inventories. Results: The drivers reported higher levels of aggression, stress, sensation seeking, drunk driving, and driving violations, six months after the course than before. However, these levels were lower than those of controls, indicating that the initially low levels for the education group were due to socially desirable responding, as measured by a lie scale, an effect that waned after the course. Discussion: The results can be interpreted as a positive effect of the education, although this conclusion is tentative and not in agreement with all effects in the data. Impact on industry: The results are in disagreement with previous evaluation studies using the same or similar instruments, and show the need to include controls for social desirability in self-report studies.

  • 48.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The theoretical features of some current approaches to risk perception2001In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three approaches to risk perception (RP), the psychometric, the Basic Risk Perception Model, and the social amplification of risk, are evaluated using four common criteria for scientific theories. All approaches are found to meet the criterion of describing a large set of data, and for the psychometric approach and the Basic Risk Perception Model, the criterion of parsimony is fulfilled. The criteria of falsifiability and generating testable hypotheses are not met by any of these approaches. It is concluded that there is not as much theory available in RP research as could be expected at face value, if theory is defined as statements about causal mechanisms generating testable hypotheses. These three approaches instead qualifies as models (here defined as mathematical descriptions of data).

  • 49.
    Agbelin, Hanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nelsson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Identifying narcissistic candidates in the recruitment process2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har syftat till att undersöka huruvida det går att identifiera narcissistiska drag i ett personligt brev. Detta har gjorts genom att extrahera narcissistiska drag i det personliga brevet med en språkanalys, för att sedan jämföra resultatet mot den nivå av narcissism som uppvisas genom ett personlighetstest. För att undersöka rekryteringsprocessen ytterligare har även en variabel i form av expertbedömning adderats. Studiens hypotes var att det går att identifiera narcissistiska drag i det personliga brevet, samt att det finns ett signifikant samband mellan självskattad, expertbedömd och datorgenererad narcissism. Studien resulterade i ett svagt samband (r = .180) mellan datorgenererad narcissism och självskattad narcissism, respektive ett svagt samband mellan expertbedömning och självskattad narcissism (r = .307). Detta tros ha sin orsak i de olika mätmetoderna i form av såväl en självskattad personbedömning som expertbedömning, i jämförelse med en datorbaserad metod i textanalysen. Verktyget som språkanalysen använder sig av är fortfarande i utvecklingsstadiet vilket är varför det skulle krävas ytterligare forskning inom området för att öka tillförlitligheten. 

  • 50.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Svenska arbetsgivares implicita stereotyper av arabiska muslimer och överviktiga2008In: Socialvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 12, p. 239-256Article in journal (Refereed)
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